Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-06828-5 — Radio Systems Engineering Steven W. Ellingson Index More Information

INDEX

1/f noise, see noise beam, 53 antenna temperature, see antenna ABCD parameters, 229 beam antenna, 49–51 APCO P25, see land mobile radio FS/4 frequency conversion, 564–568 cell phone, 382 aperture efﬁciency, 52 π 4 -QPSK, see modulation current distribution, 35 aperture uncertainty, see analog-to-digital μ-law, see companding dipole, 35–43, 221, 255, 381, 391 converter dipole, 5/8-λ,39 application-speciﬁc integrated circuit A-law, see companding dipole, batwing, 43 (ASIC), 576 absorption dipole, bowtie, 42 arcing, 109 atmospheric, 93–94, 590 dipole, electrically-short (ESD), 20 array (antenna), see antenna ionospheric, 96 dipole, folded, 42, 55 array factor, 54 acquisition, of phase, 124 dipole, full-wave (FWD), 39 ASK, see modulation active mixer, see mixer dipole, half-wave (HWD), 20, 37, 49 atmospheric absorption, see absorption, adaptive differential PCM (ADPCM), dipole, off-center-fed, 39, 40 atmospheric 142 dipole, planar, 41 atmospheric noise, see noise adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR), dipole, sleeve, 41 ATSC, see television 541 discone, 382 attenuation constant, 93, 234 admittance (Y) parameters, 229 electrically-small (ESA), 382–390 attenuation rate, see path loss advanced wireless services (AWS), 587 equivalent circuit, 40 attenuator, digital step, 481 alias (aliasing), see analog-to-digital feed, 51, 56, 224 audio processing, 137–138 converter helix, axial-mode, 57 autocorrelation, 85 AM broadcasting, 3, 58, 482, 516, helix, normal-mode, 57 automatic gain control (AGC), 87, 122, 583–584 horn, 56, 92, 224, 381 138, 154, 163, 179, 182, 188, 195, AM-PM conversion, 348–349 impedance matching, see impedance 462, 478–480 ampliphase, 537 matching, antennas fast, 136, 478 amplitude modulation (AM), see integration, 33–35, 363–396 slow, 478, 479 modulation isotropic, 30 available gain circle, 307 analog modulation, see modulation log-periodic beam, 382 available gain design method, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 11, loopstick, 58 306–309 446–458 monopole, 43–46, 56, 255, 391, 392 available power, 240, 365 alias (aliasing), 449 monopole, 5/8-λ,45 axial-mode helix, see antenna aperture uncertainty, 458 monopole, electrically-short (ESM), dynamic range, 453–457 44 backhaul, 5, 214–216 effective number of bits (ENOB), 457 monopole, quarter-wave (QWM), 44, backlobe, 48 ﬂash, 447, 448 45, 366, 376 balanced circuit, see differential circuit lowpass sampling, 451 patch, 46–48, 55, 381 balun, 35, 256–257, 390–396 Nyquist zone, 449 planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), 47, λ/2 transmission line, 394 pipeline, 448 386, 389 coaxial choke, 392–394 sigma-delta (-), 448 receiving, 25, 31, 363–375 ferrite choke, 394 signal-to-noise ratio, see quantization reﬂector, 51–53, 56, 224–226 folded, 394 subranging, 448 resonant, 381 Guanella, 256 successive approximation, 448 temperature, 108, 208, 364 LC, 257, 392 timing jitter, see timing jitter transmitting, 21, 29 Marchand, 395 undersampling, see undersampling tuner, 389–390 Ruthroff, 256 angle modulation, see modulation turnstile, 43 sleeve, 393 antenna, 9, 17–58 WiFi, 382 transformer, 256, 392 array, 54–55 Yagi, 49 transmission line, 257, 256–257

© in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-06828-5 — Radio Systems Engineering Steven W. Ellingson Index More Information

Index 601

band-edge tracking, 188, 574 broadcasting, 3, 55, 463, 523, 538, code rate, 177 bandwidth, 1 583–585 codec, 143 ampliﬁers, 332 buffer, 334, 499, 539 codeword, 177 analog ﬁlters, 398–399 coding gain, 178 analog-to-digital conversion, 447–451 C-band, 3 coefﬁcient, reﬂection, 64 coherence, 77–80, 86, 88, 96, 173, 197, C4FM, see modulation coherence bandwidth, see bandwidth, 199 cable driver, 301 coherence decreasing, 271–273 capacitor, digital step, 506 coherence distance, 87 ﬁrst null (FNBW), 148, 151 capacity, 174 coherence time, 84, 87, 90, 121, 193, 478 fractional, 380, 398 capture threshold, 137 coherent demodulation fundamental limit, 271 carrier, 81 of AM, 122–125 half-power, 266 carrier aggregation, 220, 588 of digital modulations, 154–155, 187 impedance matching, 266–268 carrier frequency estimation, 155, sensitivity, 125 increasing, 268–271 188–189, 574 collector efﬁciency, see power ampliﬁer, noise, 100, 127 carrier phase estimation, 154, 169, 189 efﬁciency noise-equivalent, 153, 158 carrier sense multiple access with collector feedback stabilization, 292 quality factor, 266–268, 401 collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), 8, color dot, see land mobile radio resolution, 359 589 Colpitts oscillator, see oscillator unity-gain, see transistor Carson’s Rule, 133 common mode interference, 255 Barkhausen criteria, 489, 492 Cartesian feedback linearization, 545 commutator, 561 see baseband modulation, see modulation cascaded integrator comb (CIC), companding, 142 ﬁlter, digital μ-law, 142 baseband representation, 115 CB radio, 3, 517, 586 A-law, 142 batwing (antenna), see antenna cell, 8 complementary code keying (CCK), see BCH (Bose, Chaudhuri, and cellular, 3, 5, 6, 75, 142, 184, 197–200, modulation Hocquenghem) coding, 177 216–220, 345, 472, 479, 483, 484, complementary error function, 159 beam (antenna), see antenna 502, 517, 540, 586–589 complementary metal–oxide beamforming, 54, 183 central processing unit (CPU), 513, 574 semiconductor (CMOS), 287, beamwidth channel coding, 139, 176–179, 219 333–334 half-power (HPBW), 36, 37, 48, 52, channel impulse response (CIR), 74–80, complex baseband representation, 216 185–186 115–118, 440 beat frequency, 347 characteristic curve, see transistor compression (of data), 139, 141 beat product, 347 characteristic impedance, see compression point, 1 dB, 342–343, Beidou (GNSS), 594 transmission line 346–347 bias tee, 305, 325, 327 charge pump, see synthesizer (frequency) conduction angle, 524, 533 see biasing, transistor checksum, 177 conductivity, 64 BiCMOS, 287 chip, 196 constant modulus (CM), 524, 534 bilateral (two-port), 238 Chireix, 537 constellation diagram, 144 bilateral design, 302–310 Citizen’s Band, see CB radio continuous wave (CW), 139 binomial approximation, 72 Clapp, see oscillator continuously-variable slope delta bipolar junction transistor (BJT), see Class A, 132, 145, 524, 526–529 modulation (CVSDM), 142 transistor Class AB, 132, 145, 524, 533–534 convolution coding, 178 birdie, 471, 473 Class B, 524, 526, 530–533 CORDIC, 513 bit error rate (BER), 160 Class C, 132, 145, 524, 526, 534–535 correlation receiver, 156, 172, 196 block code, 177 Class D, 524, 526, 535–536 cosmic microwave background (CMB), blocking dynamic range, see dynamic Class E, 524, 536 110, 111 range Class F, 524, 536 COST231 model, see path loss Bluetooth, 503, 592 Class G, 536 Costas loop, 124, 189 Boltzmann’s Constant, 100, 286 Class H, 536 crest factor, 540 bowtie (antenna), see antenna Class S, 536 crystal, 426, 482, 504, 514 BPSK, see modulation clipping (ADC), 448, 460 cumulative distribution function (CDF), branch, 182 coaxial choke balun, see balun 82 branch line coupler, 548 code division multiple access (CDMA), current mode, 35, 253 breakpoint, 70, 73, 90 5, 8, 196–199, 220, 345, 478, 479, current moment, 18 brightness temperature, 109, 110 484, 503, 534, 540, 541, 543, 587 current source array, 519 broadband over power line (BPL), 109 code excited linear prediction (CELP), cutoff frequency, see ﬁlter, analog broadcast (link), 6 142 cyclic preﬁx, 200

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602 Index

dBm/Hz, 357 direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), decision feedback (DFE), 185 DC current gain, 286 8, 195–199, 587, 589, 592 least mean squares (LMS), 187 decimation, 561–564 directivity, 29, 37, 48, 52 minimum mean square error (MMSE), decision feedback equalization, see director, 49 186–187, 194, 574 equalization discrete Fourier transform (DFT), 200 recursive least squares (RLS), 187 decision metric, 154, 156, 168, 182, 186 dispersion (dispersive response), 413 zero-forcing, 185, 185 decision rule, 158, 163 dither (dithering), 456 error control coding, 141, 177, 181, 192 decision threshold, 158, 163 diversity, 84, 87, 181–184 error correcting capability, 177 DECT, 172, 503 Doherty, 537 error vector magnitude (EVM), 542 DECT1800, 172 Doppler shift, 81, 84, 173, 188 Euler’s formula, 115 DECT1900, 172 Doppler spread, 81, 87, 201 exciter, 10 deemphasis, 136 double-balanced mixer, see mixer external noise dominance, see noise, delay ﬁlter, see ﬁlter, digital downconversion, 430–431, 446 external delay spread, 76–77, 86, 88, 96, 185, 198 drain efﬁciency, see power ampliﬁer, external temperature, 208 delay spread, root mean square (RMS), efﬁciency extinction, see path loss 77 driver (antenna), 49 delay-locked loop (DLL), 573 dual modulus, 509 fade margin, 221 derotation, 123, 125, 169, 179, 182, 188 ducting, 97 fading, 79–87, 89–90 despreading, 196 duplexer, 6 fast, 82, 132 device-to-device (D2D) communications, dynamic range, 359–361 ﬂat, 81, 154, 179–184 589 blocking, 360, 453 frequency-selective, 79 quantization, 453 ionospheric, 96 dibit, 144 spurious-free (SFDR), 360, 457 log-normal, 91 differential ampliﬁer, 333 Nakagami, 90 differential BPSK (DBPSK), 169 E-plane, 29, 48 Rayleigh, 83 differential circuit, 35, 253–257 early-late synchronizer, 573 Ricean, 89 impedance matching, 274 Ebers–Moll model, 286 slow, 91 in ADC, 457 Edwards–Sinsky metric, 247 two-ray, 89 in DAC, 519 effective aperture, 28, 37, 52, 92 Family Radio Service (FRS), 586 in phase-switching mixer, 436 effective height, 28 Fano–Bode relation, 271, 385, 387–389 differential coding, 168 effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), far ﬁeld, 19 differential detection, 167–170 206, 379–380 fast fading, see fading differential PCM (DPCM), 142 effective length, 26, 37, see also vector fast Fourier transform (FFT), 200, see differential QPSK (DQPSK), 169, 592 effective length also ﬁlter, digital diffraction, 52, 67, 88 effective number of bits (ENOB), see Federal Communications Commission Digital Enhanced Cordless analog-to-digital converter (FCC), 205 Telecommunications, see effective radiated power (ERP), 14, feed (antenna), see antenna DECT 206–207, 379 feedback linearization, 544–546 digital modulation, see modulation electric ﬁeld, 16, 18, 26, 29, 46 feedforward linearization, 543–544 Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM), 584, 585 electrically-short dipole, see antenna femtocell, 220 digital signal processing (DSP), 550–576 electrically-short monopole, see antenna ﬁeld effect transistor (FET), see transistor digital video broadcasting – terrestrial emitter degeneration, 294–297 ﬁeld programmable gate array (FPGA), (DVB-T), see television emitter follower, see transistor 513, 575–576 digital-to-analog converter (DAC), 10, emitter induction, see inductive ﬁfth-generation (5G) cellular, 588, 591 512, 518–523 degeneration ﬁlter, analog diode detector, 122 encryption, 139, 141 absorptive, 399 diode, tuning, see varactor energy efﬁciency, 127, 174–178 allpass, 397 diplexer, 415, 434 energy per bit, 152, 209 bandpass, 397, 400–402, 407–409, dipole, see antenna, dipole enhanced variable rate codec (EVRC), 411, 421, 422 Dirac delta function, 18, 339 142 bandstop, 397, 409–411 direct broadcast satellite, 94, 224–226, envelope, see modulation bandwidth, see bandwidth, analog 484, 585 envelope detection, 121, 135, 480 ﬁlters direct conversion, 117, 475–477, 517, envelope elimination and restoration Bessel, 415 550 (EER), 537 Butterworth, 404–410 direct digital synthesis (DDS), 511–513 equal-gain combining, 181 Cauer, 415 direct method (of FM modulation), 135 equalization ceramic, 427 direct sampling, see receiver adaptive, 187 Chebyshev, 410–412

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Index 603

coaxial, 425 FM broadcasting, 3, 134, 137, 469, 470, Gilbert cell mixer, see mixer coupled resonator, 424 477, 482, 504, 516, 583–584 global navigation satellite systems crystal, 426 FNBW, see bandwidth (GNSS), 483, 594–595 cutoff frequency, 398 folded dipole, see antenna global positioning system (GPS), 46, deﬁnition, 397 forward error control (FEC), see error 196–197, 466–468, 484, 594–595 dielectric resonator, 427 control coding Global System for Mobile distributed, 418–425 forward power gain, 235 Communications, see GSM elliptic, 415 forward-active mode, 286, 290 GLONASS, 196, 595 equiripple, see Chebyshev Foster–Seeley discriminator, 135 GMSK, see modulation Gaussian, 415 fourth-generation (4G) cellular, 588, 591 graphics processing unit (GPU), 575 group delay, 399, 413 FR4, see printed circuit board (PCB) Gray coding, 144 helical, 425 fractional bandwidth, see bandwidth ground plane, 43, 45, 46 highpass, 397, 399, 401, 405–407, 411 frequency deviation, 133 groundwave, 66 interdigital, 424 frequency diversity, 200 group delay, see ﬁlter, analog lowpass, 397, 399, 401, 404–405, frequency divider, 508 GSM, 172, 345, 386, 472, 473, 503, 587 411–412, 419–420 frequency division multiple access GVA-81, 107 maximally ﬂat, see Butterworth (FDMA), 5, 7, 588 mechanical, 427 frequency hopping spread spectrum H-plane, 29, 48 notch, 397, 401–402, 423 (FHSS), 8, 589, 592 half-duplex, 5 order, 398, 410 frequency modulation, see modulation half-IF problem, 470 see passband, 398 frequency stability, 504 half-power beamwidth (HPBW), frequency-division duplexing (FDD), 5 beamwidth reﬂective, 399, 415 frequency-selective fading, see fading, half-wave dipole, see antenna stepped impedance, 425 frequency selective halfband ﬁlter, see ﬁlter, digital stopband, 398 Friis transmission equation, 62–63, Hamming distance, 177 surface acoustic wave (SAW), 427 203–205 harmonic tracking, 427, 464, 483 front-to-back ratio, 48 second-order, 342 transition band, 398 full quieting, 137 third-order, 342 tubular, see ﬁlter, analog, coaxial full-duplex, 5 harmonic ﬁltering, see power ampliﬁer Zolotarev, 415 full-wave dipole, see antenna Hartley method, 128, 193, 442–443, 474 ﬁlter, digital fundamental (tone), 342 Hartley oscillator, see oscillator Butterworth, 559 Hata model, see path loss cascaded integrator comb (CIC), 563 gain helix (antenna), see antenna Chebyshev, 559 available, 306 high-side injection, 430 delay, allpass, 559, 573 conversion, see mixer Hilbert transform, 130, 193 design using FFT method, 558, 559 DC current, see DC current gain horizon, radio, see radio horizon design using windows, 555–558 forward, see forward power gain horn antenna, see antenna elliptic, 559 maximum available, see maximum hybrid (Y) parameters, 229 ﬁnite impulse response (FIR), 186, available gain hybrid (microwave device), 441, 546–548 550–574 maximum stable, see maximum stable hybrid-π model, see transistor halfband, 560, 566 gain inﬁnite impulse response (IIR), maximum unilateral, 310 I-Q imbalance, 441, 475 550–551, 559, 574 normalized available, 307 IEEE 802.11, 589 multirate, 560–574 operating, 309 IEEE 802.11a, 200, 590 order, 552 receiver speciﬁcation, 459–462 IEEE 802.11ac (VHT), 590–591 Parks–McClellan algorithm, 559 reverse, see reverse power gain IEEE 802.11ad (WiGig), 590–591 ﬁnger, 76, 198 transducer, see transducer power gain IEEE 802.11af (TVWS), 591 ﬁnite alphabet, 140 varying, 480–481 IEEE 802.11b (Wi-Fi), 589–590 ﬁnite impulse response (FIR) ﬁlter, see gain (antenna), 30 IEEE 802.11g, 200, 590 ﬁlter gain compression, 242, 342–343, 359 IEEE 802.11n, 590 ﬁnite-difference time-domain (FDTD), gain over temperature (G/T), 211 IEEE 802.15.1, see Bluetooth 25, 37, 41, 43, 50 Galactic noise, see noise IEEE 802.15.4, see ZigBee ﬁxed bias, see transistor GALI-74, 107, 333 IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX), 591 ﬂat earth, 68 Galileo (GNSS), 594 image frequency, 432–433 ﬂat fading, see fading, ﬂat gamma match, 51 image rejection, see mixer ﬂicker FM, 502 geometrical optics, 51 image theory, 43 ﬂicker noise, see noise Gibbs phenomenon, 554 impedance (Z) parameters, 229

604 Index

impedance buffer, see buffer interstage matching network (ISMN), logarithmic ampliﬁer, 480 impedance inversion, 283, 420–422, 536 333 long term evolution (LTE), 200, 201, 586, impedance inverter, see impedance intersymbol interference (ISI), 86, 147, 588 inversion 185, 187, 198 Longley–Rice model, see path loss impedance matching, 33–35, 259–283 inverse discrete Fourier transform loopstick (antenna), see antenna antennas, 380–390 (IDFT), 200, 559 low noise block (LNB), 224–226 conjugate matching, 259 inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT), low-density parity-check (LPDC) coding, double stub, 282 200, 559 178 power ampliﬁer loads, 538–539 inverse hybrid parameters, 229 low-noise ampliﬁer (LNA), 11, 301, quarter wave, 282 ionosphere, 95 314–318, 320–332 reﬂectionless, 259, 279 layers, 96, 221 bypassing, 479, 481 resistive, 260 Iridium, 142, 188, 473, 587 low-side injection, 430, 470 single stub, 278–282 irregular terrain model (ITM), see path lower sideband (LSB), see modulation two reactance (“L”), 261–265 loss two-reactance cascades, 268–273 IS-54, 503 machine-to-machine (M2M) using transformers, 260–261 ISDB-T, see television communications, 589 improved multiband excitation (IMBE), isotropic, see antenna magnetic ﬁeld, 16, 29 142 main lobe, 48 impulse modulation, see modulation Johnson noise, see noise Marchand balun, see balun impulse response, channel, see channel Johnson–Nyquist noise, see noise, matched ﬁltering, 151, 154–156 impulse response (CIR) Johnson maximal ratio combining (MRC), 86, In Band On Channel (IBOC), 583 Jupiter, 110, 111 181–184, 198 incoherent demodulation maximum a posteriori (MAP), 156 of AM, 121–122 K-band, 3 maximum available gain (MAG), 247 of FSK, 173 Ka-band, 3 maximum effect time (MET), 147, 149, of OOK, 162–163 Kahn EER, see envelope elimination and 190, 572 sensitivity, 126 restoration maximum likelihood (ML), 156 indirect method (of FM modulation), 135 Kahn modulation, see envelope maximum likelihood sequence estimation induction, see inductive degeneration elimination and restoration (MLSE), 185–186, 574 inductive degeneration, 321–322 Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL), 291 maximum stable gain (MSG), 248–250 inﬁnite impulse response (IIR) ﬁlter, see klystron, 285 maximum useable frequency (MUF), 96 ﬁlter Ku-band, 3 Maxwell’s equations, 17, 25 Inmarsat, 142, 587 mechanical ﬁlter, see ﬁlter, analog input matching network (IMN), 301 L-band, 3 memoryless system, 340 insertion loss (IL), 236 land mobile radio (LMR), 3, 5, 6, 55, 69, meteor scatter, 96 instability, 242 134, 137, 142, 210, 345, 353, 366, method of moments, 25, 37, 41, 43, 50 instantaneous frequency, 132 379, 462, 474, 552, 585–586 microelectromechanical systems integrated circuit (IC), 12, 333–334, APCO P25, 585, 586 (MEMS), 390 482–484, 519, 575–576 color dot frequency, 462, 465 microstrip line, see transmission line intercept point TETRA, 585, 586 Miller modulation, see modulation second-order, 347–348 Lange coupler, 548 minimum discernible signal (MDS), third-order, 344–347 latency, 181 355–359 interference, 109 lead zirconate titanate (PZT), 506 mixed excitation linear prediction interleaving, 180–181 Lee model, see path loss (MELP), 142 convolutional byte, 192 lightning, 110, 111 mixer, 433–439 intermediate frequency (IF), 429 limiting, 136 active, 435, 438–439 intermediate frequency (IF) sampling, see linear ampliﬁcation using non-linear conversion gain, 437 receiver components (LINC), 537 double-balanced diode ring, 436–438 intermodulation, 343–348 linear modulation, see modulation Gilbert cell, 438 second-order, 344, 347–348, 476 linear prediction (source coding), 142 image rejection, 442–444 third-order, 344–347 linearity, 13, 338–340 linearity, 437 International Telecommunications Union mixer, see mixer LO isolation, 437 (ITU), 2, 111 link budget, 211–226 noise ﬁgure, 437 internet of things (IoT), 589 link margin, 215–216 phase-switching, 435–436 interpolation, 562–563 load pull, 539 square-law, 433–435 zero-ﬁll, 562 local oscillator (LO), 10, 429 VSWR, 437 zero-order hold (ZOH), 562 log-normal fading, see fading MMSE, see equalization

Index 605

modulation, 87 quadrature, 115, 130 noise blanking, 138 π 4 -DQPSK, 592 quadrature amplitude (QAM), 143, noise factor, 103 π 4 -QPSK, 145, 535, 585, 586 165–166, 201, 349, 502, 535, 588 noise ﬁgure, 103–108, 314–318, 373 amplitude (AM), 535 quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), mixer, see mixer amplitude (deﬁned), 118 143–145, 163–164, 219, 535, 587, noise ﬁgure circle, 316–318 amplitude-shift keying (ASK), 143, 588 noise resistance, 314 164–165, 189, 193, 535, 592 single sideband (SSB), 115, 127–131, noise temperature, 101–108 analog (deﬁned), 114 193, 524, 535, 585 noise temperature, input-referred, 104 angle, 115 sinusoidal carrier, 115, 143 noise temperature, reference (T0), 104 baseband, 114 trellis-coded, see trellis-coded non-thermal noise, see noise binary frequency shift keying (BFSK), modulation (TCM) normal-mode helix, see antenna 171–173 upper sideband (USB), 127 normalized capacity, see capacity binary phase shift keying (BPSK), vestigial sideband (VSB), 115, 131 NTSC, see television 143, 157–160, 162, 168–169, 179, modulation index, 133 numerically-controlled oscillator (NCO), 182–183, 189, 221, 535 moment method, see method of moments 125, 135 complementary code keying (CCK), monolithic microwave integrated circuit Nyquist criterion for zero ISI, 148, 155 589 (MMIC), 107, 333, 346, 348 Nyquist sampling criterion, 448–451, continuous 4-level frequency (C4FM), monopole, see antenna, monopole 522, 552 585, 586 Moon, 110 Nyquist zone, see analog-to-digital digital (deﬁned), 114, 139 MPEG-2, 143, 191 converter double sideband large carrier MPEG-4, 143 (DSB-LC) AM, 115, 118–120, MSK, see modulation OFDM, see orthogonal frequency 584–586 multicarrier modulation, 199 division multiplexing (OFDM) double sideband suppressed carrier multipath, 68, 73–87, 185, 200 off-center-fed (dipole), see antenna (DSB-SC) AM, 115, 120 multiple access, 7 offset binary, 447, 519 envelope, 121 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), OOK, see modulation frequency (FM), 115, 132–137, 349, 184–185, 588, 590 operating gain design method, 306, 524, 534, 540 multiplexer, 417, 464 309–310 frequency-shift keying (FSK), multiplier, four-quadrant, see mixer, operating point, 286, 322, 339, 341 170–173, 534, 585, 586, 592 Gilbert cell operational ampliﬁer (op-amp), 334, 347, frequency, narrowband (NBFM), 134, multirate ﬁlter, see ﬁlter, digital 514 210, 586, 587 OQPSK, see modulation frequency, wideband (WBFM), 134, Nakagami fading, see fading orthogonal frequency division 584 nanocell, 220 multiplexing (OFDM), 199–201, Gaussian frequency shift keying navigation, 3 540, 584, 588, 590 (GFSK), 592 near-vertical incidence skywave (NVIS), oscillation, 242, 486 Gaussian minimum shift keying 220–224 oscillator, 9, 241, 242 (GMSK), 172, 534, 587 near-zero IF, see receiver Butler, 505 impulse, 114 negative resistance oscillator, see Clapp, 500, 505, 507 linear, 115, 118 oscillator Colpitts, 489, 491–499, 507 lower sideband (LSB), 127 neutralization, 313 crystal, 504–506 memoryless, 154 noise grounded base, 491–499 Miller, 594 1/f , 101 Hartley, 490, 500 minimum-shift keying (MSK), ampliﬁer (example), 105 IC implementation, 513–514 171–173, 524, 534, 540 anthropogenic, 108, 111–112 LC feedback, 486–499 multicarrier, see multicarrier atmospheric, 110, 111 negative resistance, 507 modulation external, 108–112, 138, 222, 364 oven-controlled crystal (OCXO), 506 offset QPSK (OQPSK), 144, 535, 592 ﬂicker, 101 phase-shift, 514 on-off keying (OOK), 143, 157, ﬂoor, 213, 358–359 relaxation, 488, 514 160–163, 189 Galactic, 110, 222 ring, 514 phase (PM), 115 Johnson, 99 starting problem, 489, 492, 495, 497 phase shift keying (PSK), 143, natural, 108–111 temperature-compensated crystal 166–167, 349, 535, 540, 592 non-thermal, 101–102 (TXCO), 506 phase-amplitude, 143, 146, 151, 152, shot, 101 voltage-controlled, see 154, 540 terrain, 110 voltage-controlled oscillator pilot-assisted, 131 thermal, 99–101, 213 Wein bridge, 514 pulse, 114 voltage spectral density, 100 outphasing, 537

606 Index

output matching network (OMN), 301 plane of incidence, 64 pulse interval encoding (PIE), 593 oxygen absorption, see atmospheric plane wave, 22, 60 pulse modulation, see modulation absorption point-to-point, 6 pulse shaping, 147–151, 572 polar feedback linearization, 544 push-to-talk (PTT), 5, 586 P-band, 3 polarization, 32–33, 204 P25, see land mobile radio circular, 32 QAM, see modulation PAL, see television elliptical, 33 QPSK, see modulation parity, 177 linear, 32 quadrature downconversion, 154, Parks–McClellan algorithm, see ﬁlter polarization diversity, 184 440–442, 475, 484, 545, 564–572, passband, see ﬁlter, analog power ampliﬁer (PA), 10, 92, 145, 172, see also direct conversion patch (antenna), see antenna 201, 523–549 quadrature hybrid, see hybrid path gain, 63 back off, 540 quadrature imbalance, see I-Q imbalance path loss, 61 classes of operation, 525–536 quadrature modulation, see modulation associated with effective aperture, 92, conduction angle, see conduction angle quadrature splitter/combiner, 441 92 drive level, 539 quality factor, 264, 267–268, 270, 401 attenuation rate, 93 driver, 539 quantization noise (error), 451–457, 459, average, 63, 90–91 efﬁciency, 523–525 523 COST231 model, 91, 217, 582 harmonic ﬁltering, 529, 531 quantization signal-to-noise ratio empirical, 91 linear, 524 (QSNR), 452, 523 extinction, 93 linearization, 541–546 quantization, uniform, 452 free space, 60–62, 578, 580 load impedance matching, see quantizer, 447 Hata model, 91, 580–582 impedance matching quarter-wave monopole, see antenna irregular terrain model (ITM), 91 non-linear, 524 quiescent (Q) point, 286 Lee model, 91 power handling, 539 quieting, 137 location-speciﬁc, 91 push-pull, 531–533 Longley–Rice model, 91 quasi-linear, 524, 527 radar, 3, 595 media loss, 93–94 subranging, 541 radiation efﬁciency, 24, 30, 47, 204–205 median, 63 switched, 524 radiation resistance, 22, 364 rain fade, 94 thermal management, 529 radio astronomy, 595 two-ray, 72–73, 578, 580 power available, see available power radio frequency identiﬁcation (RFID), 3, pattern, 29, 31 power control, 87, 540–541 468, 593–594 pattern multiplication, 55 power delay proﬁle (PDP), 75 radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), power density, spatial, 22, 205 12, 476, 514 201, 540, 588 power measurement, 480 radio horizon, 87 permeability, 64 power-added efﬁciency (PAE), 525 rain fade, see path loss permittivity, 64 predistortion, 541–543 raised cosine pulse, see pulse permittivity, relative, 276 preemphasis, 136–137 rake receiver, 198 personal area network (PAN), 592 prescaler, see synthesizer (frequency) random walk FM, 501 personal communications services (PCS) preselection, 301, 462–465 ray optics, see geometrical optics band, 587 ﬁxed, 463 Rayleigh distribution, 83, 87 phase comparator, 135, 508, see also tuning (or tracking), 463, 466 Rayleigh fading, see fading synthesizer (frequency) printed circuit board (PCB), 41, 47, 276 Rayleigh–Jeans approximation, 100 phase modulation, see modulation FR4, 277, 309 reactance modulation, 135 phase noise, 500–502 processing gain, 196, 197 receiver, 9 single sideband (SSB), 501 product detection, 123 “divide and conquer”, 474 phase velocity, 276 propagation constant, 234 architectures, 465–477 phase-locked loop (PLL), 124, 135, PSK, see modulation direct conversion, see direct conversion 190, 544, see also synthesizer pulse direct sampling, 465–466 (frequency) cosine, 148 general coverage, 483 phasor, 21 Gaussian, 172 IF sampling, 468–484 physical aperture, 52 raised cosine, 149–151 near-zero IF, 476 picocell, 220 rectangular, 146, 148, 172, 521 superheterodyne, 468–475, 482 pilot-assisted modulation, see modulation sinc, 147–148, 521, 551 tuned RF, 468 planar dipole, see antenna sinusoidal, 172 up-down superheterodyne, 473–474, planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), see square root raised cosine, 156, 193 482 antenna triangular, 148, 554 reciprocal mixing, 502 Planck’s Law, 100 pulse code modulation (PCM), 141 reciprocity, 26, 49, 55, 238

Index 607

Reed-Solomon coding, 177, 192 signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), available, superheterodyne, see receiver reference impedance, 232 366 symbol energy, 152 reference temperature, see noise signaling, 141 symbol timing, 189–191, 572–574 temperature, reference simplex, 4, 6 synthesizer (frequency) reﬂection coefﬁcient, see coefﬁcient, simultaneous conjugate matching, charge pump, 510 reﬂection 247–248 fractional-N, 509 reﬂector (antenna), see antenna SINAD, 210 IC implementation, 513–514 reﬂector (beam antenna component), 49 sinc distortion, 522–559 integer-N, 508–509 refraction, ionospheric, 95 single sideband (SSB), see modulation lock range, 510, 511 remote keyless entry (RKE), 592 single-carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), see phase comparator, 510 remote sensing, 595 also long term evolution phase noise, 501, 503, 511 repeater, 6 single-ended circuit, 35, 253 phase-frequency detector (PFD), 510 resolution bandwidth, see bandwidth sinusoidal carrier modulation, see phase-locked loop (PLL), 482, resonance, 267, 400, 488 modulation 507–511 resonance, piezoelectric, 426 skywave propagation, 95, 97, 137 prescaler, 511 resonator sleeve dipole, see antenna system temperature, 208–209, 355, 459 ceramic, see resonator, dielectric slope detection, 135 crystal, see crystal slow fading, see fading tank (circuit), 490, 531 dielectric, 427, 506, 514 Smith chart, 244 Taylor series, 340 LC, 486–488 Snell’s law, 64 television piezoelectric ceramic, 506 SNR per bit, 154, 209 ATSC, 188, 191–195, 584 surface acoustic wave (SAW), 506, 514 software radio, 11 broadcast frequencies, 463, 465 yttrium iron garnet (YIG), 506 software-deﬁned radio (SDR), see DVB-T, 201, 584 resource block, see long term evolution software radio ISDB-T, 584 (LTE) source coding, 10, 139, 141–181 NTSC, 585 return loss (RL), 237 source induction, see inductive PAL, 585 reverse isolation, 236 degeneration SECAM, 585 reverse power gain, 236 space-time coding, 181 tuner, 482–483 Ricean fading, see fading spatial diversity, see diversity television white space (TVWS), see IEEE Rollett stability factor, 246 spectral efﬁciency, 2, 151, 174–177 802.11af of ATSC, 194 TETRA, see land mobile radio S-band, 3 spectral purity, 14 thermal noise, see noise SA602A (IC), 439 spectral regrowth, 541 thermal runaway, 292 sample and hold (S/H), 447 spectrum, 2 thermal stability, 291 satellite, 62, 205, 206, 211, 224, 473, spherical wave, 60, 65 thermal voltage, 286 484, 587 SPICE, 290 third-generation (3G) cellular, 587 scattering (s) parameters, 229–235, 289, spillover, 52 threshold effect, 137 290 sporadic E, 96 TIA-603, 210 SECAM, see television spread spectrum, see direct sequence time division multiple access (TDMA), 5, second-generation (2G) cellular, 587 spread spectrum (DSSS) 7, 585–587 sector diversity, 184 spreading, 196 time-division duplex (TDD), 6 selection combining, 86, 181 spurious-free dynamic range, see timing jitter selectivity, 11, 14, 266, 397, 404, 414, dynamic range analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 458 465 square law (device), 433 frequency synthesizer, 501 self bias, see transistor square root raised cosine, see pulse tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), sensitivity, 13, 210–211, 459–460 squelch, 137 592 sensitivity, formal, 210, 355 stability, 241–247 toll quality, 142 Shannon Bound, 174 circle, 245–246 tracking ﬁlter, see ﬁlter, analog Shannon–Hartley theorem, 174 circle, input, 245 training sequence, 169, 186, 187, 191, shape factor, 399 circle, output, 245 192, 197 shift register, 552 conditional, 243 transceiver, 518 shortwave, 584, 585 conditions for, 243 transconductance, 493 shot noise, see noise unconditional, 243, 246–247 transducer power gain (TPG), 34, 204, sidelobe, 48 stabilization, 252, 313–314, 324 239–242 sigma-delta (-), see analog-to-digital stopband, see ﬁlter, analog transformer, 260–261 converter Sun, 110 transistor signal space representation, 170 Super Wi-Fi, see IEEE 802.11af 2N3904, 290, 495

608 Index

transistor (cont.) coaxial, 255, 391–396 very small aperture terminal (VSAT), 55 alternatives to Si for bipolar, 287 ﬁlters, 418–425 Viterbi algorithm, 186, 574 AT-41511, 244–246, 248, 249, 252, input impedance, 275 vocoder, 142 258, 290 microstrip line, 276–278 voltage reﬂection coefﬁcient, 34 ATF-34143, 300 parallel wire, 255 voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), 34, ATF-54143, 298 properties, 275–276 319–320, 375–377, 389 BFG540W, 320–332 stub, 278, 418–424 voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) BFU725F/N1, 314, 316 transmit efﬁciency, 377–380 circle, 320 bias, active, 298 transmitter, 9 voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), 125, bias, ﬁxed, 291–292 traveling wave tube, 285 135, 506–507 bias, self, 292–294, 297–298, 327 trellis-coded modulation (TCM), 178, bias, voltage divider, 295–298 192 W-band, 3 biasing, 287, 289–300 tribit, 144 wave equation, 17 bipolar junction (BJT), 285–287, 320, tropospheric scatter, 97 waveform table, 512 340, 343 trunking, 585 wavelength, 1 characteristic curve, 289 tuned RF, see receiver wavenumber, 18, 235 common base, 301 tuner, 446, 482, see also receiver Weaver method, 127, 444, 474 common collector, 301 turbo code, 179 White-Fi, see IEEE 802.11af common drain, 301 turnstile (antenna), see antenna Wi-Fi, see IEEE 802.11b common emitter, 289 TV broadcasting, 3, 5, 584 WiGig, see IEEE 802.11ad common gate, 301 two’s complement, 447, 519 WiMAX, see IEEE 802.16 common source, 298 two-port window, see also pulse depletion mode FET, 288 deﬁnition, 229 windowing, 554–558 emitter follower, 301 noise characterization, 103–106 Bartlett, 555 enhancement mode FET, 288 parameters, 229 Blackman, 555 ﬁeld effect (FET), 288–289, 343 two-ray fading, see fading Hamming, 555 heterojunction bipolar (HBT), 287, 333 high electron mobility (HEMT), 288 Hann, 555 ultrawideband (UWB), 114 hybrid-π model, 493 Kaiser, 555–558 indium gallium phosphide (InGaP), unbalanced circuit, see single-ended rectangular, 555 333 circuit triangular, 554 junction FET (JFET), 289 undersampling, 451, 457, 564 wireless local area network (WLAN), laterally-diffused MOS (LDMOS), 289 unilateral (two-port), 238, 310 3, 55, 196, 200, 483, 503, 540, material compositions for FET, 289 unilateral design, 310–313 589–591 metal–epitaxy–semiconductor FET unilateral ﬁgure of merit, 311 wireless metropolitan area network (MESFET), 288 unilateralization, 313 (WMAN), 589–591 metal–oxide semiconductor FET unity-gain bandwidth, see transistor (MOSFET), 288 upconversion, 431–432 X-band, 3 modulation doped FET (MODFET), upper sideband (USB), see modulation 289 Yagi (antenna), see antenna pseudomorphic HEMT (PHEMT), V-band, 3 289, 298–300 vaccuum tube, 285 zero-crossing detection, 136 unity-gain bandwidth, 287 varactor, 135, 390, 427, 506, 514 zero-ﬁll interpolation, see interpolation transition band, see ﬁlter, analog variable gain ampliﬁer, 481 zero-forcing equalization, see transmission (t) parameters, 229, varicap, see varactor equalization 250–251 vector effective length, 26, 364 zero-order hold (ZOH) interpolation, see transmission line Very High Throughput (VHT), see IEEE interpolation characteristic impedance, 275, 277 802.11ac ZigBee, 592

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