TEACHINGRT WITH THE POWER OOOF OBJECTS Smithsonian Institution November/December 1995

DECODING THE PAST: The Work of Archaeologists

Inside Subjects Grades Publication of Art to Zoo is made possible Lesson Plan Social Studies 4Ð9 through the generous support of the Pacific Take-Home Page Mutual Foundation. in English/Spanish Language Arts CONTENTS

Introduction page 3 Lesson Plan Step 1 page 6 Worksheet 1 page 7 Lesson Plan Step 2 page 8 Worksheet 2 page 9 Lesson Plan Step 3 page 10 Take-Home Page page 11 Take-Home Page in Spanish page 13 Resources page 15

Art to Zoo’s purpose is to help teachers bring into their classrooms the educational power of and other community resources. Art to Zoo draws on the Smithsonian’s hundreds of exhibitions and programs—from art, , and science to aviation and folklife—to create classroom- ready materials for grades four through nine. Each of the four annual issues explores a single topic through an interdisciplinary, multicultural Above photo: The layering of the soil can tell archaeologists much about the past. (Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota) approach. The Smithsonian invites teachers to duplicate Cover photo: Smithsonian Institution archaeologists take a Art to Zoo materials for educational use. break during the River Basin Survey project, circa 1950. DECODING THE PAST: The Work of Archaeologists

Whether you’re ten or one hundred old, you have a sense of the past—the human perception of the passage of , as recent as an ago or as far back as a decade ago. We are all explorers of this past, seeking the meaning of today from what happened . The past stretches far beyond our own experiences; it takes its shape from those who have come before us. The collective memories of our parents and grandparents provide us with an image of more than two generations of human triumphs and tragedies. In fact, the lens of history allows us to view more than thirty centuries of human experience chronicled by a multitude of men and women.

As valuable as they are, standing of peoples both past other evidence of past human ologist can survey the area however, written accounts and . You can use the activity. through careful observation cannot present a complete lesson plans as part of either Finding written records of of surface features and record of human history. a world cultures curriculum history is different from dis- exposed artifacts. If the Documents speak only of lit- or any social studies unit that covering archaeological puz- researcher discovers enough erate societies and are often explores methods of under- zle pieces. A historian might evidence, he or she can incomplete. These records standing the past. know where to look for a employ an arsenal of high- are blind to the thousands of potentially important docu- tech tools to explore a site years of human experience ment—perhaps in an archive further. before the invention of writ- THE PUZZLE OF THE PAST or a collection of personal One frequently used tool ing. To recover this vibrant papers. In comparison, an is aerial photography. Views human past without written The human past is like a archaeologist usually has from the sky offer unique history or memory, we must vast, uncompleted jigsaw fewer leads but just as many perspectives on an archaeo- turn to —the puzzle with many scattered ways of learning about logical site, often revealing study of material remains pieces. To a historian, the the past. features that might be less to learn about past human pieces of this puzzle are let- apparent from the ground. experiences. ters, journals, books, and By carefully examining pat- Archaeology and its maps—in short, the whole SITE SEEING terns of shadows, soil colors, potential to increase our host of written documents and crop growth, an archae- understanding of the distant that have survived over time. The first challenge faced ologist may detect the and the recent human past Documents might be as rare by archaeologists is locating remains of sunken features have long been cornerstones as an original copy of the a site that will yield clues such as walls, ditches, and of the research done at the Declaration of Independence about the people who once earthworks. Smithsonian Institution and or as common as the daily lived there. To that end, sev- At ground level, a variety are the subject of this issue newspaper. eral nondestructive methods of remote sensing techniques of Art to Zoo. The pho- An archaeologist searches can help determine whether a can be used to investigate a tographs of Smithsonian for different pieces of this certain area may contain arti- site without disturbing it. archaeologists and activities same puzzle. However, rather facts. If a site was once the Depending on a soil’s com- that follow encourage your than seek what has been home of a literate society, an position, an archaeologist students to think about how written, he or she looks for archaeologist can often con- might use ground-penetrating human-made objects and what has been left behind— sult written records for possi- radar, soil-resistivity testing other indicators of human in the form of artifacts ble clues. When documents (measuring a soil’s electrical life can enrich our under- (human-made objects) and are not available, the archae- resistance), or magnetic Simplified Ground level stratigraphy Layer A Present displaying the chronological Going back into the past progression of Layer B soil layers 1950s

Layer C 1920s

Layer D 1890s

Figure 1

An open-area excavation at Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota

surveys to determine the survey the site meticulously As an excavation pro- archaeologists to examine a nature of the materials that and map it on a grid within gresses, it uncovers the past site’s general stratigraphy lie below the surface. a coordinate system. in both horizontal and verti- and are later removed to Ultimately, however, careful- Researchers then reference cal dimensions. The horizon- reveal whatever might lie ly directed digging in a site the locations of all unearthed tal dimension reveals a site within them. can reveal much more than artifacts or features to their as it was at a fixed point in Researchers use more all the nondestructive coordinates within the wider time. The vertical dimension intrusive excavation methods methods combined. site. Archaeologists note shows the sequence of when a site will be obstruct- unexcavated areas just as changes within a site over ed or destroyed by some carefully, because they may time. Excavation methods form of modern develop- DIGGING IN THE DIRT be of interest to other archae- vary according to which ment, such as a shopping ologists in the . dimension of the past an center. These “salvage” pro- To an archaeologist, the Many of the tools used in archaeologist chooses to jects force archaeologists to soil resembles a historical excavation are surprisingly study. A researcher seeking a race against time to find evi- document; the researcher familiar. Archaeologists detailed “snapshot” of a par- dence. To this end, they con- must decipher, translate, and employ common household ticular point in time would duct “reconnaissance” sur- interpret the soil before it can utensils such as ladles, likely initiate a large, open- veys (small-scale excava- help him or her understand spoons, dustpans, and brushes area excavation. This tech- tions) at random locations, the human past. But unlike a to move small amounts of nique requires archaeologists along a predetermined site document, the soil of an earth. They use flat-edged to uncover a site layer by grid, or wherever they sus- archaeological site can be shovels to remove larger vol- layer until reaching the level pect they may find archaeo- interpreted only once in the umes of soil and root cutters of the desired time period. logical evidence. state in which it is found. and small hand saws to extract Alternately, an archaeologist Researchers gather two The very process of excava- grounded tree roots. However, seeking to understand the very different sets of infor- tion destroys a site forever, no single tool is more synony- progression of time at a site mation during the course of making such an investigation mous with archaeology than would probably employ a any excavation. They can a costly experiment that the small mason’s trowel. The grid excavation. Under this examine tangible findings, cannot be repeated. sturdy, welded body and method, workers dig evenly such as artifacts and the Accordingly, archaeolo- tough, steel blade of this tool spaced square holes, leaving remains of plants, animals, gists conduct excavations make it ideally suited for baulks (wall-like unexcavat- and humans, well after an with great care. Before an gingerly removing successive ed areas) between the excavation has ended. excavation begins, they layers of soil. squares. Baulks allow However, excavation

4 Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 An example of ter- Ground level An example of Ground level minus post quem. Layer A terminus ante Layer A The 1885 coin in quem. Layer C Layer E establish- is an undisrupt- es that Layer E Layer B ed tile floor of Layer B dates from on or the 1860s. It fol- Bottle cap after 1885. It fol- lows that Layers Layer C 1860s tile floor lows that the pot- D, E, and F date Layer C Layer D tery fragment in before the Scattered Layer D and the 1860s. glass fragments bottle cap in Layer D Layer E Layer B likely Pottery Charcoal date from or after fragment 1885 as well. Layer F Layer E Scattered masonry 1885 coin Figure 2 Figure 3

destroys contextual features, in, first out”— meaning that (carbon 14) that decays at a and other inorganic materials such as building remains, as an archaeologist usually known and steady rate, is through typology—compar- they are uncovered. To pre- removes soil layers in the archaeologists can determine ing undated samples with serve vital information about reverse order in which they an organic object’s (if it those from associated sites these remains, archaeologists were laid down (see Figure is less than 40,000 years old) that have been dated through painstakingly catalog every 1). In relative soil dating, by measuring the amount previous excavations. nuance of a site through archaeologists follow two of carbon 14 remaining in volumes of photographs and general principles known as the object. drawings. terminus post quem and ter- Dating inorganic materials DECODING THE PAST minus ante quem. Terminus is also quite challenging, post quem refers to the because relatively few arti- After an archaeologist has INTERPRETING THE notion that a datable object facts come labeled with a date gathered, catalogued, and EVIDENCE provides only the date on or of manufacture. In fact, pot- interpreted all of the evidence, after which the layer of soil tery, the most common type he or she begins the most During and after an exca- that contains it was deposited of artifact found at archaeo- important reporting task of all: vation, an archaeologist con- (see Figure 2). In contrast, logical sites, seldom contains putting a human face on the fronts a bewildering collec- terminus ante quem refers to obvious indications of its age. past. A final archaeological tion of artifacts, drawings, the concept that all the soil Archaeologists sometimes use report often reflects years of and photographs to decipher below a solid, undisturbed thermoluminescence dating to cooperative work among and relate to one another. layer dates before that layer establish the age of pottery. experts from disciplines as Using both relative and (see Figure 3). This technique is similar to diverse as history, medicine, absolute dating methods, an Relative dating of a site’s carbon 14 dating in that, like anthropology, chemistry, archaeologist can often place stratigraphy often depends on organic substances, pottery , and biology. a site within a larger chrono- the absolute dating of exca- contains small amounts of Through the tireless work logical framework. vated materials and artifacts. radioactive elements that of these experts, the distant In relative dating, archae- One of the most widely used decay at known and steady past again resonates with the ologists interpret artifacts methods of determining the rates. An archaeologist can sound of human voices. based on their positions with- absolute date of organic determine the age of a pottery Across the millennia, the in the stratigraphy (horizon- materials is radiocarbon (car- fragment by measuring the fragments of human experi- tal layering) of the soil. The bon 14) dating. Because all remaining amount of radioac- ence remind us that those study of stratigraphy follows living organisms contain a tive elements that it contains. who have come before were the excavation axiom “last radioactive form of carbon Another way of dating pottery every bit as human as we are.

Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 5 LESSON PLAN Step 1

ARCHAEOLOGICAL the story of each site. Place THINKING each site’s artifacts in a sepa- rately numbered bag (num- Objectives bered 1 through 4 or 5). ■ Identify “artifacts” from a 2. At the beginning of the contemporary setting. next class, discuss the differ- ■ Describe the function of ence between historians and each artifact. archaeologists by asking ■ Interpret possible associa- your students how we know tions between artifacts. that an happened in the past. Answers may vary, but Materials students will probably con- ■ Four or five small paper or clude that information about plastic bags. the past event was recorded Artifacts are uncovered by the careful removal of surrounding ■ Artifacts (nontoxic refuse in some form. You may wish soil with brushes and trowels. (Medicine Creek Reservoir, from the school building). to have your students suggest Nebraska) ■ Copies of Worksheet 1, various methods of docu- page 7. menting past events (e.g., 3. Using the Introduction object is made of and how it ■ Pens or pencils. oral , written as a guide, tell your students may have been used. (Tell records, video and audio that they will be learning students to put this informa- Subjects recordings, and digital data) how archaeologists use phys- tion on their worksheets.) Social studies, science, and have them evaluate how ical evidence in the form of Students may find some language arts each method differs from the artifacts (human-made objects easier to identify than objects) to learn about the others. Walk among the Procedure others. Tell your students that past. Tell them to imagine groups and provide hints as 1. Choose four or five historians use all of these that an archaeological expe- necessary. After the students areas in your school with recorded sources to under- dition at your school has have identified the objects, which students are familiar stand the past. (Be sure to recently uncovered a number ask them to speculate where (e.g., your classroom, the note that not all societies of artifacts that the class these objects may have been cafeteria, and the library). have kept records and that must now examine and inter- found. (Tell students to put Observe each location, not- records can often be incom- pret. Stress that the students this information on their ing what students commonly plete or biased.) Next, ask were picked for this job worksheets.) do there (e.g., study, eat, and your students how they might because they were the fore- 5. Conclude the activity socialize). After school learn about a past event if most experts on the archaeo- by having a representative or when the areas are clear of they could not read about it logical sites. from each group explain its students, examine the trash or view it on videotape. 4. Divide your class into interpretation of the objects. and recycle bins and the Some students may find this four or five groups of equal Provide explanations of the floors for evidence of those question difficult. Ask them size. Give each student a objects and their contexts as student activities. Select arti- to think about the work of an copy of Worksheet 1 and necessary. Emphasize that facts (e.g., portions of candy archaeologist—what does provide each group with one archaeologists are often chal- wrappers, plastic from pen this type of researcher look of the numbered bags of arti- lenged with interpreting arti- caps, and portions of student for? Students should con- facts. Direct your students to facts that they cannot imme- papers) that can help to tell clude that an archaeologist seeks physical evidence open the bags and carefully diately identify or date. (clues) of the past. examine each object. Ask them to consider what each

6 Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 WORKSHEET 1 Group number Archaeological Thinking Artifact bag number

Directions: Use this worksheet to record your observations of the artifacts provided by your teacher.

Object Material it is made of What it was used for (function)

Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 7 LESSON PLAN Step 2

LAYERS OF THE PAST Emphasize that soil forms down last. Students should Be sure to emphasize that the from the gradual decay of conclude that the textbook on coin provides a reference Objectives organic matter over time. A the bottom of the stack was time from which to determine ■ Identify methods given soil’s layering is deter- laid down first while the text- when the remainder of the archaeologists use to mined by the nature of the book on the top was laid books were laid down .) relatively date soil layers. decaying organic matter down last. Tell your students Conclude your coverage of ■ Interpret soil profiles. (e.g., leaves and logs); that they just learned one of Rule 2 by having students weather conditions; and the the most important rules of complete the questions for Materials action of humans, animals, an archaeological excavation: Diagram B on the worksheet. ■ Copies of Worksheet 2, and insects. The first layer of soil laid 5. Ask a student volunteer page 9. 2. Explain to your stu- down is usually the last one to read Rule 3 aloud to the ■ Five textbooks. dents that they will be learn- to come out. class. Instruct the volunteer ■ One notebook. ing some of the basic rules 4. Give each student a to remove the top two text- ■ Paper labels. archaeologists use to inter- copy of Worksheet 2. Tell books from the stack and ■ Adhesive tape. pret the soil of a site. Ask a your students that they will place a notebook on top of ■ Pens, pencils, and student volunteer to place a now be learning how archae- the three remaining stacked markers. textbook on your desk (or ologists can date soil layers books. Have the volunteer ■ One coin. any other flat surface visible using the artifacts and fea- write the current time on a to the entire class). Have the tures they unearth. Ask a stu- slip of paper and attach it to Subjects volunteer write the current dent volunteer to read Rule 2 or insert it in the notebook as Social studies, science, time on a slip of paper large (from Worksheet 2) aloud to was done in lesson step 2. language arts enough to be seen by the the class. Instruct the volun- Ask the class to relatively class. Instruct the volunteer teer to unstack the textbooks date the layers of books Procedure to attach the paper to the and remove the attached slips below the notebook. 1. Using the Introduction textbook using adhesive tape. of paper. Have the volunteer Conclude the activity by as a guide, tell your students (If you are using books stack two books on top of having students complete that archaeologists often whose covers damage easily, each other. Provide another the questions for Diagram C study the soil of a site to you may wish to have the student volunteer with a coin, on the worksheet. learn about the past. Ask volunteer place the paper and tell the class to imagine your students if they have between two pages of the that the coin has just been ever dug into the soil (e.g., book, sticking out slightly so minted. Ask the volunteer to when putting in a garden or as to be visible.) record the current time on Answer key to questions digging a fence post). What 3. Select four other stu- the chalkboard. Choose for Diagram B on page 9 did they notice about the dent volunteers to repeat les- another student to place the 1. 1895 or later color and texture of the soil? son step 2. (Make sure stu- remaining three textbooks on 2. D and E Answers may vary, but stu- dents stack the textbooks on the stack and place the coin 3. A and B dents will probably conclude top of each other. At the end within the pages of one of that the color and texture of of this process there should these books. Ask the class to Answers to questions soil change with depth. be five stacked textbooks with relatively date the “layers” of for Diagram C on page 9 slips of paper taped to or books from the position of 1. Before the 1920s inserted in them.) Ask your the coin. (This exercise may 2. A and B students to determine which be difficult for some students. textbook was laid down first and which textbook was laid

8 Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 Ground level WORKSHEET 2 Layer A Present Going back into the past Layers of the Past Layer B 1950s

Layer C 1920s

Rule 1 Layer D 1890s An archaeologist digs down into the past. The Layer E top layer of soil is the 1860s newest. The bottom layer is the oldest. Diagram A

Ground level Layer A

Layer B

Layer C Questions for Diagram B 1895 coin Rule 2 1. What appears to be the When a datable artifact Layer D date of Layer C? (such as a coin) is found, the soil layer it 2. Which layers are probably was found in can be Layer E older than Layer C? dated either after or at the same date as the 3. Which layers are probably artifact. Diagram B newer than Layer C?

Ground level Layer A

Layer B

Questions for Diagram C Layer C 1920s tile floor Layer D Rule 3 1. What appears to be the When a solid, undis- general date of Layers D turbed layer (such as a Layer E and E? tile floor) is found, all the soil layers below it 2. Which layers are probably date before that layer. Diagram C newer than Layer C?

Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 9 LESSON PLAN Step 3

PUZZLE PIECES (Be sure your students under- stand that the artifact draw- Objectives ings depict only pieces of ■ Identify how archaelogists larger objects, much as use typology to interpret archaeologists might find.) artifacts. 3. After your students ■ Interpret sample artifacts. have completed the Take- Home Page, ask them what Materials they think each artifact is and ■ Copies of the the Take- what features of the field Home Page, page 11. drawings or descriptions led ■ Pens or pencils. them to their conclusions. (Explain that archaeologists Subjects use the typology to Archaeologists meticulously examine artifacts to learn more Social studies, science, describe the matching of about the past. (Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota) language arts recently uncovered artifacts with previously identified Procedure artifacts.) In some cases you 1. Ask your students to may find that students may ANSWER CLAVES PARA LAS imagine that they are expert not have identified all of the KEY: RESPUESTAS: archaeologists somewhere far artifacts correctly. Provide in the future. Tell them that the correct answers with Object 1 Objeto 1 recent excavations have explanations as necessary. Television/VCR remote Control Remoto de unearthed what appear to be 4. Conclude the activity by control Televisión-VCR several artifacts from the late telling your students that twentieth or early twenty- archaeologists often use typol- Object 2 Objeto 2 first century. So far, no one ogy to relatively date artifacts Floppy disk Disquete de Computadora has been able to identify the (especially pottery fragments). function and purpose of the Stress that this is challenging Object 3 Objeto 3 artifacts. The field drawings work that requires years of Door key Llave de una Puerta and artifact descriptions have specialized study. Note that been turned over to the fore- archaeologists often only have Object 4 Objeto 4 most experts (your students) fragments of artifacts to com- Fragment of a fork Pedazo de un Tenedor for examination. pare with other fragments, 2. Give each student a which may be thousands of Object 5 Objeto 5 copy of the Take-Home Page. years old. Base of a light bulb Base de un Bombillo Tell them that they will need to examine their collection of Object 6 Objeto 6 artifacts (at home, school, or Portion of a cassette tape Parte de un cassette a friend’s house) to deter- mine any similarities Object 7 Objeto 7 between their artifacts and Modular telephone plug Enchufe de un Teléfono those in the field drawings. Object 8 Objeto 8 Prong to an electrical cord Punta de un Cable Eléctrico

10 Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 To the teacher Publication of Art to Zoo is TAKE-HOME PAGE ■ Duplicate this page made possible through the for students. generous support of the Puzzle Pieces ■ Use with Lesson Plan Pacific Mutual Foundation. Step 3.

Directions: Imagine you are an archaeologist in the future. Because you are an expert on objects from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, you have been asked to identify several artifacts found in a recent exca- vation. Compare the sketch of each object to examples you have in your own “collections” at home or at school.

Object Description What is it?

Object 1 Fragment of black plastic object with two rubber buttons. The writing below the buttons is difficult to read. The letters “FW” and “RW” are visible under two of the buttons.

Object 2 Fragment of gray plastic and shiny metal. Square in shape with movable metal piece near bottom. Portion of a circular metal piece at the top of the object.

Object 3 Fragment of highly polished, silvery metal. Several different notches along the top edge. Deep groove in side of object.

Object 4 Metal object with two long prongs. The prongs have sharp points.

Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 11 TAKE-HOME PAGE Puzzle Pieces Continued from page 11

Object Description What is it?

Object 5 Intact rounded object with grooves and black ceramic case. Glass fragments attached to object. Glass fragments may have been part of a larger glass globe.

Object 6 Plastic spool with a long, thin, brown plastic strip wound around it. The spool has six notches and a groove to attach it to the end of the plastic strip.

Object 7 Small, square, clear plastic object. Bendable plas- tic strip attached to object at one end. Gray cable with four colored wires (yellow, black, green, and red) attached to other end of object. Wires visible as they lead into the square, clear plastic.

Object 8 Small, shiny, metal object with round hole in the side of one end. Two of these objects were located near each other.

12 Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 Al Profesor Esta publicación ha sido TRABAJO PARA HACER ■ Copie esta página para posible gracias al generoso los alumnos. aporte de la Pacific EN FAMILIA ■ Usela con el tercer paso Mutual Foundation. Piezas del Rompecabeza del plan de la lección.

Instrucciones: Imagínese que Ud. es un arqueólogo en el futuro. Como Ud. es un experto en objetos de finales del siglo veinte y principios del ventiuno, se le ha pedido que identifique varios artefactos hallados en una reciente excavación. Compare los dibujos de cada objeto con las muestras que Ud. tiene en su propia “colec- ción” en su casa y escuela.

Objeto Descripción Que es?

Objeto 1 Fragmento de un objeto negro en forma de caja con dos botones de plástico. Aunque es difícil leer lo que está escrito debajo de los botones, las letras “FW” y “RW” son legibles.

Objeto 2 Fragmento de plástico gris. Tiene la forma de un cuadrado con una pieza movible en la parte de arriba. La pieza movible es de metal y tiene una ranura.

Objeto 3 Fragmento de metal brillante. En la parte superior tiene varias protuberancias aserradas. Una ranura profunda se encuentra al costado del objeto.

Objeto 4 Objeto de metal con dos largas protuberancias. Las protuberancias son puntiagudas.

Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 13 TRABAJO PARA HACER EN FAMILIA Piezas del Rompecabeza Continua en la pagina 13

Objeto Descripción Que es?

Objeto 5 Objeto redondo con ranuras y una base de cerámi- ca negra. Fragmentos de vidrio están adheridos a la base. Los pedazos de vidrio parecen haber sido parte de un globo de cristal aun mayor.

Objeto 6 Carrete plástico con una cintilla larga y delgada de color café que lo envuelve. El carrete tiene seis lados y una ranura que sostiene la cintilla plástica en su sitio.

Objeto 7 Pequeño objeto rectangular de plástico transpar- ente. Una banda de plástico flexible sobresale por uno de los extremos. En el otro extremo hay un cable gris que contiene cuatro cables mas pequeños (de color amarillo, negro, verde, y rojo). Hay cables visibles a traves del rectángulo plástico transparente.

Objeto 8 Pequeño objeto de metal brillante con un hueco en la parte de arriba. Dos de estos objetos fueron encontrados uno cerca del otro.

14 Art to Zoo Decoding the Past: The Work of Archaeologists November/December 1995 RESOURCES

BOOKS, PERIODICALS, AND McIntosh, Jane. The Practical Complete issues of the National PHOTOGRAPHS TEACHING GUIDES Archaeologist: How We Know of Natural History pub- What We Know about the Past. lication AnthroNotes can be Smithsonian Institution, AnthroNotes, a National New York: Facts on File, 1986. found at the Smithsonian Office National Anthropological Museum of Natural History of Elementary and Secondary Archives (River Basin Survey Bulletin for Teachers is Pickering, Robert B. I Can Be Education’s FTP server at Project, 1946Ð1968) published free of charge three An Archaeologist. Chicago: ftp://educate.si.edu. Once a (fall, winter, and Children’s Press, 1987. you’re logged onto the server, spring). To be added to the follow the path pub/ ART TO ZOO mailing list, write to P. Ann Renfrew, Colin. Archaeology: publications_for_teachers/ Kaupp, Anthropology Outreach Theories, Methods, and anthronotes. Art to Zoo is a publication of and Public Information Office, Practice. New York: Thames the Office of Elementary Department of Anthropology, and Hudson, 1991. Note: Due to the rapidly evolv- and Secondary Education, NHB 363, MRC 112, ing nature of the Internet, it is Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Institution, possible that some of the URLs Washington, D.C. 20560. Washington, D.C. 20560. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES (uniform resource locators) above may have changed since Writer Avi-Yonah, Michael. Dig This!: A helpful site for teachers inter- publication. Alan Smigielski How Archaeologists Uncover ested in exploring archaeologi- Our Past. Minneapolis: cal resources on the Internet is Editor Runestone Press, 1993. the University of Connecticut’s ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Douglas Casey ArchNet web site at http:// Barker, Philip. Techniques of spirit.lib.uconn.edu/ArchNet/ Cathy Creek Translator Archaeological Excavation. New ArchNet.html. The site includes Smithsonian Institution Myrian M. Padayachee York: Universe Books, 1977. educational resources and infor- National Anthropological mation on current archaeological Archives Design & Illustrations Everything We Know about projects. Karlic Design Associates, LLC Archaeology for You to Use in James Krakker Baltimore, Maryland Your Classroom, a National Park Teachers or others interested National Museum of Service publication for teachers, in pursuing archaeological Natural History Publications Director is available upon request. Send fieldwork should visit the Michelle Knovic Smith your name and address on Archaeological Fieldwork J. Daniel Rogers school stationery to U.S. Server at http://durendal.cit. National Museum of Department of the Interior, cornell.edu/TestPit.html. Natural History ART TO ZOO ONLINE National Park Service, Included at the site are listings Archaeological Assistance for volunteers, paid workers, John Steiner This publication is available Program, P.O. Box 37127, field schools, and contract jobs. Smithsonian Institution electronically through the Washington, D.C. 20013Ð7127. Office of Printing and Internet via anonymous ftp to: A fascinating account of the Photographic Services educate.si.edu. Follow the path: Macaulay, David. Motel of the recent discovery of numerous pub/publications_for_ Mysteries. Boston: Houghton Paleolithic (17,000Ð20,000 years Vyrtis Thomas teachers/art-to-zoo. Recent Mifflin, 1979. ago) cave paintings in southern Smithsonian Institution issues and supplementary mate- France can be found at National Anthropological rials are offered in hypertext for- McHargue, Georgess, and http://www.culture.fr/culture/ Archives mat via the World Wide Web at: Michael Roberts. A Field Guide gvpda-en.htm. http://educate.si.edu/art-to- to Conservation Archaeology in Gus Van Beek zoo/azindex.htm. Current and North America. New York: J. B. Information on current trends in National Museum of back issues (starting with spring Lippincott Company, 1977. the archaeological profession Natural History 1993) are also available through can be found in The Society for America Online (keyword American Archaeology Bulletin, Smithsonian). available at http://www.sscf. ucsb.edu/SAABulletin/. SUBSCRIBE TO THE NEW Art to Zoo

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