U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Fish & Wildlife Service 321 Port Road Wells, Maine 04090 207/646 9226 Rachel Carson Federal Relay Service for the deaf and hard-of-hearing 1 800/877 8339 National Wildlife
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Refuge 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov Amphibians and September 2008 Reptiles T OF EN TH TM E R IN A P T E E R D
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Spotted salamander Leo P. Kenney Welcome to Rachel Carson National *Species listed as endangered (E) threatened (T) or Wildlife Refuge. The refuge consists species of concern (C) by the Maine Department of Inland of eleven divisions located along Fisheries and Wildlife. (There are no known federally Maine's southern coast between threatened or endangered herps on the refuge.) Portland and Kittery. Protecting This goose, designed by J.N. “Ding” Darling, has estuaries, salt marshes and adjacent Reptiles Snapping Turtle become the symbol of upland areas, the 5,300 acre refuge Reptilla (Chelydra serpentina) the National Wildlife provides important habitat Refuge System. This species has a rough, brown shell, for wildlife. a long, jagged tail, sharp claws, and a hooked upper mandible. They are Reptiles and amphibians ("herps") a common bottom-dweller of shallow, contribute to the great diversity of brackish ponds and marshes. Snapping wildlife on the refuge. Reptiles are turtles eat plant shoots and hunt scaly, dry-skinned, cold-blooded underwater for fish and other animals. animals that lay shelled eggs on land. Amphibians have moist, unscaled Common Musk Turtle (Stinkpot)* skin, are cold-blooded, and lay jelly- (Sternotherus odoratus) covered eggs in water. During the (C) Maine's smallest, aquatic turtle. breeding season in early spring, They have a smooth, brown shell; the many herps, especially frogs, may head has two yellow stripes running be observed around ponds, vernal from neck to nose. It inhabits slow- (seasonal) pools and streams. Frogs moving streams and shallow, mud- and toads fill spring evenings with bottomed, permanent ponds. They their distinctive calls. produce a strong, musky odor when disturbed. Reptiles and amphibians occurring on the refuge are protected by federal Spotted Turtle* law. Collecting is prohibited. The (Clemmys guttata) protection of these animals, and the (T) Identified by its black, smooth wetlands where many are found, is shell with yellow or orange spots crucial to their survival. on its shell, head, and neck. It is widely distributed but a rare find. Spotted salamander species and wood They inhabit ponds, marshes and frogs only breed in vernal pools. In wet meadows. Spotted turtles may addition to federal laws, the state be observed during warm months of Maine has special regulations basking on logs. protecting this important habitat. Wood Turtle* The following list of 31 species (Clemmys insculpta) includes those whose range overlaps (C) This medium-sized turtle has a refuge lands. The common and brown shell, smooth tail, and yellow- scientific names follow Maine green eyes. Legs and neck are orange. Amphibians and Reptiles; M. Hunter, They prefer uplands near rivers and A. Calhoun, and M. McCollough; brooks. Wood turtles are terrestrial University of Maine Press, 1999. during spring and summer, and return Should you spot a rare or unusual to water in the fall to mate. species, please contact the refuge manager at Rachel Carson NWR, 321 Port Road, Wells, ME 04090 or call 207/646 9226. Blanding's Turtle* Ringneck Snake (Emydoidea blandingii) (Diadophis punctatus) (E) Primarily aquatic, this species This small, dark brown snake has has a rounded, brown shell flecked a yellow-orange collar and yellow with tan spots and streaks. The belly. Ringneck snakes burrow under chin and throat are yellow. They are leaves, rocks and woodpiles in moist strong swimmers and often extend soil. They are rarely observed by day, their unusually long necks to breathe being active mostly after dusk. while submerged. Blanding's turtles frequent marshes, shrubby swamps Milk Snake and slow-moving waters. (Lampropeltis triangulum) This strongly patterned snake is Eastern Box Turtle* tan-grey with red blotches. The (Terrapene carolina) checkered belly is black and white. (E) A domed, yellow and brown-black They are sometimes found close to shell identifies this species. They disturbed areas. When in dry leaves, are found in fields, open woods and they shake their tail, creating a meadows near water. They may be rattlesnake-like sound. Milk snakes Maine's rarest reptile; their population may be found in woody or brushy has plummeted due to commercial areas and meadows. collecting for the pet trade. Northern Water Snake (Nerodia sipedon) The northern water snake is darkly banded. They are primarily aquatic and may be observed swimming or basking in slow-moving water. They eat fish and amphibians.
Eastern painted turtle ©Robert Savannah
Eastern Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta picta) The colorful painted turtle has a green, smooth shell; green, red and yellow vertical stripes on its head; and bright yellow spots behind their Smooth green snake eyes. They may be found in quiet, ©Robert Savannah slow-moving water with abundant, submerged vegetation. Painted turtles may be observed basking on logs or Smooth Green Snake rocks on warm, sunny days. (Liochlorophis vernalis) The only all-green snake in Maine. They are found in grassy upland meadows and are excellent climbers. They prey on insects, snails and salamanders. Brown Snake* Amphibians American Toad (Storeria dekayi) (Amphibia) (Bufo americanus) (C) A small, dark brown, banded This brown, warty toad has a white snake. They live in damp woods belly with black specks. They are and often hide under rocks and found in moist woodlands. American vegetation. They can be quite toads breed on the edges of shallow adaptive and may live in developed ponds during March and April. Listen areas near buildings. for their long (30+ second), high- pitched, trill in the spring and early Redbelly Snake summer. (Storeria occipitomaculata) Back is brown-gray with tan spots Gray Treefrog behind the head. Four stripes run (Hyla versicolor) down the back and underparts are red. This small, warty frog may be brown Redbelly snakes frequent shorelines of or green. They have unique toepads freshwater ponds, lakes and streams. that enable them to climb. They They are also found in woodlands, live and breed (late April and May) mowed fields and marshes. Slugs are in woodlands with shallow pools of their primary prey. standing water. Their call is a very short trill. Eastern Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis) Spring Peeper This species has three yellow-brown (Pseudacris crucifer) stripes and two rows of black spots. The abundant, "X-back," spring The belly is greenish-yellow. They peepers are the smallest frogs in inhabit moist fields, lawns, forests, Maine. Their skin is brown-gray and meadows and marshes. Maine's most wartless. Peepers are among the abundant reptile; dozens may first amphibians to breed in March Eastern garter be found together and April. Mates find each other in snake at one time. fresh, shallow, standing water. Males ©Cindie Brunner sound a loud, high-pitched peep heard commonly on and adjacent to the refuge. Adults live in moist woods and meadows.
Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Ribbon Snake* Largest frog in the United States. (Thamnophis sauritus) Skin varies from light green-olive to (C) Similar in appearance to garter brown. Breeds during May and June snake; has yellow-brown stripes on shorelines of large, permanent along sides. A semi-aquatic species; water bodies with emergent they seldom wander far from water. vegetation. Adults stay close to wet Though difficult to find, ribbon snakes habitats. Mating call is a deep "jug-o'- are most often observed swimming rum," heard for long distances. or hanging from shrubs alongside streams. Green Frog (Rana clamitans) Eastern Racer Greenish with dark brown or (Coluber constrictor) gray spots. Adult males have a (E) Terrestial species, quick moving yellow throat patch. They breed in with glossy black back. permanent water bodies from May to August. Adults stay close to wet, Blue-spotted Salamander marshy areas. Green frogs emit a loud (Ambystoma laterale) cry when leaping from danger. Their Dark blue or black body with white mating call resembles the pluck of a specks. Tails are less than half of their loose banjo string. body length. They emerge from the ground to breed in vernal pools during Pickerel Frog the first thaw (March). These woodland (Rana palustris) salamanders may be found under small Well camouflaged by their brown skin branches, leaf litter, and moss. and square patches on their backs. Underside of hind legs is yellow- orange. They breed during March and April near densely vegetated areas near permanent bodies of water. Often found far from water in summer. Spotted Salamander Mating call is a low grunt or croak.
Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) Large salamander, around 17 cm. This species is brownish-black or brownish-blue with yellow spots. Breeding takes place in vernal pools, otherwise adults live in forests under leaves, stumps or underground.
Eastern Newt Pickerel frog (Notophthalmus viridescens) Greenish-brown adults are aquatic Northern Leopard Frog and have two rows of red dots along (Rana pipiens) their back. Tail has a pronounced (C) Similar in appearance to the keel. Both larvae and adults live in pickerel frog, this species has aquatic environments with abundant irregular rows of brown, oval spots. submerged vegetation, however, the They breed from April to May around juvenile phase is land based. Juveniles vegetated edges of swamps and are bright orange, called “efts”, and flooded meadows. Leopard frogs may are found in moist woodlands. be found in wet woods during the summer months. They have three calls Northern Dusky Salamander described as a snore, trill, and scream. (Desmognathus fuscus) This species is dark brown or black; Wood Frog they darken with age. A light-colored (Rana sylvatica) line extends from their eye to the Faces appear masked. They are one of back of their jaw. They live and breed the first species to appear in spring, near swift-moving springs and streams. just after ice break-up. Breeding takes place in vernal pools; adults may Spring Salamander be found in leaf litter. Wood frogs (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) emit a sound similar to a quacking (C) Maine's largest salamander (up duck. to 19 cm). They are pink-orange with black mottling. Requires clean, cold, forested streams with high oxygen supply.
Northern Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata) Smallest salamander in Maine. They have yellow backs with two dark lines running the length of the animal. They live on the edge of streams and rivers, hiding under rocks and woody debris.
Four-toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum) (C) This species has four toes on the hind feet (not five). Back is red- brown; belly is white with black Northern Spring peeper specks. Favors forested areas with wet sphagnum moss. Adults are generally terrestrial.
Northern Redback Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) Color varies from black with a red, stripe on the back, to black to red with black spots. Tails are rounded in cross-section. This species hides under leaf litter, logs, bark, or rocks U.S. Fish and Rachel Carson is one of more than in moist woods. Wildlife Service 548 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is NOTES a network of lands and waters managed specifically for the Date:______Time:______protection of wildlife and wildlife habitat and represents the most Observers:______comprehensive wildlife management program in the world. Units of the Weather:______system stretch across the United States from northern Alaska to Species Seen: the Florida Keys and include small islands in the Caribbean and south ______pacific. The character of these is as ______diverse as the nation itself. The Service also manages national ______fish hatcheries, and provides federal leadership in habitat protection, ______fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and ______protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and ______endangered species.