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Indiana Territory

Indiana Territory

Indiana The Historian A Magazine Exploring Indiana History Indiana was admitted to the Union Territorial William as the nineteenth state on Decem- Henry Harrison spent much time Focus ber 11, 1816. Leading up to that making treaties with Indian tribes event were many years of prepara- to buy their . Relations with tion as the tried to Indian tribes are briefly discussed Front cover illustration: Two entries define itself as a nation after the on page 10. from the original Journal of the Revolution. A major issue was financing Proceedings of the When the U.S. won the government. A summary is pre- of the located in the Indiana State Archives, Commission on , it also won sented on page 11. Public Records. The upper illustration is hundreds of thousands of square On pages 12-13, the ques- the first page, written by Secretary John miles of east of the Missis- tion of slavery in the territory is Gibson. It is dated July 4, 1800, the official beginning of the Indiana Territory. sippi River. The in introduced. It was not written, however, until July 22 1783 with Great Britain defined On page 14, a journal ex- when Gibson arrived in Vincennes. The the of the U.S. (Patrick, 8). cerpt and other material provide lower illustration from January 10, 1801 An important first step was to some insight into life during this records the arrival of Governor (Woollen, 91, 95). survey the land so that it could be period. sold to settlers. On pages 3-4, The bibliography and addi- Back cover illustration: A plat map of there is an introduction to how tional resources are provided on Vincennes in 1792 located in the Indiana , Indiana State Library. The Congress accomplished that need. page 15. document by Samuel Baird is labeled The Ordinance of 1784 and The timeline throughout “Plat of the of Vincennes on the the Ordinance of 1787 were provides many details for a Ouabache in the of Knox & Territory North West of June 10th passed by Congress to provide an broader historical context. Will- 1782.” It is 26.5 x 19.25 inches in size. orderly process of government to iam Henry Harrison’s life and form new states. These ordinances career are highlighted in the are discussed on page 5. Specific timeline. steps for the formation of Indiana A plat map of Vincennes in The Indiana Historian 1999 are charted on page 6. 1792 is reproduced on the back ISSN 1071-3301 Order Number 7047 A brief introduction to the cover. Part of the official record of Editor is on page 7. the beginnings of Indiana Terri- Pamela J. Bennett Researcher An introduction to Indiana Terri- tory is reproduced on the front Paula A. Bongen tory is on pages 8-9. cover. Designer Dani B. Pfaff Contributing Editors Carole M. Allen, Janine Beckley, Alan Conant, Dani B. Pfaff, Terpening The Indiana Historian provides re- sources and models for the study of local history to encourage Indiana’s citizens of all ages to become engaged with the his- You be the historian tory of their communities and the state of Indiana. The Indiana Historian (formerly The • Sites related to the state’s territo- day? How important is land survey Indiana Junior Historian) is issued quar- rial and early statehood periods have information today? Compare survey- terly from March through December. It is a membership benefit of the Indi- been preserved. Find out more about ing today with surveying in 1785. ana Junior Historical Society. One compli- those sites. • Discuss the question of the dis- mentary subscription is provided to Indi- ana libraries, school media centers, and • Investigate what your , placement of Native so cultural and historical organizations. county, or was like in the that Americans could settle the lands. Annual subscriptions are available for $5.00 plus tax. Back issues are available territorial period before Indiana be- How has this issue continued into the at individual and bulk pricing. came a state. This material is available to visually present day? impaired patrons in audio format, cour- • Identify the names and dates of • Identify and discuss some modern tesy of the Indiana History Project of the statehood of the thirty-one states Indiana Historical Society. Tapes are avail- issues of land use and displacement able through the Talking Books Program of that entered the Union under the of citizens. the Indiana State Library; contact the Talk- ing Books Program, 317-232-3702. terms of the . • Discuss how eighteenth-century The Indiana Historian is copyrighted. Six more states have subsequently communication technology affected Educators may reproduce items for class use, but no part of the publication may be entered the Union. When—and un- the early governance of the North- reproduced in any way for profit without der what laws—did they become west Territory. How have advances in written permission of the Indiana Histori- cal Bureau. Room 408, 140 North Senate states? technology changed communication Avenue, , IN 46204; 317-232- • How is land bought and sold to- over the ? 2535.

2 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 © Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 Surveying and selling the land

Gaining control of the western land was one of the first goals of Congress. Many of the states had was a part claimed land west of their borders claimed by Va. claimed by N. Y., of Mass. ceded 1784 N. H., and Mass. until 1820. and east of the River. claimed by States eventually gave up their N. Y. and Mass. claimed by New Mass. and Va. Hampshire individual claims to the U.S. ceded 1784-85 government. More difficult were Massachusetts claimed by the Indian claims to much of the Conn. and Va. ceded 1784-86 designated as the Northwest claimed by Va. New ceded 1784 Jersey Territory. Virginia Ordinance of 1785 claimed by Va. On May 20, 1785, Congress Ky. admitted as state 1792 claimed by N. C. passed the Ordinance of 1785. It ceded 1790 contained a procedure for survey- claimed by S. C. ing and selling this western land. ceded 1787 South claimed by Ga. Carolina United States The money from sales was needed ceded 1802 after the Treaty to pay U.S. government debts from claimed by Ga., U. S., and of Paris, 1783 the American Revolution. showing claims of western lands by various states This ordinance “laid the foundations of American land thirteen original states policy until the passage of the included in Northwest Homestead Act in 1862.” Territory, 1787 Under the terms of the territory belonging Source: Richard B. Morris and Jeffrey B. Morris, eds., Encyclopedia of to Spain ordinance “before any of the American History, 7th ed. (New York:, 1996), 43, 45, 122. publicly owned land could be offered for sale the Indian claims In each , Section 16 had to be purchased by the gov- every mile run, “including the was to be set aside for public ernment and the land surveyed by wages of chain carriers, markers, schools. Sections 8, 11, 26, and 29 the system set forth in the ordi- and every other expense.” Lines were to be reserved for use by the nance.” were to be measured with a U.S. government. The rest of the The ordinance was to be chain, plainly marked on “trees land was to be sold for not less carried out under the direction of and exactly described on a plat; than $1.00 an in units of a Geographer of the United States whereon shall be noted by the section or more. . He was in surveyor, at their proper dis- Most settlers had little cash charge of the surveyors; one from tances, all mines, salt springs, and could not buy that much land. each state was to be appointed by salt licks and mill seats . . . and In 1796, the price was doubled. As Congress or a Committee of the all water courses, mountains and a result, many settlers farmed States. other remarkable and permanent public lands as squatters with no According to the ordinance, things . . . and also the quality of legal title to the land. Much of the surveyors would be paid $2.00 for the lands.”

1773 1773 1774 1774 1775 1776 1777 February 9 December 16 Spring September 5- June 17 July 4 Colonel Henry , William Henry Tea In Valley, atrocities October 26 Battle of Continental lieutenant-governor of , Harrison born Party (Carruth, by Indians and whites against First Continental Bunker Hill, Congress approves recruits pro-British Indians to at Berkeley, Va. 80). each other escalate. Results in Congress meets Mass. Declaration of fight American (Carruth, 80). Dunmore‘s War with troops under Gov. in to (Carruth, Independence; settlements. Indian attacks on Dunmore of Va. Movement to the west resist British 86). signed by members Ky. settlers increase increases after this campaign against tyranny (Carruth, August 2 (English, 81-85, 215-23). the Indians (English, 64-65). 78). (Carruth, 88).

© Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 3 Public Land Surveys in Indiana Territory After Governor Harrison acquired the first treaty lands from the Indians, the U.S. began to survey the land to prepare for its sale to growing numbers of settlers. In 1804 Ebenezer Buckingham, Jr. began the base line survey. The rectangular survey in the Ordinance of 1785 “provided for the establishment of meridian and base lines starting at the point on the Ohio River where the western boundary of Pennsylvania touched . . . . The surveyors were first to mark a north-south line which was called a meridian and at right angles to it an east-west line which was called the geographer’s or base line. Other north- south lines would be marked at intervals of six miles, the strip of land between these lines being called a range. East-west lines were also laid off at intervals of six miles from the base line to the Ohio River dividing the ranges into six-mile squares called ” (Barnhart and Riker, 251).

Starting at the intersection of the base line and Congressional townships were divided A the second principal meridian (located south of further into 36 sections measuring 1 Paoli in County), land was measured into B mile square. Each section contained Congressional townships measuring 6 miles by approximately 640 acres of land. 6 miles. Congressional township First Congressional Sections were often divided into principal township 6 miles 6 5 4 3 2 1 half-sections (320 acres), quarter- meridian C sections (160 acres), half-quarter 84˚51' west 6 miles sections (80 acres), and quarter- longitude 7 8 9 10 11 12 quarter sections (40 acres). [ 18 17 16 15 14 13 Section 29 Base line 19 20 21 22 23 24 Second Quarter principal 30 29 28 27 26 25 Section Second meridian principal meridian 31 32 33 34 35 36 86˚28' west longitude

Base line 38˚ 28' 20" north latitude

Sources: George R. Wilson, Early Indiana Trails and Surveys (Indianapolis, 1919), 363, 382, 403-4, 414, 417; J. O. Henderson, Indiana. The Public Domain and Its Survey (Indianapolis,1892), 8, 9. land was bought by speculators, a credit provision. One-fourth of individuals or companies which the purchase price was required hoped to make large profits by immediately. The balance was to reselling the land later at a higher be paid in installments over four price. years. A fifth year was available if necessary. “This brought land Harrison Land Act, 1800 within the reach of at least a large of the American Revolution. William Henry Harrison, portion of those desiring to settle territorial delegate to Congress in the Northwest.” from the Northwest Territory, was

The minimum amount of Courtesy Francis Vigo Chapter, Daughters concerned that more land be land was reduced to 160 acres in available to individual settlers. He 1804. The credit provision was was instrumental in the passage repealed in 1820. of a law in 1800—called the Sources: Patrick, 10; Hawkins, 9, 10, William Henry Harrison Harrison Land Act—to help set- 12, 27; Barnhart and Riker, 251, 252. From a painting attributed to tlers get land. Rembrandt Peale. The original is in the Harrison home, The reduced the mini- , at Vincennes. mum purchase of land from 640 (Barnhart and Carmony, facing acres to 320 acres. There was also 336).

1777 1778 1778 1779 1780 circa 1781 1781 December 10 January 2 October 7 February 25 October 10 William Henry March 1 October 19 receives permis- Hamilton leaves Clark retakes Harrison Last of 13 British Clark presents plan sion and support for Detroit to retake post at passes “Resolution on attends Hampden- states approve Charles to Va. Governor expedition against Vincennes; Vincennes; Public Lands,” which Sydney , Articles of Cornwallis and Patrick Henry to British; result, Clark succeeds on British resolves to settle lands Prince Edward , men defeated capture British captures British-con- December 17 surrender west of Appalachian Co., Va. 1st U.S. at Yorktown, posts in trolled posts, including (English, 226-34). (English, 349). Mountains and create (Goebel, 16-18). constitution Va. (Carruth, (En- Vincennes (English, future states (Carruth, 98). 98). glish, 87-88). 92-94, 168-77, 192-201). (Patrick, 49).

4 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 © Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 Governing the new land

Following the American Revolu- tion, the new United States had to British territory decide how to govern the western land it had won from Great Brit- ain. Ordinance of 1784 Under the leadership of , congressional representative from Virginia, the Spanish territory Ordinance of 1784 was passed on United States after Treaty April 23. This ordinance provided of Paris, 1783 the means for this western land to areas become states through a three- in dispute stage process. This ordinance applied to “territory ceded . . . by individual states to the United States as is Adapted from: David S. Muzzey, A History of Our already purchased or shall be Country (Boston: 1950), 119. purchased of the Indian inhabit- ants and offered for sale by Con- The Northwest Ordinance has gress. In the second stage of gress.” It, therefore, applied to all been ranked as one of the three territorial government, the of the land indicated on the map most important documents in gained some power with the on page 3 showing the U.S. after American history. Only the Decla- ability to vote for limited represen- the Treaty of Paris, 1783. ration of Independence of 1776 tation in their government. Only Jefferson’s provision to outlaw and the Constitution of 1787 are with statehood, the third stage, slavery and involuntary servitude placed ahead of it. Eventually could the people attain the right was defeated and not included in thirty-one states entered the to govern themselves. the ordinance. Union under the Northwest Ordi- A unique part of the ordi- Ordinance of 1787 nance. nance were the six “Articles of On July 13, 1787, Congress The Northwest Ordinance compact between the Original passed an ordinance—now called specified a three-stage territorial States and the people and States the Northwest Ordinance—to system providing for orderly in the said territory.” Included govern approximately 265,000 settlement and growth. Ultimately, were religious freedom, “utmost square miles of the western land. three to five states were to be good faith” toward the Indians, The land was located north of the formed from the area and admit- free navigation of the western Ohio River, east of the Mississippi ted as states “on an waters, and a prohibition against River, and south of the Canadian with the original States.” slavery and involuntary servitude. . It nullified the Ordinance The territorial government Other civil rights and responsibili- of 1784, which was never imple- had a very powerful governor and ties were detailed. mented, but included some of its other officials appointed by Con- Sources: Patrick, 3, 13, 21, 22, 59; ideas. Hawkins, 21-23.

1783 1784 1785 1787 1787 1789 1789 1790 1790 March 1 May 20 July 13 October 5 March 4 April 6 Harrison June 20 Treaty of Paris In Virginia Land Ordinance The Northwest Arthur St. Clair First session George at Richmond, Va. Knox County, signed, officially Deed of of 1785 allows Ordinance of 1787 appointed of Congress elected 1st president studying medicine Northwest ends war; , state surveying and establishes and governor of convenes of U.S.; with physician. Territory recognizes of Va. cedes selling of land in provides system of Northwest (Carruth,104). elected vice- Then attends formed, American claims to Western government for Territory president. Washing- University of Vincennes is independence western lands Reserve (now Northwest Territory (Barnhart and ton inaugurated April Pennsylvania’s county seat from Great Britain (Hawkins, 5-8). in Ohio) (Carruth, 102). Riker, 272n). 30 (Degregorio, 7-8). College of Physi- (Barnhart and (Carruth, 100). (Carruth, 102). cians (Goebel, 18). Riker, 274).

© Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 5 Indiana–from territory to statehood Stages of government Elected & appointed Lawmaking body Expenses of government Population officials

First stage President Adams Indiana’s territorial Federal government In 1800 the total white White males age 21 and May 7, 1800 appoints and Congress governor and judges pays $5,500 yearly for population in Indiana over owning at least 50 U.S. Congress passes approves William Henry make all laws. salaries and expenses Territory is approxi- acres of land are eligible bill to divide Northwest Harrison, governor of of government in mately 5,641. to vote. Territory and to create Indiana Territory, John Indiana Territory; Indiana Territory. July 4, Gibson, secretary, and additional territory 1800 is official date of judges William Clarke, expenditure is approxi- separation. Henry Vanderburgh, and mately $200. John Griffin. Governor Harrison appoints all local and territorial officials.

Second stage Congress continues to July 29 through Territorial expenditures In 1810 Indiana In 1809, Congress December 5, 1804 appoint governor, August 26, 1805, first average about $10,000 Territory’s population is passes legislation for Governor Harrison secretary, and judges. legislative session of the annually. 24,520. Indiana Territory which issues a proclamation January 3, 1805, voters Indiana Territorial Federal government allows qualified voters to announcing Indiana’s elect first Indiana Assembly meets at continues to pay elect directly the move to second stage of Territory House of Vincennes. Governor salaries of the top territorial delegate to the government. Congres- Representatives. Harrison retains his appointed officials– Congress, and the sional legislation Governor Harrison powers to appoint local approximately $6,687.50 Indiana Legislative creating Indiana selects 5 men from list and territorial officials. annually. Territorial Council. Territory allows of 10 nominated by He has the authority to costs grow to about In 1811, U.S. Congress movement to the second House to serve on convene or dissolve the $3,500. passes legislation for stage of government Legislative Council Legislative Assembly at Indiana Territory which whenever Governor (upper house). any time and he can extends voting rights to Harrison has evidence Representatives and any legislative all free white males 21 that a majority of the Council together elect measure. years or older who pay landowners desire the Indiana Territory’s first county or territorial change. delegate to the taxes. Congress–.

Third stage May 13, 1816, voters , 1816, Ordinary expenditures of Census taken in 1814- Indiana’s 1816 , 1811, elect representatives to delegates to Indiana’s Indiana state govern- 1815 reports 12,081 Constitution allows the Indiana Territorial a convention to form a Constitutional Conven- ment from 1816-1822 white males 21 years vote to every white male Assembly petitions constitution. tion at Corydon average $23,396.40; tax and older; 63,897 total citizen of the U.S. 21 Congress for permission August 5, 1816, Indiana complete Indiana’s monies paid into the inhabitants. years or older who has to form a state voters elect the state’s Constitution. state treasury average resided in the state for constitution and to be first: Governor, November 4, 1816, the only $12,808.92. one year. admitted to the Union. Lieutenant Governor, state’s first General Indiana's financial and Congressional Assembly begins. problems delay representative. Voters statehood. also elect representa- December 11, 1815, tives to the first state 1816 Indiana Territorial General Assembly, Assembly again county sheriffs, and petitions Congress for coronors. statehood. November 8, 1816, the April 19, 1816, Indiana General Congress passes an Assembly elects James , permitting Noble and Waller voters in Indiana as the state’s first U.S. senators. Note: the Detroit Territory to elect unshaded Territory delegates to a June areas were left meeting to determine out of the boundaries Indiana statehood. of any state or Ohio On December 11, 1816, territory, 1816-1818 the Congress adopts Indiana Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 311-12, 314, 317, 320, (Buley, 64). and President James Columbus Monroe signs a 345-47, 361, 413-14, 415, 427, 430, 460-61, 462; resolution admitting Carmony, , 10-13; Carmony, “Territorial,” 243, Indiana to the Union. 245, 255, 257, 261; Kettleborough, 1:xcii, 42, 56, 58, 69, Corydon 78, 107, 124-25, 128; Philbrick, Laws, preceding [90]. seat of government

1790 1791 1791 1792 1794 1795 1795 1796 September 30 August 16 Fall August August 3 Harrison August General Josiah Quitting medical Harrison’s Harrison sent to Pitts- General Anthony Americans sent back to Fort Harrison placed Harmar studies, Harrison regiment leaves to join General Wayne’s troops, and Indians Washington, serves in charge of Fort expedition against enters army, for , ’s including Harrison, sign Treaty at blockhouse in Washington Indians; battles obtaining commis- then to Fort troops. They return to defeat Indians at Battle of Greenville; North Bend; marries (Goebel, 37). October 19 and 22; sion of ensign Washington May of Fallen Timbers, Harrison in Anna Symmes in Harmar retreats; ends in First Regiment (now ) 1793; Harrison be- temporarily ending attendance November November 3 (Barnhart of U.S. Infantry (Goebel, 25-26). comes aide-de-camp to Indian hostilities (Goebel, 35). (Goebel, 35-36). and Riker, 283-84). (Goebel, 19-25). Wayne (Goebel, 31-32). (Goebel, 34).

6 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 © Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Northwest Territory

The government of the Northwest delegate to Congress from the Northwest Territory 1787 Territory was begun in Marietta territory in 1799. There was much (now in Ohio) on July 15, 1788. political agitation about the new Arthur St. Clair was the appointed financial burdens of government governor. Formation of county and about civil rights by residents was begun. Knox in the western part of the territory. County was formed June 20, 1790 An example of the agitation, ex- with Vincennes as the county seat. cerpted from a Knox County peti- The county was much bigger than tion, is provided on this page. Ft. Detroit the present state of Indiana. Harrison helped in the passage of Ft. A major problem for the legislation to divide the territory government of the Northwest into two governments. Ft. Vincennes Marietta Territory was relations with the Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 272-74, (1788) Indian tribes. There was continu- 280-94, 301-5, 308-12. Kaskaskia ing unrest and hostility between the Indians and the settlers. American General Anthony Petition to Congress, January 1, 1800 Wayne led a major defeat of Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen “The Petition of the Inhabitants of the County of Knox in the Timbers, August 20, 1794. The Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio . . . resulting was “. . . your Petitioners experience all the hardships resulting signed on August 3, 1795. “About from an enormous territorial tax, to the discharge of which, they two thirds of the future state of Ohio and a small portion of south- are perfectly inadequate, and all the inconveniences to which eastern Indiana was thus freed of the inhabitants of a county are liable, where there is not land Indian claims plus small granted sufficient to admit a population adequate to the support tracts at the portages and along of an ordinary county establishment . . . without the timely and the river routes. In Indiana these beneficent interposition of the sovereign power of the United included the Wabash-Maumee States, your petitioners must continue to endure all those portage, Ouiatanon, Clark’s , and the Vincennes Tract around disadvantages . . . . in conformity to the ordinance of Congress the village on the Wabash.” The for the government of the Territory, make such division of the Indian tribes received $20,000 in same as may to you appear most judicious; which . . . will not goods and were promised annual only relieve your petitioners from the heavy territorial taxes . . . goods valued at $9,500. The but bring justice almost to each man’s door. . . . the present annual goods were split into furnishes a favourable opportunity to extinguish the Indian claim $1,000 or $500 portions for each to a Tract of country . . . .” individual tribe. Source: Carter, 3-4. The territory moved to the second stage of government on Editorial note: When the Northwest Territory went to the second stage, taxes increased. Settlers wanted to remain in the first stage by the creation of a new territory. Settlers also October 29, 1798. William Henry wanted more land for settlement thus increasing the population and the number of Harrison was elected the first taxpayers.

1796 1797 1798 1798 1798 1799 1800 1800 1800 December May June 1 July 6 October 29 October 3 May 7 May 13 July 4 John Adams Harrison Harrison Harrison Northwest Harrison elected Congress splits Harrison appointed John Gibson, elected advances resigns appointed Territory delegate to Northwest Territory secretary of Indiana president; to rank of from army secretary of advances to represent into 2 : Territory; John Gibson, Territory, serves as Thomas captain (Goebel, Northwest 2nd stage of Northwest Territory Indiana Territory and secretary; Henry Van der until Jefferson (Goebel, 37). Territory government in Congress; Northwest Territory Burgh, , and Harrison arrives 6 elected vice 37). (Goebel, 40). (Barnhart Harrison writes (now Ohio, tip of south- John Griffin appointed months later president and Land Act of 1800 east Ind., and part of judges (Goebel, 56-59). (Goebel, 56). (Carruth, 116). Riker, 308). (Goebel, 42-45). Mich.) (Hawkins, 24-26).

© Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 7 Evolution of Indiana Territory

On May 7, 1800, Congress Harrison's Treaties with split the Northwest Territory Native Americans for into two sections. The first [ Land , 1803-1809 Indiana Territory included A. June 7, 1803 at , with Delaware, everything west of approxi- , , Miami, Eel River, , mately the western border of Kickapoo, Piankashaw, D Lands still belonging to and Kaskaskia. present-day Ohio. The large Native American tribes B. August 13, 1803, at after 1809 Vincennes, with area of present-day Indiana in Kaskaskia. the southeast—called the C. August 18 and 27, 1804, at Vincennes, with gore—remained part of the Delaware and G Piankashaw. Northwest Territory. B D. November 3, 1804, at Indiana Territory was St. Louis, with Sauk and H Fox. back in the first stage of E. August 21, 1805, at Grouseland with territorial government. Delaware, Potawatomi, G Miami, Eel River, and Vincennes was made the E Wea. capital. William Henry The Gore F. , 1805, at F A Vincennes, with Piankashaw. Harrison was named governor Clark’s Grant G. September 30, 1809, at by President John Adams; C Fort Wayne, with Delaware, Potawatomi, Adams named John Gibson Miami, Eel River; and, October 26, 1809, at secretary of the territory. Vincennes, with Wea. H. December 9, 1809, at One of Harrison’s first Vincennes, with Source: Barnhart and Riker, 377. and most important tasks as Kickapoo. governor was to negotiate with the Indian tribes for title to their land. The land could then be surveyed, sold, and legally settled under the Ordinance of 1785 and Indiana Territorial Vincennes was the oldest settlement in subsequent legislation. Capital at Vincennes Indiana Territory. It was established as a French fort in the early 1730s by Sieur de Harrison was a hard negotia- Vincennes. In 1800, the population in and tor with the Indians and proved around the town was 1,533—excluding very successful from the American Indians. Vincennes was the capital of Indiana Territory 1800-1813. According to point of view. In 1800, the area historian Richard Day, “The met that is now Indiana was primarily in four places. . . . but where they met is Indian land. From 1803 to 1809, uncertain.” The legislature met probably in the home of Francis Vigo, in the house of Harrison concluded ten treaties Antoine Marchal, and in Mark Barnett’s with the Indians, bringing millions tavern. It met in the fourth location November of acres of land under U.S. con- Indiana Territory State Historic Site. 22-December 19, 1811; that building, pictured here, is now preserved at the trol—including much of the south- Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 80, 318; Indiana Territory State Historic Site, ern part of present-day Indiana. Day, 2-3. Vincennes. Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 311-17, 377; Hawkins, 24-26.

1801 1801 1801 1802 1803 1803 1803 1804 January 10 January 12 March 4 August 12 February 8 February 19 Spring August 4 Harrison Harrison calls Thomas Harrison meets with Harrison Ohio Harrison, unsuccessful in getting Harrison issues arrives at judges for 1st Jefferson 1st Wabash tribes at reappointed becomes Wabash Indians to accept proclamation, calls Vincennes, legislative president Vincennes; bitterly governor of 17th state Vincennes Treaty, invites chiefs for election to assumes session; meet inaugurated in disputing amount of land Indiana (Carruth, to Fort Wayne in June; threaten- determine if voters duties as for 2 weeks, pass Washington, to be ceded, Indians Territory 126). ing to withhold annuities, Harrison want general governor 6 laws, 1 act, and D.C. eventually sign prelim- (Goebel, 56). obtains 1,152,000 acres of land; assembly (Goebel, 57). 3 resolutions (Carruth, 124). inary treaty September treaty signed June 7 (Goebel, (Hawkins, 37-38). (Goebel, 59). 17 (Goebel, 100-1). 103-4; Kappler, 47-48).

8 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 © Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 Changes in territorial boundaries 1800 1803 When Ohio became a state in 1803, the land not included in the state became part of Indi- Indiana ana Territory. This included the land now in Territory southeastern Indiana called the gore. In 1804, Indiana Indiana Territory voted to enter the second Territory Northwest stage of government. Residents in the far Territory northern and western sent petitions to Ohio Chillicothe Chillicothe Congress asking for relief. Vincennes Vincennes On , 1805, Congress created seat of . government Congress again divided Indiana Territory 1805 1809 on February 3, 1809, creating Illinois Territory. After Illinois Territory was split off, Vincennes was no longer central. in the Indiana southeastern part of the territory lobbied for a Territory Michigan Michigan change. On March 11, 1813, the territorial Territory Illinois Territory assembly selected Corydon, Harrison County, Detroit Territory Detroit as the new territorial capital, effective May 1, Ohio Indiana 1813. Ohio Chillicothe Territory Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 331-32; Hawkins, 37- Vincennes Zanesville 39, 42-43, 48-50, 57-59. Vincennes Kaskaskia

People of Indiana Territory speak out to Congress From Detroit and Wayne County From Knox, Randolph, and St. Clair counties March 20, 1803 October 22, 1803 “The immense distance from the settlements upon the waters of “authorize and direct a Road to be marked and opened at the the Lakes, to the established Seat of that Government, united with expence of the Government, from the Mississippi, by Vincennes the extreme difficulty of carrying on a regular intercourse, thro’ an and Jeffersonville . . . to Cincinnati . . . which will greatly promote of such extent, places us in a situation truly Critical the sales of the Public lands in the Territory, and facilitate the and alarming . . . . Detroit which is the nearest to Post Vincennes communication and Intercourse between its Inhabitants, and . . . lies at least, Seven Hundred computed Miles from that place.” their Fellow citizens in the United States.”

October 24, 1804 1805 “in the month of September A. D. 1803, the legislature of the “A ruinous inconvenience . . . arises from the great Indiana territory adopted Several laws . . . yet those laws . . . have distance between the said counties of the Territory and never yet been seen in this place, of course have not come into Vincennes, the seat of government, which is about one hundred operation in this .” and eighty miles, through a dreary and inhospitable wilderness, uninhabited, and which during one part of the year, can scarcely Referred December 6, 1804 afford water sufficient to sustain nature . . . while in another it is “During the last eight years, we have had but two Circuit Courts. in part under water, and in places to the extent of some miles, . . . Our intercourse with Vincennes, always dilatory, circuitous by which the road is rendered almost impassable, and the and difficult, is now almost at an end . . . . The people of Vincennes traveller is not only subjected to the greatest difficulties, but his and of Detroit, governors and governed, as well as corresponding life placed in the most imminent danger.” traders, can no longer rely on the mail conveyance.” Sources: Carter, 99-100, 128, 228, 241; Dunn, 485.

1804 1804 1804 1805 1805 1805 1806 1806 1807 November 3 December 5 December 6 January 11 July 29 August Harrison December 17 Indian crisis grows; Harrison treats Harrison pro- Petition to Act by Congress First General Amid growing becomes increas- Harrison Harrison demands with Sauk and claims Indiana Congress by divides Indiana Assembly of Indian unrest, ingly aware of reappointed The Prophet and his Fox Indians, Territory advance- Wayne Co. Territory, Indiana Harrison holds influential Shawnee governor of followers move obtaining over ment to 2nd stage (now Mich.) for creating Territory meets council at brothers, Indiana away from 50 million of government, separate ter- Michigan through August Grouseland, and The Prophet, and Territory Greenville, Ohio acres of land allowing general ritorial govern- Territory 26 (Barnhart his estate in their growing hostility (Goebel, 56). (Goebel, 112). (Kappler, 54). assembly ment (Hawkins, (Hawkins, and Riker, Vincennes against whites (Hawkins, 39). 40-41). 42-43). 347). (Goebel, 106). (Goebel, 109-11).

© Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 9 Relations with Indian tribes

As Governor, William Henry Harrison had the duty to acquire Indian lands for American settlers and protect those settlers. He was also charged with fair treatment of the Indians. In 1806, in a message to the Indiana Territory General Assembly, he recognized the unsatisfactory condition of the Indians. “They [the Indians] will never have recourse to arms, I speak of those in our immediate neighborhood, unless driven to it by a series of injustice and oppression. Of Indiana Division, State Library. this they already begin to complain; and I am sorry to say that their complaints are far from being groundless. It is true that government has passed laws for fulfilling . . . the stipulation contained in our treaty . . . . The laws of the territory provide, also the same punish- ment for offenses committed against Indians as against white men. Experience, however, shows that there is a wide difference in the execution of those laws. The Indian always suffers, and the white man never.” After Harrison negotiated the Fort Wayne treaty in 1809, there was great unrest among the Indians who had been agitated by the Shawnee Prophet, brother of Tecumseh. Tecumseh was leading a movement to unite the Indian tribes into a confederacy which could stand up to the American government. On November 7, 1811, Harrison’s troops defeated the followers of Tecumseh and the Prophet at the , near present-day Lafayette; Tecumseh was not present. The ensued, with many Indian tribes allied with the British against the U.S. The U.S. won that war; “the defeat of the Indi- ans . . . removed the last barrier to frontier expansion.” Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 324-31, 378-87, 397- 411; Edmunds, 159; Esarey, 1:199. Three issues in The Indiana Historian series (September, October, and November 1992) provide more detail on Native This bill of lading (excerpt), dated May 20, 1812 is to ship 3,853 American relations. This territorial era is covered in pounds of U.S. merchandise to Governor William Henry Harrison the October 1992 issue. for Indian tribes around Vincennes. Casks of gunpowder for the Piankashaw are also mentioned. The boat Western Hornet is at Brownsville, Pennsylvania on the . The boat captain will be paid when he returns with a signed receipt from Governor Harrison. Presumably, this merchandise was part of the annuity payments to the tribes. 1808 1808 1808 1809 1809 1810 1811 1811 Tecumseh, February 26 December 7 February 3 September 30 August March 3 July The Prophet, Suffrage Act of 1808 James Congress Harrison treats with Tecumseh and Harrison Suffrage Act of 1808 Harrison meets and his followers extends vote to those Madison passes act Delaware, Miami, meet in Vincennes; revised by Congress; any again with move to holding town lots with elected dividing Indiana Potawatomi, and Tecumseh, angry over free white male, 21 years Tecumseh; Prophetstown minimum value of president Territory, Eel River tribes; Treaty of 1809, warns he or older, who has paid a Tecumseh asks (near Battle $100; provision added (Carruth, creating Illinois obtains about 2.5 will not tolerate any more county or territorial tax Harrison not to Ground, Ind.) to those of Northwest 136). Territory million acres of land cessions without con- and has resided 1 year in disturb present state (Edmunds, 111). Ordinance of 1787 (Hawkins, 48- land (Kappler, 73; sent of all tribes (Barnhart said territory may of affairs (Barnhart (Hawkins, 47). 50). Goebel, 113-15). and Riker, 379-80). vote (Hawkins, 55). and Riker, 383-84).

10 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 © Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 Paying for territorial government

The amount of money needed to estimated at $6,687.50 annually. Indiana Territory, Law VII pay for Indiana Territorial govern- The territory paid for a treasurer, November 5, 1803 ment is tiny by modern terms— auditor, attorney general, legisla- “an index of the simple beginnings tors, and chancellor. Other ex- A Law to regulate of the economic, social, and penses included public printing county levies political life of Indiana during its ($750-$1,000 annually), payments “That all houses in town, town lots, period of infancy.” to tax collectors, “firewood, out lots, and mansion houses in the The cost of more representa- candles, rent, stationery, contain- country, which shall be valued at two tive government was a major ers for public records, postage, hundred dollars and upwards, and factor in how the Northwest contested elections, supplies, and all able bodied single men, who shall Territory developed. Indiana other items.” Approximate annual not have taxable property to the Territory was formed in 1800 after expenditures were $10,000. amount of four hundred dollars, all the Northwest Territory went to On January 12, 1801, Gover- water and windmills and ferries, all the second stage of government, nor William Henry Harrison and stud horses and other horses, mares, putting more of the cost of govern- the judges of the Indiana Territory mules and asses, three years old ment—therefore more taxes—on began their first legislative ses- and upwards, all neat three the people. Michigan Territory was sion. The first law enacted re- years old and upwards, all bond ser- formed in 1805 when Indiana quired a listing of taxable prop- vants and slaves . . . between six- Territory was moving to the sec- erty. On November 5, 1803, they teen and forty years of age, within ond stage. Illinois Territory was passed a comprehensive tax law. this territory, are hereby declared to formed in 1809 after years of In the first session of the be chargeable for defraying the petitions about being “oppressed elected General Assembly in 1805, county expences . . . to be taxed and with taxes” which did not benefit a tax on land was passed. Taxes collected” (69). the citizens. continued to be levied throughout “That the following rate of taxa- In the first stage, the federal the territorial period to support tion be observed . . . on each horse, government paid annual expenses government costs. mare, mule or ass, a sum not ex- for the governor ($2,000), the Costs were minimal because ceeding fifty cents, on all neat cattle secretary ($750), and three judges “the government continued to . . . ten cents . . . . Every bond servant ($800 each) and provided a $350 limit its activities to . . . very and slave . . . a sum not exceeding contingent fund. The territory had formal and limited duties.” There one hundred cents, and every able to raise revenue for a treasurer were no “expenditures for such bodied single man . . . a sum not and an attorney general. There items as , exceeding two dollars nor less than were printing costs, salary and education, charities, corrections, fifty cents” (73). expenses for a clerk for the legisla- and regulatory purposes.” Taxes on houses, etc. were not ture, postage, and other miscella- Sources: Carmony, “Territorial,” 238- to exceed “thirty cents on each hun- neous expenses. They amounted 41, 242-44, 251-53, 256-62; dred dollars of . . . appraised value” to no more than $200. Philbrick, 1, 68-81, 147-53. (74). Moving to the second stage Money from licenses for tav- meant more expenses were paid erns and other items was to be used for by territorial revenue. Federal to defray county expenses (75). salaries increased and the contin- gent fund continued; the cost is Source: Philbrick, 68-81.

1811 1811 1811 1812 1812 1812 1812 1813 1813 September 26 November 7 December 11 June 18 September 17 December 2 December 28 March 11 April Harrison and 1,000 In Tecumseh’s absence, Indiana Territory War of 1812 Harrison receives James Harrison Indiana General Thomas men leave Vincennes to Harrison defeats The petitions begins; full command of Madison resigns as Assembly passes Posey, new march on Prophetstown; Prophet at Battle of Congress for Americans fight northwestern reelected governor The State Capital governor of October 1, troops begin to Tippecanoe, ending statehood; British for army; must take president (Ewbank Act, moving terri- Indiana Terri- erect Fort Harrison (near Tecumseh’s confederacy; petition denied control of Detroit from British (Carruth, and Riker, torial capital from tory, arrives at Terre Haute); October 29, Harrison returns to (Barnhart and American lands forces; invade 146). 819n). Vincennes Vincennes continue march to Prophets- Vincennes November Riker, 413-14). and shipping Upper to Corydon (Ewbank and town (Goebel, 119). 18 (Goebel, 122-23). (Carruth, 144). (Goebel, 142). (Hawkins, 57-59). Riker, 819n).

© Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 11 Slavery in Indiana Territory

Article VI of the Articles of Com- reasons. Congress did not allow Anti-slavery citizens gained a pact in the Northwest Ordinance slavery, but territory officials majority in the General Assembly of 1787 prohibited slavery and continued to evade Article VI with after the formation of Illinois involuntary servitude. Slavery, indenture laws. Territory in 1809 since “the east- however, remained in the Indiana From extensive evidence, “it ern portion of the territory, [was] Territory. It was a continuing is evident that for some purposes populated largely by settlers from political issue as citizens prepared slaves and indentured servants eastern states and by those from for statehood. had the status of property—to be the southern states who had Beginning in the Northwest bought and sold and bequeathed emigrated because of their dislike Territory, Article VI was generally by will.” Territorial courts did, of slavery.” In December 1810, the interpreted to apply on passage in however, try cases that freed General Assembly repealed the 1787. Slaves in the territory before blacks wrongfully held. slave laws. It did not, however, that date, therefore, remained The 1800 federal census end existing indentures, and slaves. recorded 135 slaves and 163 free abuses continued. Many petitions were sent to blacks in the territory. The 1810 Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 355; Congress from pro-slavery citizens census recorded 237 slaves and Ewbank and Riker, 138-39; in the territory asking for relief 393 free blacks. Thornbrough, 6-7, 13, 16, 17; from Article VI for economic Woollen, 83-85.

This document, signed by Peter McDonald, , is the official certification of James N. Wood and Charles Beggs as delegates from Clark County to the Vincennes convention on slavery in December 1802. This most probably is the first election by the citizens of Indiana Territory. On November 22, 1802, Governor William Henry Harrison called for an election of delegates from the four counties for a convention in Vincennes on December 20, 1802. The convention was to consider “the propriety of repealing the sixth article” of the Northwest Ordinance, which prohibited slavery. The convention “petition to Congress dated December 28 requested the suspension [of Article VI for ten years] on the grounds that desirable settlers were forced to move west of the Mississippi [River] because they could not bring their slaves into Indiana Territory. It was also requested that the slaves and their children that would be brought into the territory during the William English Collection, Indiana Historical Society Library. proposed suspension should remain slaves after the ten years had passed.” Congress did not act favorably on the petition. and the mother with her suckling infant to their daily toil . . . when they can barter a human being with the same unfeeling indifference Petitions on the slavery question continued to be sent to that they barter a horse; part the wife from her husband, and . . . Congress from Indiana Territory. In 1808, General W. Johnston, the child from its mother . . . . At the very moment that the progress chairman of the congressional committee that had reviewed many of reason and general benevolence is consigning slavery to its of the petitions, presented an emotional report (excerpted following) merited destination . . . must the Territory of Indiana take a against slavery: retrograde step into barbarism . . . . “[morals and manners may be affected] when men are invested “your committee are of opinion that slavery cannot and ought with an uncontrolled power over a number of friendless human not to be admitted into this Territory.” beings held to incessant labor; when they can daily see the whip Sources: Barnhart and Riker, 334-36; Dunn, 461-76, 522-27; Woollen, hurrying . . . the young, the aged, the infirm, the pregnant woman, 113-14.

1813 1814 1814 1814 1815 1815 1816 1816 1816 October 5 May 11 August 24 December 24 August December 11 April 19 May 13 June 10-29 Harrison defeats British Harrison resigns Washington, Treaty of Harrison negotiates Indiana’s President Election of Constitutional General Henry Proctor at from army; retires to D.C. captured Ghent ends his last council with General Madison signs delegates to delegates (43) Battle of Thames, , North Bend, Ohio; by British War of 1812 Indian tribes; Treaty Assembly Enabling Act, constitutional meet at Corydon Canada; Tecumseh negotiates Indian (Carruth, 150). (Carruth, of Spring Wells petitions allowing Indiana convention, to compose killed, destroying Indian treaty at Greenville, 150). (near Detroit) Congress for Territory to hold scheduled Indiana’s state resistance and British Ohio July 22 signed on Septem- statehood constitutional for June 10 constitution power in Northwest (Goebel, 195-98, ber 8 (Kappler, 83; (Hawkins, convention (Hawkins, (Hawkins, (Goebel, 181-83). 204-10; Kappler, 76). Goebel, 211). 60-63). (Hawkins, 64). 64-67). 70-94).

12 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 © Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 Deed for Sam, “a negro boy” According to the reverse of the document reproduced here “a negro boy Sam” was transferred and sold for $360 by McGary to George Wallace, Jr. on February 15, 1810. The location is not identified. On the front, the two entries are clearly actions in Knox County, Indiana Territory. On June 30, 1813, Sam was sold by Wallace to Toussaint Dubois. On November 18, 1814, Sam was sold by Dubois to Jacob Kuykendall. Indiana Division, State Library. The first law relating to servants, thinly disguised to bypass the prohibition against slavery and involuntary servitude, was passed September 22, 1803 by Governor William Henry Harrison and the territorial judges. Other laws followed over the years. If Sam had not “voluntarily” agreed and consented, he could have been taken out of the territory and sold into slavery for life. Sources: Barnhart and Carmony, 336, 347-48; Philbrick, 42- 46.

For Sale This advertisement in the Vincennes Western Sun July 22, 1815 is clear evidence of the open toleration of slavery in this area of Indiana Territory.

1816 18161763 1816 1816 1817-1819 1818 1819 1821 1825 1828-1829 August 5 November 4 December 2 December 11 Harrison December 3 Harrison February January Harrison Jonathan Indiana holds Harrison President serves in Illinois elected to Harrison Harrison serves as Jennings elected first General wins seat in Madison U.S. becomes Ohio Senate; returns to elected U.S. minister to 1st governor of Assembly 2nd session approves House of 21st state serves 2 North Bend, Senator from Columbia state of Indiana; under 1816 of 14th Indiana’s Representatives (Carruth, terms Ohio Ohio; serves (Goebel, inaugurated Constitution Congress admission into (Goebel, 158). (Goebel, 223, (Goebel, 235). 3 years 254-55, 288). November 7 (Barnhart (Goebel, 212- Union as 19th 217-26). 228-30). (Goebel, (Barnhart and and Riker, 13). state (Hawkins, 243-46). Riker, 460-61). 461). 95).

© Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 13 Territorial days

Immigrants “In this early period probably most Excerpts from Lydia Bacon’s journal, 1811-1812 of the immigrants coming to Editorial note: Mrs. Lydia Bacon, wife of never had much interprise or industry, Indiana Territory from the East Lieutenant Josiah Bacon, quartermaster of the they are Roman Catholic in their religion. traveled by wagon or horseback to Fourth Regiment of the U.S. Infantry, but in their habits & appearance not much accompanied her husband from Boston to Pittsburgh or some other point on superior to the Indians, the local situation Vincennes. The regiment fought in the Battle of of the place is very pleasant . . . . doubtless the Ohio and then took a - or Tippecanoe, November 7, 1811. future generations may see this a for the remainder of the September 3, 1811. “About 30 [Swiss] flourishing place . . . slavery is tolerated journey. The first steamboat families had taken up their residence here here.” . . . have planted Vineyards . . . their Wine descended the Ohio in 1811 and it May 15, 1812. “I like travelling on horse made from the Maderia & Clarret Grapes back, & slept finely on the ground last was not until a few years later is excellent. We purchased some. This night, for the first time in my life, with a bear that steamboat travel became place is called Veva, it is in New Swiss.” skin for our bedstead & a Buffaloe Robe . Emigrants from the September 4, 1811. “Arrived at for our Bed.” Jeffersonville . . . boats are preparing to go South came overland, bringing May 18, 1812. “my feelings are through the rapids, the water is very low somewhat tried seeing the poor Soldiers their few household belongings by . . . take all the Bagage out & send it by wives trudging on foot, some of the way packhorse or wagon” (100). land.” mud up their knees, & a little Child in their “This is a pleasant way for traveling, arms, only 4 or 5 Waggons allowed to Mail service every thing goes on as regular is [as] if at carry baggage, the poor women of course “In 1800 there was only one post housekeeping . . . have got an excellent have to suffer . . . .” waiter, who cooks well & washes admirably. office in what is now Indiana; that Source: McCord, 61-66. Printed in the Indiana We drink the river water it is very good.” Magazine of History, 40 (1944): 367-86 and 41 was at Vincennes. . . . there were “Vincennes, October 10. My Husband (1945): 57-79. The New York Historical Society’s not over twenty at the time Indi- is gone & I am boarding with Mrs. Jones . original manuscript was first published in The ana became a state. Post riders . . . Biography of Mrs. Lydia B. Bacon (Boston, “original inhabitants [of Vincennes] . . . 1856). carried the mail between post offices in their saddlebags. In 1800 Vincennes was receiving $50 to $100 and from 25 to 39 $93,000, and 28 distilleries pro- mail only once every four weeks . . . stripes on his or her bare back . . . . ducing 35,950 gallons of whiskey after it had been made the capital Whipping had to be resorted to as annually. One nail factory was of Indiana Territory . . . [there a means of punishment partly turning out $4,000 worth of nails. was] mail weekly between Louis- because of the scarcity of money . . . the census taker listed 32 ville and Vincennes” (102). for paying fines and the lack of gristmills and 3 horse mills grind- “It took from six to eight jails” (106). ing 40,900 bushels of wheat, and weeks for the Governor to send a Early industry 14 sawmills cutting 390,000 feet letter to Washington and get a “In 1810 there was one cotton mill of lumber” (118-19). reply” (103). in the Territory, 1,380 spinning Source: “Territorial Days of Indiana wheels, and 1,256 looms. These 1800-1816” published in the Indiana Crime and punishment History Bulletin, 27:5 (May 1950) and produced in a year 54,977 yards “Punishments for different crimes issued as a separate publication by were set forth as follows: for horse of cotton cloth, 92,740 yards of the Indiana Territory Sesquicenten- stealing the offender should flaxen goods, 61,503 of mixed nial Commission. receive from 50 to 200 stripes and cloth such as linsey-woolsey, and be committed to the county jail 19,378 yards of woolen goods. until the value of the horse was “There were 18 tanneries repaid; for hog stealing, a fine of producing leather valued at

1830 1763 1834 1836 1837 1839 1840 1840 1848 1858 April March Harrison January 26 December 4-7 December 2 April 4 May 29 May 11 Harrison Harrison loses presidential Michigan Harrison Harrison elected Harrison dies of returns to nominated for election to Martin becomes nominated for president pneumonia; buried becomes becomes 32nd North Bend, president Van Buren 26th state president; John (Carruth, 210). at North Bend, Ohio 30th state state (Carruth, Ohio (Goebel, (Goebel, 306). (Goebel, 320-21). (Carruth, 200). Tyler for vice (Goebel, 377-78). (Carruth, 230). 258). 294). president (Carruth, 208).

14 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 © Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 A Note Regarding Resources: Items are listed on this page that enhance work with the topic discussed. Some older items, especially, may include dated practices and ideas that are no longer generally accepted. Resources reflecting current practices are noted whenever possible. Selected Resources Bibliography • Hawkins, Hubert H., comp. Indiana’s Supercedes Esarey; ten reels, more Road to Statehood: A Documentary Record. than 3,600 documents, printed guide; • Barnhart, John D., and Dorothy L. Indianapolis, 1969. available from Indiana Historical Society. Indiana to 1816: The Colonial Period. Riker. Contains important federal and state • Dunn, J[acob] P[iatt], Jr. Indiana: A Indianapolis, 1971. documents issued during Indiana’s Redemption from Slavery. Enlarged ed. Excellent standard source for Indiana statehood process; available from the Boston, 1905. history during this period. Indiana Historical Bureau. Discusses the issue in great detail. The Old Northwest: • Buley, R. Carlyle. • Kappler, Charles J., comp. and ed. • Lindley, Harlow, ed. Indiana As Seen by Pioneer Period, 1815-1840. 2 vols. - Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2, Early Travelers. Indianapolis, 1916. napolis, 1950. Treaties. Washington, D.C., 1903. Selections present a vivid picture of Excellent standard source for Indiana Printed version of treaties between U.S. early Indiana. history during this period. government and Native American tribes • Middleton, Stephen. The Black Laws in Indiana, 1816- • Carmony, Donald F. from 1778-1883. the Old Northwest: A Documentary History. 1850: The Pioneer Era. Indianapolis, 1998. • Kettleborough, Charles. Constitution Westport, Conn., 1993. Excellent standard source for Indiana Making in Indiana. Vol. 1, 1780-1851. Good source for laws relating to blacks history during this period. Indianapolis, 1916. in the five states created out of the • Carmony, Donald F. “Indiana Territorial Provides historical background, text, Northwest Territory. Indiana Expenditures, 1800-1816.” and changes to the 1816 and 1851 • Sugden, John. Tecumseh: A Life. New Magazine of History , 39 (1943): 237-62. Indiana constitutions. York, 1998. Well-documented, with many references • McCord, Shirley S., comp. Travel Highly acclaimed as definitive biogra- to primary sources. Accounts of Indiana, 1679-1961: A phy. • Carruth, Gorton. The Encyclopedia of Collection of Observations by Warfaring American Facts and Dates. 9th ed. New Foreigners, Itinerants, and Peripatetic Internet resources York, 1993. . Indianapolis, 1970. • www.statelib.lib.in.us/www/ihb/ Extensive, easy-to-read timeline of Informative material about travelers ihb.html American history. throughout Indiana. Several good selec- Indiana Historical Bureau site has • Carter, Clarence Edwin, comp. and ed. tions from territorial period. additional information related to the The Territorial Papers of the United States . • Patrick, John J. Lessons on the current issue and relevant links. Docu- The Territory of Indiana, 1800-1810 Vol. 7, . Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Indianapo- ments from Hawkins, are being added as Washington, D.C., 1939. lis, 1987. possible. Valuable compilation of primary Contains learning materials directed at sources. secondary schools; has printed documents Selected Student Resources • Day, Richard. The Capital of the and background materials. • Faber, Doris, and Harold Faber. The Indiana Territory. [Vincennes, 1999]. • Pence, George, and Nellie C. Armstrong. Birth of a Nation: The Early Years of the Typescript summary; available in full Indiana Boundaries: Territory, State, and United States. New York, 1989. on the Historical Bureau Web site. County. Indianapolis, 1933. Important events involved in the first The Complete • Degregorio, William A. The standard reference for legal federal government are reviewed and help Book of U.S. Presidents . 3rd ed. New York, boundaries of Indiana from territorial days place the Northwest Territory in context. 1991. to 1933. • Fitz-Gerald, Christine Maloney. William Good general reference. • Philbrick, Francis S., ed. The Laws of Henry Harrison. , 1987. Slavery Petitions • Dunn, Jacob Piatt. Indiana Territory, 1801-1809. Indianapolis, A good student biography of Harrison’s and Papers . Indianapolis, 1894. 1931. adult life with excellent illustrations; A valuable collection of materials from Printed versions of useful primary begins with the Northwest Territory. the territorial period. sources. • Immell, Myra H. and William H. The Tecumseh and the • Edmunds, R. David. • Taylor, Robert M., Jr., ed. The North- Importance of Tecumseh. San Diego, 1997. Quest for Indian Leadership. Boston, 1984. west Ordinance, 1787: A Bicentennial An excellent resource on Tecumseh’s Good biography of Tecumseh and his Handbook. Indianapolis, 1987. life with good illustrations and frequent brother, The Prophet. An excellent and concise source. primary source selections. Conquest of • English, William Hayden. • Thornbrough, Emma Lou. The Negro In • “The Northwest Ordinance of 1787.” the Country Northwest of the River Ohio, Indiana Before 1900: A Study of a Minority. Cobblestone, October 1998. 1778-1783 and Life of Gen. George Rogers Indianapolis, 1957. An easy-to-read summary of the Clark . 2 vols. Indianapolis, 1896. Includes a chapter “Involuntary Northwest Ordinance with student A standard source. Servitude,” which covers the territorial activities including planting an American Messages and Letters of • Esarey, Logan. period. Indian vegetable garden. William Henry Harrison 1800-1811 . Vol. 1, . • Woollen, William Wesley, Daniel Wait • Shorto, Russell. Tecumseh and the Indianapolis, 1922. Howe, and , eds. Execu- Dream of an American Indian Nation. Contains valuable primary resources. tive Journal of Indiana Territory, 1800- Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989. • Ewbank, Louis B., and Dorothy L. 1816. Indianapolis, 1900. A readable biography of Tecumseh, The Laws of Indiana Territory, Riker, eds. Contains helpful annotations. The however, with few illustrations and no 1809-1816 . Indianapolis, 1934. original handwritten journal is in the index. Printed version of useful primary Indiana State Archives. sources. Thank you • Goebel, Dorothy Burne. William Henry Additional resources • Richard Day, historian, Indiana Harrison: A Political Biography. Territorial Capitol and other sites, Indiana Indianapo- • Clanin, Douglas E. et al., eds. The lis, 1926. Department of Natural Resources, Papers of William Henry Harrison, 1800- Vincennes. Good biography of Harrison with 1815. Microfilm ed. Indianapolis, 1999. emphasis on his political career.

© Copyright Indiana Historical Bureau 1999 The Indiana Historian, March 1999 15 Indiana Historical Bureau State of Indiana