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4 Normative Ethical Theories: Natural Moral

4 Normative Ethical Theories: Natural Moral

Draft Section B: and Normative ethical 4 Introduction

This chapter introduce different approaches to ethical decision-making: ● Deontological ● Teleological ● Character-based

Section B of the specifi cation is concerned in its entirety with three normative ethical theories: ● Natural moral and the of double effect, with reference to Aquinas. ● Situation ethics, with reference to Fletcher. ● ethics, with reference to . We shall start, therefore, with a brief overview of some of the terminology.

● Normative ethical theories The word ‘normative’ is an adjective which comes from the word ‘’, which means a ‘standard’, or a ‘rule’, so moral norms are standards or with which people are expected to comply. Obviously, people have different ideas about what these standards are, so the various normative theories of ethics therefore focus on what they claim makes an action a moral action: on what things are or bad, and what kind of behaviour is right as opposed to wrong. The three normative theories you are studying therefore illustrate three different sets of ideas about how we should live. Deontology, , and character-based ethics are not in themselves ethical theories – they are types of ethical . 117 Natural moral law is seen by most people as one type of deontological theory; Kant’s theory of the is another. Fletcher’s situation ethics is one type of consequentialist theory; is another. Aristotle’s is a type of teleological theory and is also character- based. The different types of ethical theory are not exclusive, however, so we also find teleological ideas in virtue ethics and situation ethics. To unpack these words further: © Hodder Education

873959_4_AQA_A_level_RS_117-120.indd 117 12/09/16 1:24 pm 873959_4_AQA_A_level_RS_117-120.indd 118 118 Component 1 and ethics © Hodder up online. up axe-murderer’, you probably which have about. not, heard If look it ‘mad the problem thought about with alot connection this in himself not ’, ‘do rule, of Kant questioned. the be the consequence, can in somebody dies that a not duty means to lie, but that following For you about if example, have badconsequences. bring which ways people lead to act in can You deontological probably ethics that can see lost.been therefore action has from his goodness moral Any forconsequence himself. best the to achieve he wants simply because kind is grocer the kindness, of goodness intrinsic of the because kind of Instead custom. their duty, moral his he wants as but that because he sees notcustomers, because to his kind who is of agrocer example gave the Kant were discounted. or satisfaction) gain (such motives personal other as toobedience arule; done it was in if only moral action was an that would argued have Kant obeyed). be must (commands that imperatives on categorical based theory deontological Kant’s ethical from Immanuel comes of this examples best the of ‘motive’ ‘intention’. and of importance One the emphasise deontologists why is goodness intrinsic This of . deontology) will the by knowing world, the or or by (for studying by , religious accessed be can world the into built and some sense in is or wrongness rightness their orthen wrong, right intrinsically are acts hold deontologists Since that ought oractions ought not performed. to be word, moral the ‘ought’: by using expressed these be also can Such rules your not‘Do break promises’ not‘Do lie’ not‘Do steal’ murder’, are: ones obvious some of the not from,‘Do aworld therefore Apart in live Deontologists of rules. moral not murdered. to be right you the have then implicitly (built-in) of value doing so. you If not ‘Do follow murder’,intrinsic rule, the an is there your that implies and tobecause follow rules ‘’, consider also deontological theories rules, , and duties you of what do. consequences the Alongside opposed to considering as rules, to and duties your in conforming action of an worth moral the hold of ‘rules’. that moral systems Deontological basis form the duties those you you duties what have, telling once people start you guess, might As are. you tell your ‘duty’, what duties moral as deontological so theories translate words those speaking, binding’. is Generally which ‘that ‘’, deon Greek from the comes The word ‘deontological’ Deontological was thought necessary to bring about the best consequence(s). about best the to bring thought necessary was would that prepared to if be lie where aconsequentialist therefore situations There are situation. the in overall consequences best produceswhich the one action is agoodshould or So right judged be consequences. by its action of an worth moral the hold of that ethics theories Consequentialist Consequential Draft Education , meaning ‘obligation’,, meaning 12/09/16 1:24 pm 4 Normative ethical theories 119 12/09/16 1:24 pm , meaning ‘end’, ‘goal’, or or , meaning ‘goal’, ‘end’, which seek we referred our to Education Draft , the end, or goal purpose Teleological derives‘Teleological’ telos the from Greek word have already across come this You in‘purpose’. connection with word the Design the for God, of which is also known as the Argument, becauseTeleological claims it that God’s purposes are visible in what can we observe the . about In ethics responsibilities in attaining specific teleological moral goals ends. For or behaveethical should you want theories, find if how to you out therefore, what decide the need to ultimate you ethics goal of morally, is. ethical theoriesTeleological can also be consequentialist, because as well as being directed towards an ultimate purpose, goal or a teleological theory can also achieve to the best look consequence in any particular situation. This will the reason simple follow that achieve to the best consequence in any particular situation will generally contribute the to overall goal. Character-based will haveYou that noticed and consequentialist deontological theories are thatact-centred specific – we acts right bad, are or wrong. By good or contrast, character-based ethics is meaning agent-centred, that goodness is in innot the whether the the is but act person: agent habit and by judge we characterby virtuous or a good person. does who morally acts good someone by In theory, Kant’s deontological as of habit is thought being not because morally good, moral goodness requires in what do accordance decide the to with to moral agent reason. Consider this a example: was about There years some an obituary, ago, thelady in of local one communities was who as regarded being a The bestThe known consequentialist theory is Utilitarianism, which is an right where example ‘act-consequentialism’, actions of are those which maximise the ‘’ sentient of (beings that can think, reason, Happiness ). hasfeel, different shades meaning of different for utilitarians, so can , include well-being, individual and preferences individual . Although consequentialist theories focused are not moral rules, on they example, rulescan for in so, becan the included theory, be used to maximise the best consequences. because This follows rules become often rules because historically they have the been best shown produce to that Our out ancestors havingconsequences . found for rules simple as those and usually(such theft) murder prohibiting societyhappier a to led overall. Whereas in theories deontological the focus is the on theof rule itself, in consequentialist ethics the focus is the the on value of consequence the of rule.are inherently There no right wrong or acts. Consequentialist because theories to in have order be to ‘predictive’, bring the best about consequences predict an to have of we act, be to able what the consequences bring to will these be. In about order probably consequences, can it be legitimate ignore rights; example, to the rights for minorities.of Consequentialism is a type teleological theory. of © Hodder 873959_4_AQA_A_level_RS_117-120.indd 119 873959_4_AQA_A_level_RS_117-120.indd 120 120 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics Key term happiness, completehappiness, well-being. ● ● said: have we what on Based theories ethical normative of Summary

2 1 focus: F 2 1 N letcher’s situation ethics has two points of moral moral of points two has ethics letcher’s situation atural moral law has two points of moral focus: moral of points two has law moral atural well-being for humanity. for well-being T situation. any in love C God. with unity is action T do. not and do should we what concerning D eleological: it aims to bring about complete complete about to bring aims it eleological: all of goal or end the eleological: onsequentialist: it aims to maximise Christian Christian to maximise aims it onsequentialist: eontological: it lays down strict rules rules strict down lays it eontological:

( In virtue theory) theory) In virtue © Hodder that Kant had got it wrong: goodness is in the person, not in the act. the not in person, the in is got goodness had it wrong: Kant that judged thereby and character lady’s natural the words, editor praised the good qualities’. other In to her naturally atestimony notice as obituary this to receive apleasure been but C, never it ‘I has met Mrs letterthe saying: were.who added they The editor concerned anote newspaper of to the to everybody, kind no matter habitually she was because person virtuous Draft Education ●

3 W 1 focus: A 2

ristotelian virtue ethics has two points of moral moral of points two has ethics virtue ristotelian e can also add athird: add also e can a law. a T M eudaimonia T through virtuous people. virtuous through eleological: the aim or goal of virtue ethics is is ethics virtue of goal or aim the eleological: he law of love is a deontological principle adeontological is love of law he oral character: goodness is developed developed is goodness character: oral (complete well-being). (complete : it is : it

12/09/16 1:24 pm Draft

Normative ethical 4.1 theories Natural moral law

This chapter will cover: G Natural moral law and the principle of double effect, with reference to Aquinas; G Strengths and weaknesses of natural moral law ethics

●● Natural moral law and the principle of double effect with reference to Aquinas; proportionalism Two preliminary comments 1 Natural moral law in the AQA Specification is called ‘natural moral law’, (rather than just ‘natural moral law’ which is more common), to emphasise that it is Aquinas’ moral theory that you need to focus on and not the pre-Christian origins of the theory. Also, some use natural moral law to distinguish it from the ‘ of ’. ‘Natural moral law’ is the term that will be used in questions on this section. 2 Despite what we have said about the terminology of ethics, do not get hung up on trying to define whether natural moral law is deontological, situational, consequential or teleological, since all such definitions are sometimes less than useful when discussing what (in Aquinas’ case) is essentially a medieval system. For example, natural moral law is often described as being deontological, but that would not have been particularly appropriate for Aquinas, since the use of ‘deontological’ dates

Key terms

deontology The approach to ethics in which the rightness or 121 wrongness of an act is judged by its conformity to duties, rules and obligations. teleological In ethics, refers to views of ethics where the emphasis is on the goal or purpose that an ethical approach is intended to achieve. In natural moral law, the primary are teleological, their aim being to being about complete well-being in this life and union with God in the next. In virtue theory, the goal is the development of character through habitual .

© Hodder Education

873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 121 12/09/16 1:52 pm 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 122 122 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics politician ▲ TheRomanphilosopher and be of moral value. moral of be to held aperson in disposition virtue their common . from result which happiness) of pursuit the and example, (for entitlements certain all to give many by held rights Key terms A quality / trait / /trait Aquality is law moral Natural © Hodder Education has to say: has on on BCE century fourth the In throughout idea appear history. 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Aquinas and century twentieth from the virtue , which we consider later. Part of that approach also gives a gives approach we considerlater., which of that also Part These principles of natural and moral order are revealed to order moral and revealed are of natural principles These Draft This refers to law which comes from God’s nature as the the as nature from God’s comes which refers to law This , Aristotle developed his ethical theory based based theory ethical developed his , Aristotle through the teachings of the Church. of the teachings the through rights and moral values that can be understood understood be can that values moral and , Aquinas took up Aristotle’s , Aquinas in special revelation, revelation, special in (Note 1) BCE ) 12/09/16 1:52 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 123 12/09/16 1:52 pm : and in this primary ) Note 2 Note live in society , there is in man an inclination to good, according which has he in common with other animals: and in virtue this of inclination, those things are said to belong to the natural ‘which law, nature has taught to all animals’ … , such as sexual intercourse, education of offspring and so forth. Thirdly to the nature his of reason, which nature is proper to him: thus man has a natural inclination to know the God, and about to (Note: The emphasis in the text is the author’s own, not own, is the author’s The emphasis in the text ▲●(Note: to been emboldened in order have Some words Aquinas’. the eye.) to clear them make respect, whatever pertains to this inclination belongs to the natural law; instance, for to ignorance, shun to avoid offending those has among one whom to live, and other such things regarding the above inclination. natural The is articulated moral order out / worked understanding Through natural can we then moral law, Draft (principles) The main guiding principle is that ‘good is to be done and and be done to is ‘good that is principle guiding The main (1265–1274), I-II, Qu. 94, Art. 2) ( ▲●(Summa Theologica … The fi rst principle practical of reason is the founded on one notion of fi … The good, viz. that is ‘good that which all thingsHence this seek after.’ is the thatrst law, is ‘good of to be and done pursued, and is to befi All otheravoided.’ precepts the of natural moral law are based this: upon so that whatever the naturally apprehends as good man’s (or evil) belongs to the precepts the of natural moral law as something to be done or avoided.

precepts All natural other precepts of moral law are based the on guiding principle in this text. 3 the brings us to principle guiding main This This directly paragraph key on follows the from just quoted: one Natural moral law moral Natural in detail through human reasonthrough and not revelation. Although the theft and murder, Commandments) forbids example,divine the Ten law (for that is a reminderadultery, only way by of God,from since can we know throughsimply reason that these things are wrong. AquinasSo, sees natural moral law as that part God’s of eternal law that human beings can understand reason. through of simply the application law Human formulate human example, those laws, for which appear in legal our systems. Human contradict not natural law should moral law. 2 pursued and evil is to be avoided’ evil to is pursued and © Hodder Education , and warding of off its obstacles, , there is in man an inclination to things that Since, however, good hasSince, however, the nature an of end, and evil, the nature a contrary, of is hence it thatall those things to which man has a natural inclination, are naturally apprehended by reason as being good, and consequently as objects pursuit, of and their contraries as evil, and objects of avoidance. Wherefore according to the natural order of inclinations, is the the order of precepts the of natural Because law. allrst of an inclinationin to good in man there is fi accordance with the nature which has he in common with all substances: inasmuch as every substance seeks the preservation its of own being, according to its nature: and by reason this of inclination, whatever is a means of preserving human life belongs to the natural law. Secondly pertain to him specially, more according to that nature 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 123 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 124 124 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics Are• there anyprecepts that Spend 5–10minutes• Discussion point Discussion God to humanity. God of self-communication direct, vision beatific Key term natural moral law(pagexx). point 6ofthestrengths of philosopher, mentionedin a modernnatural moral law with thoseofRobertFinnis, could compareyour ideas here you would wishto add?You human flourishing. contribute invarious waysto the five primary precepts considering how eachof The ultimate, ultimate, The © Hodder Education Nevertheless it seems clear that Aquinas himself was not giving a not giving was himself Aquinas that clear it seems Nevertheless c work the is on of precepts commentators later primary five Listing b a 1 from it: or arise which passage, this in refers to Aquinas about ‘’ the that things interesting several There are b It by reason. understood principles self-evident are precepts The primary a final end, hasthree which of points focus specific actions: they are teleological –concerned our with are precepts not deontological about rules primary The 4 Summa Theologica Summa it puts in how Aquinas is This Therefore God alone constitutes man’s happiness. constitutes alone Therefore God of Ps. 102:5: words the to satisfi things.’ good ‘Who with desire thy eth according of man, will the satisfy can alone God Wherefore participation. by goodness has creature every because alone; God but in creature, any in found, not be to is This good. universal the save man’s will, lull can naught that evident it …Hence is good universal the …is will object of the the Now desired. be to yet remained something if end, last would the not be it else altogether; appetite the lulls which good, perfect the is happiness For man’s happiness. constitute to good for created any impossible It is understanding of natural moral law leaves some room for leaves law moral manoeuvre. of natural understanding out often made itto stone is be.( or in as set definitive as not was law moral of natural understanding Aquinas’ it shows that because point, important an is forth’. This so ‘and phrase the he uses wording, where his in You precepts. this see can of primary list definitive ideas. separate apparently two contain each precepts third and second Aquinas’ because this, did why they You Church. see adopted Roman can was into moral when natural period from the ‘Manualists’) as (known law moral natural ordered an society. – worship of God – education of the children – reproduction – self of the of (innocent) /preservation life preservation the – order: Aquinas’ you Thepreserves come following across. might commentaries different the in order vary The the wording and both points. five has precepts First Avo in the ‘ the in Complete found be created, something but happiness in cannot only focus. ultimate an The awhole as teloshas of also humanity for and of procreation children. the relationships for life, developing for for education of the preserving children, stable basis a provides ordered an society in living for that example, self-evident, is flourishing. happiness: is /end) human telos /purpose onOur (goal Earth , he numbers three points, whereas the usual list of primary of primary list usual the whereas points, three , he numbers beatific Draft ’ of God that is promised in the next life. next the promised in is ’ of that God I–II, Qu. 2, Art. 8: 2, Qu. Art. I–II, Note 3 Note His ) His 12/09/16 1:52 pm

4.1 Normative ethical theories 125 12/09/16 1:54 pm based Author’s own account own Author’s anything things and why are as ) Draft for humanity for is as the a whole vision God of – union withGod; . Moreover by achieving it, Job gave further glory God. to This Note 4 Note ( telos Whilst researching for a PhD on the Book of Job, I was sent from CollegeKing’s Heythrop, to Father to ‘Freddy’ Copleston (as referred in to the section on Aquinas’ cosmological argument), to have some sense talked into me about Job. spent We much of the time drinking tea, consuming iced cakes and discussing physics, but Copleston did suggest that the great evil and Job experienced was allowed by God because God knew that Job was naturally and uniquely able cope to with it, so that was his personal telos seems like a good way of illustrating Aquinas’ point. about intentions, for example, intentions, Godabout for intended the ‘facts’ sexuality of such chemistryas bring to reproduction. (biology, about and psychology) whatever goes against if the final is it wrong. Therefore, sex of end is word ‘end’, ‘purpose’ ‘goal’ or ‘end’, rather than Henceforth will we word ‘cause’. talk ‘finalabout rather ends’ than ‘final causes’. The telos for humans for after telos death hasThe an individual as as well a focus. Aquinasbut also that thought each person has an individual telos on their natural abilities (or lack of them). Consider this: theiron natural lack them). of abilities (or ‘Full happiness does reside not in gloryor in or honors, or virtue, of in or any created , in but the loving vision of God.’ Whereas efficient causes tell facts us about / descriptions, final ends are this from follows It that the final whatever promotes is end right and Where Aristotle / Aquinas talk use the the would final we about ‘cause’, G G 5 primary the From precepts derive we secondary precepts Secondary precepts are rules that derive the from primary precepts and in act specific should we govern how situations. understand them, remember theTo teleological Aquinas’ focus of primary precepts that have we just been looking which at, Aquinas from copied Aristotle’s doctrine Causes. the of Four This doctrine is Aristotle’s anything why of bothers do to these of causes four arethey especially are. Two important namely here, the efficient cause and the final cause. efficient The cause is what gets things and thedone final cause is the purpose goal or towards which the thing is directed. are Here examples: some G Servais Father Pinckaers summarises this nicely: c The © Hodder Education 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 125 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 126 126 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics © Hodder G ▲ Illustration ofsecondary precepts concerning sexual behaviour

(innocent) life preservation of Primary precepts society living inanordered worship God education ofchildren reproduction secondary precepts are alladdressing important sexual issues? Given that,doyou thinkthatthelist ofsexual actsprohibited by Aquinas’ remains anenormousmoral problem. relation between sexual crimesandhard drugs,theabuseofsexuality child prostitution), pornography, rape, incest, sex-trafficking andthe some oftheissues notshown inthetable, suchasprostitution (including sexual /offences committed intheUKandworldwide. Ifyou add reproduction, andifyou thinkaboutit,thisisjustified from thenumberof Aquinas goesinto somedetail concerning themorality ofsex and Activity N sexual intercourse. We can see this in the following illustration: following the in this We see intercourse. can sexual of purpose and nature the act violates such any wrong: of is procreation possibility to the not directly does lead reproduction, that act of any sex through consensual sex between people who are not married to each other. to each people not between who are married sex consensual through born to children given of welfare lack would general from the not benefit educated; not moreover being ordered to lead children an society it can out because ruled is sex consensual and life innocent notit does preserve out precept addition of because in reproduction. ruled is Abortion primary ote that the secondary precepts shown here are not all based on the on the based not here are all shown precepts secondary the ote that Draft Education Secondary precepts (Ephesians 5:21–33) illustrates ’s relationship withtheChurch – butisagainstdivinelaw, inwhichmarriage reproduction witheachwife able togivesufficient attentiontobringabout – isnotagainstthenaturallaw, sincethemanmaybe ‘permanent’ fatherandmaynotbeproperly educated – wrong: childrenfrom born theliaisonmaylacka who arefrom born theliaison – wrong: goesagainstthewelfare ofanychildren consensual sexoutsidemarriage – wrong: adulteryisinjustice adultery – wrong: cannotleadtoreproduction homosexual sex life – wrong: killsthefoetus/doesnotpreserve innocent – wrong: stopsreproduction abortion – wrong: stopsreproduction contraception – wrong: stopsreproduction using coitusinterruptustoavoidconception – wrong: cannotleadtoreproduction bestiality reproduce through masturbation – wrong, becauseitstopsthefinalend:onecannot masturbation 12/09/16 1:54 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 127 12/09/16 1:55 pm refers primarily to murder and most and most murder to primarily refers · ah · . found to failfound the according more, as descend we further into detail, if wereto say one e.g. that goods held in beshould restored with such and such a guarantee, or in such and such a way; because the greater the number conditionsof added, the greater the number ways of in which the principle may fail, so that be right it not to restore. to not restore or , I–II, Qu. 94, Art. 4) ▲●(Summa Theologica Draft secondary precepts. Aquinas‘law’ for where meant / ‘rule’, ‘’ and justice / / ‘principle’, Aquinas,exible than For the to the get we closer law. fl principle are more actual circumstances a situation, of variation the more there will be in what be to morally rightis judged in that situation. This is a characteristic which Aquinas Aristotle’s from adopts virtue ethics. This is what Aquinas says: may not be appropriate to repay a debt: repay to may be appropriate not culturally relative because is polygamy natural in countries. some That is the not case, and is it certainly the not case with Aquinas, states simply who that two counts ison against polygamy not natural moral law because: 1 it permits the final and that reproduction, which of permits end the final isend and also 2 it good; the educating allows children. for of on But a third Aquinas count, says that is polygamy indeed ‘against the law of nature’ because fails it reflect to nature the the monogamous of marriage relationship between Christ and the Church. As a matter of fact, Aquinas does allow some fl exibility in the AquinasAs fact, of a matter fl allow some does A common mistakeA common is assume to that the secondary are precepts … The natural … The rst principles: law isin but its altogether unchangeable in its fi secondary principles, which, as have we said, are certain detailed proximate rst principles,conclusions the drawn natural from law the is fi changed not may it … But be changed in some particular cases rare of occurrence, through some special causes hindering the observance such of precept … , I-II, Qu. 94, Art. 5) ▲●(Summa Theologica

Christians (including Aquinas) accept, for example, killing in a Just War. in a Just killing example, for (including Aquinas) accept, Activity of: primary precepts by hand. Put the or computer on your a table Draw God’, ‘worshipping society’, ‘living in an ordered of life’, ‘preservation that precepts of secondary a list and make on the left, and ‘education’ each one. from be derived can ‘Do not example, For overlap. of these can that some Do not forget life under preserving be included can precept as a secondary murder’ as ‘Do not murder’ : do not write Tip society. and living in an ordered tirs lo The Hebrew ‘Do not kill’. Principally, the ‘law’ in natural the Catholic moral law Church for has meant G Aquinas reaches this using by conclusion the example that sometimes it G example, is it claimed often For that natural moral law accepts polygamy © Hodder Education The view Thus it is it Thus right and true all for to act according to reason: and from this principle follows … that it goods entrusted to another be should restored to their owner. thisNow is true the for majority cases: of may it but happen in a particular case that be would injurious, it and therefore unreasonable, to restore goods held in trust; instance, for if they are claimed the for purpose of ghting against country. And this one’s principle willfi be Key termKey cultural that moral a person’s beliefs should be judged in the context of their own culture. 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 127 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 128 128 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics © Hodder ● ● mistakes? 6 ●

A A F F However: F W A F Th and as the ‘’: ‘seven the as virtues theological and 13:13). cardinal the Together, lists Church Catholic of the Catechism the love be in determining what the moral law requires us to do. us requires law moral the what determining in be will there more the variation absolute, detail, the into butwe descend as practical wisdom. practical have will they because virtues, the practise people who habitually by observing learned be can life virtuous the so experience, through only comes to work wisdom reason out to do. what practical Practical wisdom practical is , which is virtues among these Chief purpose. its fulfil (courage) prudence : foundationthe of natural cardo (from virtues ‘cardinal’ of life. away as virtues the by –by habit practising achieved is good this character, and a to have is agood to person be For he followsAristotle, again Aristotle. here and virtues, for the to cultivate us essential it is that argues Aquinas this, In of God. mind the in exists that nature human closer to the virtues. morality. not true is that act, and agood exterior performing than no gets further by others order in admired to be money Someoneintention. to who gives (interior) right properly by be the accompanied but it is good if can only acts. exterior apparent and between goods. real injustice, lies, putting children at risk – it is clearly not clearly good –it at is all. at risk children putting lies, injustice, involves but –betrayal, adultery when we what consider , term short- of its good because areal feel like can Forgoods. adultery example, apparent and real between about the confused become we can good, but the will humans all to Aquinas, According of reason. use right not the is –but that aburglary For planning ways. in example, different in used be can Reason again), reason. wrong through and (sexual about thinking in delight by taking we can example, G ollowing the real good preserves and improves the self and brings us us brings and self improves the and good preserves real the ollowing or example, the act of giving money to charity is a good exterior act, agood exterior is money to charity act ofor giving the example, or a start, we shouldor astart, avoid about difference confused the rom the virtues listed by Aristotle, Aquinas selected four the selected as Aquinas by Aristotle, listed virtues rom the quinas thinks that sin can arise in various parts of our makeup. For parts various in arise can sin that thinks quinas quinas believed that the primary principles of natural moral law are are law moral of natural principles primary the that believed quinas quinas also lists three Christian theological virtues: virtues: theological Christian three lists also quinas iven thisiven andhow do detail, we avoid complexity making e should of difference between aware be the interior and also e process , and these derive from St Paul in the (1 Corinthians New Testament the (1 from St Paul in derive Corinthians these , and Draft and of following the real good can be aided be by following the good of can following real the (self-control) temperance Education

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12/09/16 1:55 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 129 12/09/16 1:55 pm : ) Note 5 Note , Nothing hinders act from one having two effects, only of one Draft ) is heaven and the of the hope beatific vision. refers to to refers in God and belief in what is revealed throughscripture is sometimes translated Greek as is the Testament ‘charity’, New but ‘Whether it is lawful kill to a man in self-?’ ‘ … binds everything together inperfect harmony … ’ The theologicalThe virtues are the foundation Christian of moral activity; they animate and it give its it special character. inform They and give life to all the moral virtues. are They infused by God into the the of faithful to make them capable acting of as his children and meriting of eternal life. areThey the the of pledge presence and action the of Spirit Holy in the faculties the of human being. , III.I. Ch.1, Art. 7, 1) ( (1992) Church the Catholic of ▲●(Catechism Note 6 Note ( I answer that which is intended, while the other is beside the intention. moral Now acts take their species according to what is intended, and according not to what is beside the intention, since this is accidental Accordingly ... the self- act of defense may have two effects, is one the saving life, the one’s of other is the slaying the of aggressor. this Therefore act, intention since is one’s to save own life,one’s is unlawful, not seeing that is it natural to everything to keep itself in as ‘being’, far as possible. And yet, though proceeding from a good intention, an act may be rendered unlawful, if proportion of be it out to the end. Wherefore if a man, in self-defense, uses than more necessary violence, willit be unlawful: whereas if repel he with force moderation his defense will be lawful, because according to the is … ‘ it lawful to repel force providedby force, does one exceed not the limits a blameless of defense. II–II, on: Art.Qu. 64, 7, Aquinas argues that killing in self-defence is justified as so the long killing waswas but intended, the result not unavoidable the force of amount of Love is which the meansagape, basis (which ’love’ other-person-regarding basically It situation means ethics, which Fletcher’s later). study we love of through Godof (everybody) all neighbour above things, one’s of and love gives a list of the God. to of Colossians Paul’s letter love (Colossians 3:14) virtues, and then states that love: moral7 cult diffi in can also mistakes making We avoid effect’ double of ‘principle the by using situations mistakes effect is avoid to a principle which helps Double in in difficult cases. Aquinas calls never effect’, the principle ‘double a clear get we .description thebut of doctrine in his Summa Theologica This is what Aquinas says: Whereas the are those that can be attained human by the theological virtuesability, are given humans to through God’s grace: Faith and the Church. Hope © Hodder Education 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 129 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 130 130 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics © Hodder Education is given by Louis Pojman. ( by Louis given is developed of the of principle double descriptions effect clearest of the One lawful. is assailant of the killing the then would push of off attack, intention to the ward be the where acase, such In killed. object is and or astone on floor asharp falls assailant the which after bypush, aviolent repelled is murderous assailant a which abook,in in apassage read have will or else afilm, seen have will Everybody unlawful. be will so not proportional, be violence, it will proportional be must defence your Moreover, your assailant. badone of the life; killing your own good onethe of saving here: effects two has your assailant Killing life. to your save own necessary The 2 The such Acts /neutral. good or morally The be actionindifferent either must 1 The permissible. morally before act is an satisfied be must double four are that conditions with there effect, detail: In other bad. other a‘double effect’ –one has the good and act literally an which in disputes moral for ‘aalgorithm’ neat as solving of double devised doctrine was effect The consequences. about evil bringing topossible do also good without not it is which however, in Sometimes, we encounter moral and the natural moral law in general are absolutist: are general in tradition law moral natural the and The 4 The but foreseen, be it not must intended. The may be badeffect good The effect. badeffect the to achieve be only must The intention 3 The good is effect the by which means The not must the badeffect be intentions. Here is an illustration from : from medical illustration an Here is intentions. person’s on the laid is emphasis great doctrine, this in You that see can bad to the importance in equivalent be The good at must least effect about bad consequences. consequences. about bad bring it will that knowing despite act do agood to permissible sometimes it is but that aboutconsequences, good bring to order in intentionally act do abad to wrong always roughly, it is says, that The doctrine permissible. never morally are person innocent an killing or intentionally lying as bringing about the good effect, then the act is immoral. act is the about good then effect, the bringing of ameans is badeffect the If side-effect. unintended an only be must achieved. effect. (Note 8) (Note principle.’ exceptionless appropriate an following by situation every in action right the discover can nature, andreason rational an has essentially ‘Humanity means–end of act condition: the nature proportionality right-intention Draft condition: condition: condition: ( Note 9 Note 7 Note ) Pojman suggests that Aquinas’ position position Aquinas’ that ) Pojman suggests – if you use unnecessary unnecessary you –if use 12/09/16 1:55 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 131 12/09/16 1:55 pm ) Note 11 condition is also passed, condition. The doctors’ condition. condition. The bad effect (the proportionality means–end he he he right-intention because the good effect – the relief of over a period of time is at least equivalent in importance the to bad effect that the patient dies sooner. T earlier death of the patient) is not the means by which the good effect (the relief of the patient’s pain) is achieved, so condition 2 is also met. get the force ofthis, To compare it with a case in which the doctors administered a dose of morphine that they knew would kill the patient immediately. T intention is only relieve to the sufferer’s pain. The fact that the sufferer dies sooner is an unintended side-effect. the bad Moreover, effect is foreseen (the doctors know that the patient will probably die sooner) but not intended. The act therefore passes condition 3. T

: The doctrine of double effect allows allows effect Conclusion: The doctrine of double be judged right in this to the actions of the doctor pain and relieve is to the intention situation, because but an unintended of death is considered the hastening consequence. proportional 2 3 4 Education Draft Activity one million people. save to in order Sally Situation 3: Torturing 12) (Note Pojman. from is taken This example in half an bomb that will detonate a nuclear has planted father Sally’s her father of the bomb, but has promised the location knows Sally hour. its but if the bomb is not found, secret; the that she will not reveal effect under double Is it permissible will kill 1 million people. detonation 1 million people? save to in order Sally, one person, just to conditions. using the four out the answer Work Terror Bombing and Tactical Bombing. Bombing and Tactical Situation 2: Terror ‘The terror bomber aims bring to about civilian deaths in order to weaken the resolve of the enemy: when his bombs kill civilians this is a consequence that he intends. The tactical bomber aims at targets targets such while bombing foreseeing will that cause civilian deaths. When his bombs kill civilians this is a foreseen butunintended consequence of his actions. Even if it is equally certain that the two bombers will cause the same number of civilian deaths, terror bombing impermissibleis while tactical ( permissible.’ bombing is © Hodder condition. The act of he nature of the act T administering morphine relieves pain, so is a good act which passes condition 1. The case of a terminally-ill patient whose patient of a terminally-ill 1: The case Situation doctors through about sooner death is brought control to doses of morphine increasing administering his pain. of (some types / conditions diseases certain are There for in which it is necessary example), for leukaemia, relieve to use high doses of morphine in order to doctors of stages happen in the terminal pain. This will usually of its effectiveness is used because the disease. Morphine but other treatments, with by comparison in pain relief – it makes depressant act as a respiratory morphine can such breathing to response difficult. In more breathing the increase to necessary becomes difficulty, it usually who prescribe and the doctors dosage of morphine, in are they careful that however the drug will be aware cause can the morphine the dose, eventually controlling that giving will know In short, the doctor failure. breathing cause the pain can control doses of morphine sufficient to 10 ) (Note sooner. die the patient to under the doctrine permissible Is this action morally the four against Check the answer effect? of double conditions: 1 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 131 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 132 132 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics . Cosmological or Thomist law moral natural Thomist example, for Aquinas, by held / proposed been have would that one is position a Thomist so Aquinas, Thomas of name Thomist Key term

R efers to the first first to the efers © Hodder What is your view of these claims? of your these is view What 4 3 2 1 about: to think comments The convoluted. of double very become four can effect Here are of doubleHow should doctrine effect? the we evaluate Natural moral law today is still essentially essentially still is today law moral Natural 8 him such obligations were less important than the virtues that we have just just we have that virtues the than important obligations were less such him but to obligations to moral rules, obey have humans accepted that Aquinas to rules. moral importance greater gives Church Catholic the rules, obligations and as important as were at least virtues the Aquinas from Aquinas’). ‘coming However, means ‘Thomist’ for so Thomas, whereas one should never alie. tell that argument the with wrong something is there that admission an like rather looks but that to holdwould truth, sometimes prudent the back be it that suggest could did avoided? butchery be the alie Aquinas telling by butchered if wouldbe to death let mind children right their Who in to lie. order imperative in it is to someoneor save fromdeath danger that most people’s against whatever, goes danger from any but this order in alie to to someone tell save not it lawful is held that Aquinas D should torture never permissible. be then given be can To permissible? become 1,000,000? save 100? 10?’ answer no If sensible S disproportionate. massively people. would of The 1million be execution inaction deliberate to the it would somebody,horrible to torture be to do would so failure amount however so act should any judged be results, that by its claim generally would ethics Consequentialist of scale. culpable homicide on agrand would probably Sally to torture accused be people by arefusal 1 million of deaths the who permitted ruler Any false. seems reasoning bomb –the In SituationIn 3 yourwhatever intention. good consequences, has one agood that act is because are, intentions M logic of the double with effect. wrong something is there so loving, he loves, most heroic people and comrades act as would and his consider for the act of act adeliberate self-sacrifice he would his consider that (condition more It is likely howsoldier 3). would the really think? this Is action of his consequence unintended an as death own about his bring act will (see his condition 3). that merely to ‘foresee’ he has Instead about agood abadact to consequence bring performing he is death own his by intending because comrades, of his lives to the save life own his Double not to to intend sacrifice would effect him require from harm. comrades his saves thus and on agrenade himself soldier who throws of a then, Take case, the existence. in to keep themselves things living of inclination the against it goes for that example, number of , S C uicide is forbidden in natural moral law. Aquinas forbids law. moral forbiddenuicide it is for Aquinas natural a in ome would ‘At counter-argue ask, here and torture does point what ouble effect seems sometimes to be counter-intuitive. to be sometimes Forouble example, seems effect atholic today law in relation natural moral to Aquinas any consequentialists would maintain that it does not matter what your not what it does matter that would maintain consequentialists any Draft – torturing Sally to discover the whereabouts of whereabouts anuclear the to discover Sally –torturing Education Thomist (Aquinas’ first name is is name first (Aquinas’ 12/09/16 1:55 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 133 12/09/16 1:55 pm ’ ) to ) to ’ Jesuits ) ) Manualism Note 13 Note 14 Education , ‘case’). You can see, then, that You the, ‘case’). manualists were Draft evertheless, there are indications within the Catholic Catholic the within evertheless, indications are there ‘ … invaded the entire domain of moral life … ’ ( ‘The moral of the manuals lost sight of essential questions: the treatise on happiness and the destiny of the human person … Obedience law to encroached upon charity and the virtues; the theme of friendship was lost.’ ( N write manuals These designed use were in moraltheology. for of Catholic seminaries, train to the clergy moral law in specific of to the application cases. manualists The examples gave specific of cases which the clergy in what do similar decide to to in to order refer could situations. Ifyou thiscompare the manuals with today, do books what were case of what the manualists for so another word law, is doing were ‘ been discussing. When natural moral into law the was Catholic adopted Church during the the sixteenth reverse happened: however, century, and rulesobligation given were priority and: Naturalthrough moral ‘ law became deontological Proportionalism Proportionalism originated Catholic among scholars in and Europe America. In America, Richard A. McCormick is credited with reshaping Catholic moral thinking. 9 of shift interpretation of towards flexible a more Church natural moral law In recent decades there has been a renewal of in Aristotle’s virtue ethics and this has reminded Catholicism its of roots in virtue The theory. Catechism Paul John the by of Catholic forward Church, put in 1992 II as a summary the beliefs Catholic of faithful, for the to includes reference cardinal and theological virtues. Another flexible sign a more natural of to approach moral law is the Catholic theologians of number of form some accept who proportionalism. In morality a the obligation seventeenth of for the century, preference and rules scholars led in the (especially the (from Latin(from casus moral rule-books,producing so Catholic natural moral law became deontological. As a matter fact, the of term ‘casuistry’ today can be used as a criticism of those concerned are with much who too rules with enough and not justice. This captures criticism a key Catholic natural of that it moral law today, is so concerned with rules principles that and virtues. forgets it When the manualists the example, of things one for did their work, they omitted Aquinas’from natural of version moral law was his the of virtues. account those write who For manuals, virtues are far harder quantify to than rules. ManualismIn other words, narrowing a considerable amounted to the of Aquinas’scope of natural moral law: ● ● © Hodder n the Roman I rom Latin casus, ember of the


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Key termsKey Manualism 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 133 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 134 134 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics school for clergy. training school seminary Pope. the by given that especially tradition, Catholic Roman In the (Church) law. law Church. the of teaching authentic the is what down lay to the having , and Pope the of composed Church, Catholic the of office Key terms In a Catholicism, Ecclesiastical Ecclesiastical The teaching teaching The © Hodder Education Grosch seems to encapsulate best what they are saying: saying: are they what best to encapsulate seems Grosch (or to it), feel attracted they by Vardy at least definition following & the European Roots Debate its and The American Proportionalism: in: survey adetailed provides Hoose Bernard Peter by McCormick. Knauer, work whose reviewed was scholar, aGerman with began law moral tomovement relation natural in debate, proportionalist the that to For trace who want least. those the complex, is to say among scholars The debate about proportionalism death, Aquinas argues that this is not lawful: is this that argues Aquinas death, However, to someone alie save from of telling issue when it to comes the enough. more from someone than who –presumably has another from to steal it would then, lawful to be death, starving is aman Where would lawful: be this that considers and life, his save order in to to steal man for astarving of it whether would permissible be question the considered For Aquinas example, writings. Aquinas’ in visible of approach kind to some extent is This situation. that in rule the ignore to it would right be exist, words, other In where proportionate reasons Suggested that : moral Catholic that Suggested ethics. medical Catholic on expert theologian; moral and priest Jesuit 1922–2000 McCormick A. Richard In 1965, he wrote that: In 1965, wrote he Summa Theologica▲●Summa (II–II,Qu.66,Art.7) or robbery. theft speaking properly this nor is or secretly: openly it either taking , by of another’s means by need own his succor to for aman lawful it is then remedy), possible no other is there and danger, imminent some in is person a when (for at hand be instance means whatever by remedied be must need present the that evident it is that urgent, and manifest so be need the If justifiis reason. aproportionate by ed this situation, particular the in that, clear absolutely it is unless ignored be fi provide should never can which approaches guidelines moral or similar rm law natural from derived laws moral afi be basis, this otherwise On rule. rm would what suffi would overturn which areason provide to magnitude cient suffi be must situation of and but this or unusual situation context ciently on the based is reason The it. proportionate would justify which reason aproportionate is there unless rules these go to against right be never it can that and rules moral certain are there that holds Proportionalism approach to themoral life.’ ( casuistry, disowned anexcessively casuistic ‘ …theologians have, withoutdisowning law-centred, andseminary-controlled.’ oriented, magisterium-dominated, canon ‘ …wasalltoo often one-sidedly confession- Draft . ( Note 16 Note Amongst many who claim to be proportionalists proportionalists to be who claim many ) Amongst Note 15 ) ( Note 17 ) 12/09/16 1:55 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 135 12/09/16 1:55 pm ) 1 ’, or ‘pre-moral’, or ‘physical’ or ‘pre-moral’, goodness or ’, Note 18 ontic would include acting against two of the two acting against include would The disvalue of and preservation the protection primary precepts: also include acting in It would and reproduction. life, in the same other parents uence infl a way that could the same decision. make situation to its of the abortion exceeds Conclusion: the disvalue To of the agent is non-moral. and the intention value, by means of an pattern career an uninterrupted have on proportionalist able not justifi abortion is therefore thinking. has be to considered. agent Draft ‘What the proportionalists have done ispoint out the inconsistency and invalidity ( such thinking.’ of determine what is called the ‘ badnessor Think the its of and act, the not morality. of distinction Aquinas makes between exterior and interior acts: only the interior good isact really good. disvalue value to of proportion in the and act the the intention of agent. If makes a surgeon an incision in human flesh, not do example, you for depends ‘That on It or cut is ‘That bad’. immediately cut is good’, say, intention and in it, the disvalue doing value – or the surgeon’s – that the it. of patient gets out example, is intrinsically abortion, not for of evil. can only find We out whether abortion is morally right wrong or looking by the at value / disvalue intention the in of abortion wanting and the at agent’s bring to an abortionabout in that situation. the moral A lie is sinful only not because also but injures it neighbor, account on one’s itsof inordinateness, as statedabove in thisArticle. is it allowed Now not to make use anything of inordinate in order to ward off injury defects or from another isit lawful … Therefore not to tell lie a in order to deliver another from any dangerNevertheless whatever. is it lawful to hide the truth by keepingprudently, back it … (II–II, Qu. 110, Art. 3) ▲●Summa Theologica 2 ignore the can the If intention then you of moral agent, you only 3 consider both Soacts bad only the you when become morally or good 4 there cannot So, be any acts that are intrinsically evil. physical The act Against Aquinas, modern proportionalists generally argue would that if is it steal save to yourself to acceptable in starvation, from order then makes it little life. Commenting sense lying save on someone’s prohibit to to in order this, Hoose suggests that: Bearing in mind, then, that there are different shades proportionalist of thinking, the modern proportionalist natural of account moral law goes something like this: 1 whether an decide is act to immoral, moral In or order the intention of © Hodder Education The moral agent – the A woman has become pregnant within pregnant become has 1: A woman Example the pregnancy terminate marriage. She wishes to that having a child will interrupt she because pattern. her career of the agent (the mother; also the The intention be the would with her intention) if he agrees father which goes against foetus, of an innocent destruction of the sanctity of life. the principle be the uninterrupted of the abortion would The value of her career. Key termKey agent person involved in making an ethical decision.. 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 135 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 136 136 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics is (ethically) good in and of itself. of and in good (ethically) is good intrinsic Key term why not. section ondouble effect, explain double effect referred to inthe Using thefour conditions of not permitanabortion. principle ofdouble effect would Notice thatinExample 2,the Activity to supporttherest ofherfamily. Itispossible she her life. Itwould alsoincludehercontinued existence The The intention oftheagentisto preserve herlife. the foetus. because otherwise,two people willdie–herself and her life. Shewishesto terminate thepregnancy Example 2:Awoman hasapregnancy thatendangers value oftheabortionwould bethepreservation of

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European into built is a threat to response War aproportional Just theory, law.moral with allowing As T to of avoid hunger.steal dying order to to and in lie to alife save common to sense be it seems example, T disproportionate. be would example, To suffered. for on drop avillage, anuclear warhead casualties to the proportional be must used violence the that is clause The proportionality by Aquinas. developed and further proposed by Augustine was which of ‘JustWar’ theory, part robust. known For awell fairly it is example, A torture of a child, and if they are right, then the possibility of possibility the then right, are they if and of achild, torture and rape the as such evil, intrinsically indeed are some acts that feeling people the Pope have Many the right? Is evil. intrinsically be ofand itself Splendour of Truth good roportionalism has been condemned by the Catholic Church. For Church. Catholic condemned by the been has roportionalism he proportionalist principle is a wide one, and it is used outside natural outside natural used one, it is awide and principleis he proportionalist For on . based to approach be seems he proportionalist s a principle, proportionalism has been around for around been is along so has time, s aprinciple, proportionalism and evil have to be taken seriously. taken to be have evil and Draft Education aborting thefoetus istherefore justifiable. moral oneofself-preservation. To preserve herlife by its disvalue, andtheagent’s intention includesthe Conclusion: thevalue oftheabortionclearly exceeds foetus. The disvalue would bethedestruction ofaninnocent of death. might beable to conceive inthefuture withoutdanger ), on the grounds that it denies that any action can in in action can any that it denies ), that grounds on the ( The The intrinsic intrinsic 12/09/16 1:55 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 137 12/09/16 1:55 pm is that Such an approach is an Such approach ) consequentialism Note 19 , John Waters puts forward a powerful Waters , John ) Education Draft Note 20 here proportionalistshere calculate value and disvalue of the proportion in any people thinkany people that morality is just a matter people’s not of atural moral law has natural ideas our been about a basis developing for atural moral the law is Australian example, in very 1980, For adaptable. quinas’ system is realistic in that that acknowledges it can people make quinas’ natural moral law is in line with Aristotelian virtue ethics, in that n his series Ideas Socratic n summary, natural establish moral law to enables people rules common f proportionalism descends moral guesswork: to a calculation to of for many very people for important in the twenty-first-century ‘post-modern’ which all tends reject to traditionalworld institutions and authority. Natural ethics moral law for during provides an foundation objective an era the where individual is drown left to in a sea limitless of is It choice. telling good thatno people they are morally free so when many people with know what do not to do that an need the Most freedom. of anchor unchanging which moral by code they know what do. they to ought I can Natural whichby people live in moral law society. an sets ordered firm boundaries moral behaviour. for M the of different or customspreferences, practised differentby differentat times. morality Rather, what is is about intrinsically good is It bad. trueor that different cultures can have different moral ideas: example, slaveryfor was commonly practised the by European empires and America, the fact but that has been abolished nearly by all cultures that shows human morality has towards a common evolved understanding that there is something intrinsically wrong with slavery. A mistakes, example, being by for confused the difference about between real and goods. apparent N rights, least not in the American Declaration from Independence of Britain. ( A moral character good of focusesit through the practising on development the cardinal virtues and temperance justice, prudence, of (self-control) with along fortitude, the theological virtues faith, of and love. hope N legal scholar Finnis John and Law philosopher and Natural published W an this act, looks very like much a consequentialist deciding way of on moral issues. One the of with biggest problems I argument natural in of favour moral law:that a foundational, offers it ethics. to universal ( approach and absolute of how we can we how of make accuratevalue and predictions disvalue. about This that is the utilitarians problem face they when try calculate to much how happiness pleasure or an that, will act do utilitarians bring. To have be to the predict to future, soable guesswork some is involved. 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vii vi v iv iii ii i goods: /basic of primary seven proposed alist Finnis existence. God’s Rights Natural nonsense and should be replaced by an ethic of Christian love. of Christian should ethic and replaced by an be nonsense to amount legalistic law moral Fletcher, natural as such systems moral when we come clearly, see to it. For very point you as will that makes world. the and of way atFletcher’s morality looking best ethics situation E for atheist. an assumption not anatural is butworship God, that to for humans all natural it was that assumed Aquinas cannot. Aquinas A P instincts. sexual ofrepression natural to the and of homosexuals persecution led to the also It has for millions. led to untold arguably misery of contraception alone has means artificial contraception. The prohibition of artificial and relationships same-sex approach of condemnation masturbation, the includes from this derive which precepts of secondary to The procreation. list specifically geared to be sexuality human requires plan God’s that specifically nature, sexual about human claims questionable to some very particular in leads This by God. designed nature acommon human share we all that view O Christian ideas with those of Aristotle. of Aristotle. those with ideas Christian combining adaptations, its of all most distinctive the perhaps is law moral concept of natural Aquinas’ often presupposed. so is stone in as set law, moral not so is of which natural mentioned to show adaptability the Y should for to citizens. goods system legal promote be all these of the function the that precepts), argues Finnis so primary Aquinas’ (like T desires.’ ( our [sic] fulfill and survive us rather, to help simply but, laws, unchangeable or humanity of essence an to discover be not may Reason’s task individuals. of types different for fulfilling be may another, both and serves homosexuality whereas purpose social one serve may heterosexuality example, For relativity. a certain include may domain moral our and purposes, many have may ‘We ou are not required to know Finnis’ natural moral law system. It is It is system. law moral natural to Finnis’ not know ou are required ojman comments that: comments ojman his is a theory of both ethics and law, since these goods are all fundamental fundamental all are goods law, and these ethics ofsince both atheory is his ven if there is a God, it is not obvious that natural moral law is the the is law moral natural not that it obvious is aGod, is there ven if

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well-being. intrinsic good and of itself.and of Jesuit Catholic priestly order founded by St Ignatius Loyola and others in 1534. Regarded by many as the right wing of the Catholic Church. Has produced a disproportionately physicists. large top of number rightness or wrongness of an act is judged by its conformity duties, to rules and obligations. eudaimonia agent making an ethical decision. beatific vision Catholic tradition, especially that given by the Pope. casuistry the rightness or wrongness of an act is judged by its consequences. cultural relativism beliefs should be judged in the context of their own culture. deontology communication of God to humanity. Catholic manuals are compilations of casuistry. consequentialism 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 139 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 140 140 Component 1 Philosophy of religion and ethics oneself oroneself one’s country. to to injury lead would that where adebt to repay right be not may it sometimes example: for situations, to particular relation in vary can principles secondary the cases rare in absolute, are principles primary the although that argues He to ‘law’. ‘rule’ or opposed as ‘principle’ or ‘justice’ NML in is ‘law’ of interpretation his because precepts, secondary the in flexibility some allow does However, Aquinas live. you which in culture to the relative not are so and everybody for same the are cases, most in exceptionless are precepts secondary The intercourse. sexual of purpose and nature the violates procreation of possibility to the directly lead not does which act any and procreation, is end final its whereas pleasure, is sex of cause efficient the example, For ends). (final causes final and efficient between distinction Aristotle’s follows Aquinas these, In explaining situations. specific in act should we how govern that rules are which precepts, secondary derive we precepts primary the From abilities. telos individual their fulfil to particular in individuals for and ), the in God with (union God of vision beatific the in awhole as humanity for both focus, ultimate an flourishing /complete well-being. have also They /human happiness to human to lead is Earth on purpose their teleological: are precepts primary The society. ordered an in living and God of worship children; of education the self;the reproduction; of /preservation life of preservation the include: These inclination. anatural have we to which (principles) precepts primary to the us leads Reason avoided’. to be is evil and pursued and done to be ‘good that NML of is is principle guiding Aquinas’ systems. legal our in those as such laws human formulate then we which by reason, human through scripture, of independently out worked is law moral natural of detail the but Church, the of teachings the and scripture through to humans revealed are law eternal of principles These God. of mind the in ‘blueprints’ as exist order moral and natural the where law, eternal the by governed is reality that assumes Aquinas theology. Christian with ethics virtue Aristotelian marries which Aquinas, of that is version distinctive most Its Cicero. and Aristotle of writings the in example, for found, being roots its [NML] pre-Christian, is law moral Natural law moral natural of Summary , based on their natural natural their on , based © Hodder Draft Education this goes against most people’s intuition. most against goes this whatever, but danger any from someone to save order in alie to tell lawful not is it that held also Aquinas loving. and heroic to be self-sacrifice intentional an consider would people most whereas life, his to tosacrifice intend not him require would effect double comrades, his to save life his sacrifices who asoldier of case the in but suicide, forbids Aquinas example, for In addition, cases. these of each in challenged be can effect double of method The people. 1million to save person one torturing and bombing; tactical and bombing terror between difference the patients; ill terminally for pain to control morphine of use the include: effect double of Examples effect. bad to the importance in equivalent be 4 intended; be not must it but foreseen, be may effect bad The immoral. is act the then effect, good the about bringing of means the is effect bad the If side-effect. unintended an be only must effect bad the so effect, good the to achieve 3 achieved; is effect good 2 permissible); never are person innocent an killing intentionally or lying, as such acts (so neutral least permissible: morally is act an before satisfied be must that conditions four gives Pojman, by described as effect, double of doctrine developed The necessary. is than force more to use legitimate never is –it proportional be must one’s life to save own needed force of amount However, the lawful. is this then one’s life, own saving of effect second unintended the is aggressor the killing if that answers Aquinas self-defence, in a man to kill lawful is it whether of question the on example, For effect. double of principle the using by situations moral difficult in mistakes making avoid also We can love. and hope faith, of virtues theological the with combined (self-control), prudence, justice, (courage) fortitude and temperance of virtues cardinal the particularly virtues: the following by aided be can good real the following of process the In particular, act. good amorally not and act exterior agood performs only others by admired to be order in to charity money gives who someone acts: exterior and interior between difference the about careful be also We can goods. apparent and real between difference the about confused becoming avoid can we example, For mistakes. making avoid can we which in ways are there Nevertheless, the bad effect must not be the means by which the the which by means the be not must effect bad the 1 the act must be morally good, or at or good, morally be must act the the good effect must at least least at must effect good the the intention must only be be only must intention the

12/09/16 1:55 pm 4.1 Normative ethical theories 141 12/09/16 1:55 pm , on the grounds compares the value and considers his intention in carrying example, Aquinas held that it would be lawful for a starving mansave to his life by stealing the property ofothers. Current debate among Catholics produces disagreement on issuessuch as contraception and some masturbation.masturbation, example, For for hold that it is forbidden in all circumstances because it ignores the final end of procreation; others argue that its use in IVF is a valid exception, because IVF promotes the final end of procreation. Proportionalism distinguishes between the ontic, or ‘pre-moral’ or ‘physical’ goodness or badness of an act and its morality. Acts becomemorally good or bad only where the agent: 1 disvalue of an act (such as abortion or contraception or masturbation); and 2 out that act. As a principle, proportionalism seems strong, for example, where it is used in ; although proportionalism was rejected by Pope John encyclical,Paul II’s Splendor Veritatis that it denies that any action can be intrinsically evil. Many Catholics argue that proportionalism becomes consequentialism, which reduces morality to guesswork a calculation – to of goods and evils – and that once the authority is of NML lost, Catholics might just as well become religious utilitarians. Education Draft © Hodder Catholic today NML is still essentially Thomist, although the Catholic Church puts more importance than Aquinas on obligations and rules. Historically, this was theresult of Manualism – rulebooks of casuistry designed train to Catholic clergy in the application of moral law specific to cases. The manuals left out Aquinas’ treatise on happiness and on the destiny of the human person, for example, together with his emphasis on the virtues. Nevertheless, there are indications within the Catholic Church of a shift towards a more flexible interpretation of NML. recent In decadesthere has been a renewal of interest in Aristotle’s virtue ethics, and this has reminded Catholicism of its roots in virtue theory. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, put forward in 1992 by Pope John Paul as II a summary of beliefs for the Catholic faithful, includes reference the to cardinal and theological virtues. Within Europe and America, Catholic theologians such as Peter Knauer and Richard McCormick have introduced proportionalism as a method of rejecting too much casuistry in favour of a more situational approach. Proportionalism is rooted in the work of Aquinas, that where a proportionate reason exists it would be right ignore to a rule in that situation. For 873959_4.1_AQA_A_level_RS_121-141.indd 141