Chem 30B

Ch 12. Intro to Organic : What is Organic Chemistry?

• Organic Compounds: Contain as primary component. (Contain C-H bond.) § Biological (proteins, nucleic , , ) § Many modern materials (plascs, synthec fibers), medicine • Inorganic Compounds: Majority do not contain carbon (Those that contain C lack C-H

bond, eg. CaCO3, CO2.) Organic Compounds: What is Special about Carbon?

1. Is tetravalent (forms 4 bonds)

2. Bonds strongly to itself through covalent bonding— thus can form long chains or rings 3. Bonds strongly to electronegave elements (like N, O, and ), to form polar covalent bonds

Chloromethane, CH3Cl Organic Compounds: What is Special about Carbon?

4. Can form mulple covalent bonds by sharing more than 2 (double bonds, triple bonds)

5. Forms compounds with specific 3D shape (C single bonds are oriented toward 4 corners of )

*Because of these bonding properes, an extraordinary number of carbon compounds exist! Comparison of General Properes: Organic vs. Inorganic Ionic Compounds

Organic Inorganic (Ionic) Most are nonpolar à Most are soluble in insoluble in . water.

Electrical When soluble in water, are When soluble in Conducvity poor conductors of water, are good electricity. conductors of electricity.

Physical states Can be gas, liquid, or solid All are solids at room at room temp temp Melng and Relavely low Very high Boiling Points Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds

Hexane NaCl

Organic Compound Inorganic Ionic Compound • Covalent (nonpolar) bonding • Strong ionic bonding within , but between + and – • Weak London dispersion • Melng point: 801 °C forces between molecules • : 1413 °C • Melng point: -95 °C • Solubility in water: Yes • Boiling point: 69 °C • Solubility in water: No Families: Funconal Groups

Funconal group: an or group of responsible for the characterisc properes and behavior of an organic compound. Allows classificaon of organic compounds into disnct chemical families.

Probs Some Organic Compound Families Some Organic Compound Families Categories of Organic Compound Families (Refer to Handout: Families of Organic Compounds.) 1. (contain only carbon and ): , , , aromatic 2. Single bonds only, carbon bonded to electronegative atom: halide, , , 3. Carbonyl compounds: , , carboxylic , anhydride, ,

4. (-containing compounds: , , ) For each family, we will learn its… 1. Structure 2. Nomenclature 3. Reacons 4. Physical/chemical properes

Ex probs