Supporting Glossary of Terms
Te following glossary is intended for use by teachers to inform their engagement with students on a variety of topics addressed in the Becoming US materials. Tese defnitions are gathered primarily from the Diversity Style Guide, located online at diversitystyleguide.com, and from the exhibition Many Voices, One Nation and the book of the same name, among other sources. abolition Major American reform movement that sought to end slavery in America using a wide range A of tactics and organizations. While abolitionists are commonly portrayed as white people deeply concerned about the plight of enslaved black people, many were African American. Free black people in the North also were stalwart in their dedication to the cause and provided fnancial support. activist, advocate An activist is someone who actively advocates for political or social change. Others who also push for causes, however, ofen are called advocates. Advocate is more neutral and a better choice, unless a subject describes himself or herself as an activist. affrmative action In the United States, afrmative action began under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It was a way to address discrimination based on gender and race. Other countries also have afrmative action policies. Rulings expanded the U.S. law to include disability, ethnic origin, and age. One myth is that African Americans are the chief benefciaries of afrmative action. Tat is not true. Te U.S. Department of Labor has said that white women have been the primary benefciaries of afrmative action policies. African American, African-American, Black, black People in the United States who share a lineage that can be traced directly or indirectly to Africa. Black and African American do not necessarily mean the same thing and individuals may prefer one term over the other. It’s best to ask. Some black people do not identify as African American. Tis lineage, while collective, contains a diverse array of histories, cultures, and experiences. Tis includes, but is not limited to, black, African American, Afro-Caribbean, Afro-Latino, and African immigrants living in the United States. Some people may identify themselves as African American to resist black as a socially constructed category. Others may identify this way to assert their American identity. Tere are many reasons one might identify as African American. Some people may identify as black because they do not feel connected to the American state. Others may identify as black because they do not identify with the African continent. African diaspora Black people of African descent who are scattered throughout the world; refers to black people whose ancestors were removed from the African continent through slavery and colonization, and dispersed worldwide, according to the National Association of Black Journalists Style Guide. Te African diaspora is a byproduct of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, which dispersed millions of people. Te Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database estimates that 12.5 million Africans were taken to the Americas and the Caribbean. About 1.8 million died en route. Tis forced move imposed a negative legacy. Overlaying new locations on African origins changed identities. Afro-American Archaic term to describe a black person. Popular in the 1960s and 1970s, the name was overtaken by black and later African American in the 1980s and 1990s. Do not use. alien A word used by the U.S. government to describe a foreign-born person who is not a citizen by naturalization or parentage. People who enter the United States legally are called resident aliens and they carry alien registration cards, also known as green cards because they used to be green. While Webster’s frst defnition of the term alien is in accordance with the government’s interpretation, the dictionary also includes other, darker, meanings for the word, such as “a non-terrestrial being,” “strange,” “not belonging to one,” “adverse,” and “hostile.” And Encyclopedia Britannica points out that “in early times, the tendency was to look upon the alien as an enemy and to treat him as a criminal or an outlaw.” It is not surprising then that in 1798, in anticipation of a possible war with France, the U.S. Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which restricted “aliens” and curtailed press freedoms. By 1800, the laws had been repealed or had expired but they still cast a negative shadow over the word. In modern times, with science fction growing in popularity, alien has come to mean a creature from outer space, and is considered pejorative by most immigrants. Alien Land Laws Enacted by many western states in the early 1900s, these laws prevented Asian people from owning land. Most of these laws were repealed in the late 1950s and 1960s. American Indian American Indian and Native American are both generally acceptable, although individuals may have a preference. It is usually best to refer to Native people by their specifc tribe or nation, such as Navajo, Hopi, or Cherokee. Indigenous people in the United States were frst referred to as Indians because Christopher Columbus believed he had reached the East Indies when he touched the shores of North America. Today, many Native people prefer to call themselves American Indian to avoid stereotypes associated with Indian. anchor baby, anchor child A child born to a non-citizen mother in a country that grants automatic citizenship to children born on its soil, especially if parents plan the birth to secure eventual citizenship for themselves and other members of their family. Te term is pejorative; avoid except in quotations. Angel Island Te West Coast counterpart to Ellis Island, New York. From 1910 to 1940, the U.S. Immigration Station processed hundreds of thousands of immigrants, the majority from China, at Angel Island. During World War II, Japanese and German POWs were detained at the station before being sent to facilities farther inland. Angel Island is now a state park run by the California Department of Parks and Recreation. A virtual tour of the island, produced by the Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation, is available here. Anglo/Anglo-Saxon/Anglo American [Adapted from BBC History] Te term Anglo-Saxon refers to settlers from the German regions of Angeln and Saxony, who migrated to Britain afer the fall of the Roman Empire around AD 410. In the context of the contemporary United States, Anglo American refers to people of European descent or the white race. anti-Semitism A prejudice against people of Jewish heritage. It has inspired the Holocaust, physical abuse, slander, economic and social discrimination, vandalism, and other crimes. Religious anti- Semitism is based on the idea that all Jews are eternally and collectively responsible for killing Jesus (known as deicide). It has been formally renounced by most major churches, led by the Catholic Church. Although Muslims revere Jesus as a prophet, they do not make the anti- Semitic claim against Jews because they do not believe that Jesus was crucifed. Economic and political anti-Semitism is rooted in widespread 19th- and 20th-century claims that Jews were engaged in a plot to rule the world. Arab Refers to nation or people from an Arabic-speaking country. Not synonymous with Muslim. When referring to events in a specifc country, name the country, rather than generalizing Arab. Arab is a noun for a person and it can be used as an adjective, as in Arab country. Do not imply that Arab equals Muslim, holy war, or terrorist. Note: Iran is not an Arab country. Te majority of Iranian people are Persian and the language is Farsi. Arab American, American Arab A U.S. citizen or permanent resident who traces his or her ancestry to, or who immigrated from, Arabic-speaking places in the Middle East (southwestern Asia and northern Africa). Not all people who live in this region are Arabs. Te U.S. government does not classify Arabs as a minority group for the purposes of employment and housing. Arab American is preferred over American Arab. Aryan Derived from the Sanskrit “arya,” or “noble.” In scholarly usage, a member of a people speaking one of a family of Indo-European languages, the presumed predecessor of much later languages spoken in Europe and the Indian subcontinent. In the late 19th century, the term became part of the anti-Semitic ideology that led to Nazism. In the modern usage of white supremacists, an Aryan is a non-Jewish white person. Asian Caution. A term as broad as European. In some usage, chiefy British, Asian refers to Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and others. In the United States, such ethnic groups would be known as South Asians, while Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese and others would be known as East Asians. Asian Exclusion Acts Laws in which Congress barred or sharply restricted the immigration of Asians to the United States. Te Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 barred Chinese laborers and prohibited Chinese from applying for citizenship; it was repealed in 1943. Te 1924 Oriental Exclusion Act banned immigration from Asia. Only afer 1965, with immigration laws designed to encourage European immigration, did Asian immigration also expand. Asian, U.S. Census defnition of Te U.S. Census Bureau defnes Asian as “a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Tailand, and Vietnam.” Native Hawaiian or Other Pacifc Islander refers to: “a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacifc Islands.” Te Census Bureau notes: “Te racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally refect a social defnition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to defne race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups.” Asiatic Avoid. A vestige of European colonialism and imperialism. A 19th-century adjective used at the time in “scientifc” European treatises assuming the superiority of the white race. assimilation [Adapted from Wikipedia] Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person’s or group’s culture come to resemble those of another group. Te term is used to refer to both individuals and groups; the latter case can refer to either foreign immigrants or native residents that come to be culturally dominated by another society. Cultural assimilation may involve either a quick or gradual change depending on circumstances of the group. Full assimilation occurs when new members of a society become indistinguishable from members of the other group. Whether or not it is desirable for an immigrant group to assimilate is ofen disputed by both members of the group and those of the dominant society. Cultural assimilation does not guarantee social alikeness though, geographical and other natural barriers between cultures, even if started by the same dominant culture, will be culturally diferent. baby boom A baby boom is any period marked by a greatly increased birth rate, but the term is most ofen B applied to the dramatic increase in births afer World War II. Balikbayan box [Adapted from Wikipedia] A balikbayan box (literally “repatriate box”) is a corrugated box containing items sent to the Philippines by overseas Filipinos (known as “balikbayans”). Te balikbayan box began appearing in the United States around the 1980s during an infux of overseas Filipino workers into the country. Te Tarif and Customs Code of the Philippines provides duty- and tax-free privileges to balikbayan boxes sent to the Philippines by overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) as recognition of the magnitude of their contribution and sacrifces in foreign lands as well as bringing of a considerable amount of foreign exchange annually that contributed to the national recovery efort at that time. bilingual/bilingualism/multilingualism [Adapted from Wikipedia] Te defnition of multilingualism is a subject of debate. On one end of a sort of linguistic continuum, one may defne multilingualism as complete competence and mastery in another language. Te speaker would presumably have complete knowledge and control over the language so as to sound native. On the opposite end of the spectrum would be people who know enough phrases to get around as a tourist using the alternate language. Furthermore, what is considered a language can change, ofen for purely political purposes. A multilingual person is someone who can communicate in more than one language, either actively (through speaking, writing, or signing) or passively (through listening, reading, or perceiving). More specifcally, the terms bilingual and trilingual are used to describe comparable situations in which two or three languages are involved. biracial Combination of two races. May be used to describe people or things. Not all biracial individuals self-identify in this manner. Do not used “mixed” as an alternative. black leader Avoid using the term. It implies that one person is the spokesperson for all black people. When referring to a local black person in a leadership position, state the organization that he or she belongs to. Black Lives Matter, #BlackLivesMatter A civil rights movement that started afer the July 2013 acquittal of George Zimmerman in the Florida shooting death of African American teen Trayvon Martin. Te Black Lives Matter movement, also written #BlackLivesMatter, was started as a Twitter hashtag by Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi as “a call to action and a response to the virulent anti-Black racism that permeates our society,” according to the Black Lives Matter website. It gained momentum in 2014 afer several other young African American men were killed by police in cities around the country. According to its website, #BlackLivesMatter does not believe black lives are more important than other lives. In fact, it says it stands with other oppressed peoples and views all lives as important. Te campaign opposes police violence against black people. While the group says all lives matter, not all lives face the same threats. According to Black Lives Matter, once black people are free from oppression, the benefts will be wide reaching and transformative to society as a whole. black Muslim Black Muslim is a term that became associated with the Nation of Islam but is now considered derogatory and should be avoided. Te preferred term is simply member of the Nation of Islam. Also, because of that association, do not use black Muslim to describe African Americans who practice traditional Islam, whose tenets difer markedly from the Nation’s. Instead, say African American Muslims. black or African American, U.S. Census defnition of Te U.S. Census Bureau defnes black or African American as “a person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa.” Te Census Bureau notes: “Te racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally refect a social defnition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to defne race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups.” boomer Describes a person who was born during the post-World War II baby boom between 1946 and 1964. Boomers and boomer generation are preferred over baby boomers, which might be perceived as condescending. As it captures an entire and diversifed generation of 76 million people, they should not be lumped together unless compared to other generations. Boricua Puerto Rico was formerly known as Borikén, a self-governed island inhabited by the Taino people. Te arrival of Spanish settlers during the 16th century decimated the Taino population and many were forced into assimilation. Te term Boricua is a derivative of Borikén and connotes pride in Puerto Rican origins. border [Adapted from Wikipedia] A geographic boundary of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities. Mostly contentious, borders may even foster the setting up of bufer zones. A diference has also been established in academic scholarship between border and frontier, the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries. borderlands [Adapted from Borderlands Toolkit by Emily Chiariello] A frontier or borderland where contentions and exchange have shaped U.S. identity today. A “border” is unique in diferent ways—physical and conceptual, national and local, personal and cultural. Te United States is the product of contact between diferent societies from the colonial period to western expansion and global immigration and migration; borders exist at each intersection. border patrol [Adapted from Wikipedia and Kettering historic issue guide] Te U.S. Border Patrol is an U.S. federal law enforcement agency. When it was created in 1924, heavy quotas were put in place by the Immigration Act of 1924, which restricted but did not completely end immigration to the United States. Te U.S. Border Patrol’s mission is to detect and prevent illegal aliens, terrorists, and terrorist weapons from entering the United States, and to prevent illegal trafcking of people and contraband. Cajun, Creole Cajun is a native of Louisiana originally descended from the Acadian French immigrants. C Creole is a person of European parentage born in the West Indies, Central America, tropical South America, or the Gulf States. Catholicism [Adapted from Wikipedia] Catholicism is a term which in its broadest sense refers to the beliefs and practices of Christian denominations that describe themselves as Catholic in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church. Te most frequent uses refer to the faith and practices of the Catholic Church, consisting of the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See of Rome. “Catholic” and “Catholicism” are also especially claimed by some other denominations, such as the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, and some Protestant denominations, notably Anglicanism, in addition to Independent Catholicism. Caucasian Caution, not a synonym for American. Term for white, or relatively light-skinned, people originally from Europe and adjacent regions of Africa and Asia. Named afer Caucasus mountain range between Russia and Georgia. Central America A tropical isthmus that connects North America to South America. Central America is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacifc Ocean to the west. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. Chican@ Tis post-internet construction simplifes “Chicano/Chicana” or “Chicano and/or Chicana.” Some academic studies departments have put this in their names. According to the University of Wisconsin at Madison Department of Chican@ and Latin@ Studies, “Te @ ending (‘a’ at the center of ‘o’) ofers a simultaneous presentation of both the feminine and masculine word endings of Chicana, Chicano, Latina, and Latino and allows the reader/speaker to choose the form she or he prefers.” Chicana, Chicano People of Mexican descent; Chicano refers to men and Chicana to women. Te terms were originally considered derogatory. However the Chicano movement during the 1960s adopted these names in response to discrimination against Mexican Americans working under unfair labor and social conditions. Tese terms announce pride in indigenous ancestry, which was a signifcant ideological element of the Chicano movement. Chinaman Avoid. A slur, ofen applied to anyone of Asian heritage. A term from 19th-century America, specifcally for Chinese workers who worked for small wages building the transcontinental railroad. “Chinaman’s chance’’ means no chance at all, and implies injury or death. Chinese laundries Caution. Can be racially charged. Legend has it that the frst Chinese laundry was opened in 1851 in California by a failed Chinese miner. Inexpensive to open and posing no competition to white-owned businesses, Chinese hand laundries proliferated, peaking in 1940, with more than 5,000 laundries in New York City alone. In California, Chinese were once permitted to own only restaurants and laundries. Te Chinese laundry declined sharply with the introduction of coin-operated laundromats. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Te Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has asked not to be referred to as the Mormon Church and objects to its adherents being referred to as Mormons. In the frst reference, the full name of the Church is preferred. When a shortened reference is needed, the terms “the Church” or the “Church of Jesus Christ” are encouraged. When referring to Church members, the terms “members of Te Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints” or “Latter-day Saints” are preferred. Te church was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith. Smith said he was directed to a set of golden plates that contained a record of ancient inhabitants of the Americas who had migrated from Jerusalem. Smith said he translated this record with divine help and published it as the Book of Mormon. Te book tells of a visit by the resurrected Jesus to these inhabitants in the Western Hemisphere, which is why its subtitle reads “Another Testament of Jesus Christ.” Mormons believe that Smith had a vision of God and Jesus Christ and that the church he founded is the restoration of true Christianity. In the 19th century, Mormons were persecuted for their beliefs and eventually fed to Utah, where they could practice their faith in peace. Cinco de Mayo Cinco de Mayo, which means May 5, is a Mexican holiday recalling victory over France in the 1862 Battle of Puebla, which occurred during the Franco-Mexican War. Cinco de Mayo festivities include parades, street festivals, mariachi music, and special foods in both Mexico and the United States. In the United States, Cinco de Mayo is considered a celebration of Mexican culture. Cinco de Mayo is not equivalent to the Fourth of July. Mexico celebrates its independence from Spain on Sept. 16. citizenship Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specifc rights, duties, and benefts. Citizenship is understood as a “right to have rights” since it serves as a foundation for a bundle of subsequent rights, such as the right to live and work in the United States and to receive federal assistance. Tere are two primary sources of citizenship: birthright citizenship, in which a person is presumed to be a citizen provided that they are born within the territorial limits of the United States, or other circumstances existing at the time of their birth (for example, citizenship of a parent), and naturalization, a process in which an immigrant applies for citizenship and is accepted. Tese two pathways to citizenship are specifed in the Citizenship Clause of the Constitution’s 1868 Fourteenth Amendment. National citizenship signifes membership in the country as a whole; state citizenship, in contrast, signifes a relation between a person and a particular state and has application generally limited to domestic matters. U.S. law permits multiple citizenship. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U.S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, though they must renounce allegiance to the other country. A U.S. citizen retains U.S. citizenship when becoming the citizen of another country, should that country’s laws allow it. civil rights movement, Civil Rights Act Ofen used to describe the struggles of black Americans between 1945 and 1970 to end discrimination and racial segregation. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to guarantee basic civil rights for all Americans, regardless of race, afer nearly a decade of nonviolent protests and marches, ranging from the 1955–1956 Montgomery bus boycott, to the student-led sit-ins of the 1960s, to the March on Washington in 1963. civil union Legal status that provides same-sex couples some rights available to married couples in areas such as state taxes, medical decisions, and estate planning. Civil unions have been recognized by some states but not the U.S. government. classism Prejudiced thoughts and discriminatory actions based on diference in socioeconomic status, income, or class, usually by upper classes against people of lower socioeconomic status. code switching Changing the way one speaks depending on the situation at hand. Within the black community, some people speak diferently with their friends than they do with their family. Some African Americans may use Standard English at work and the vernacular in familiar black spaces. When black people code switch, they are adjusting their speaking style to ft into a social context and to accommodate the speakers in that space. Code switching is a learned skill. It does not happen automatically. Youth from families where African American English is the dominant language will enter school speaking African American English. By the same token, youth from families where Standard English is the dominant language will enter school speaking Standard English. For either group, to master code switching requires dedicated, well-trained teachers and long-term experience and exposure to linguistic varieties other than the home language. colonialism Te European Age of Exploration that began in the 16th century led, for good and ill, to the subjugation of less technologically advanced peoples as European colonies. One consequence of World War II was the rapid shedding of empire in the late 1940s, climaxing globally in the 1960s. colored An archaic term for black. In some African countries, colored denotes those of mixed racial ancestry. Do not use unless referring to ofcial names or historical events, or in quotes. colorism Colorism occurs when someone with lighter skin is favored over someone with darker skin. Colorism occurs within all races, as all have varieties of skin tone and hair color. Although no longer common, the “brown paper bag test” was an example of this among African Americans. With that test, some lighter-skinned or “high yellow” African Americans would exclude people if their skin was darker than a brown paper bag. community By defnition, community implies a shared like-mindedness. Avoid such phrases as “the Korean community.” In any group there is a diversity of opinion. Also, while many ethnic groups identify with the majority culture and faith of their home countries, some do not. cultural misappropriation Cultural appropriation occurs in TV and movies, music, cartoons, Halloween costumes, and language. It is when people use another group’s cultural elements or artifacts in ways that can ridicule or be negative. Some see appropriation as an assault on culture. Cultural collaboration can lead to respectful sharing and fusion. D DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) DACA stands for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. Tis program provides temporary relief from deportation and employment authorization for individuals who would be eligible for the DREAM Act were it to become law. In 2012 DACA was created under President Barack Obama’s executive authority to grant certain classes of people “deferred action” on their immigration cases. developed countries, developed world Terms that describe nations of the world that are considered more economically and technologically advanced. Te terms developed countries and developed world are generally considered to be more current and accurate than frst world. dialect Language forms, particularly oddities of pronunciation and syntax, that are peculiar to a region or a group. Avoid using dialect if it renders the speaker as ignorant or makes the person a subject of ridicule, even in quoted material. Rarely, use of dialect may be approved as bringing a sense of atmosphere that could not otherwise be achieved. If dialect is to be used, words are spelled phonetically and apostrophes indicate missing sounds. Be accurate and avoid exaggeration. diaspora Diaspora means “to scatter” in Greek, and the term is commonly used “to describe a community of people who live outside their shared country of origin or ancestry but maintain active connections with it,” according to the International Diaspora Engagement Alliance. “A diaspora includes both emigrants and their descendants. While some people lose their attachment to their ancestral homeland, others maintain a strong connection to a place that their ancestors may have lef generations ago. Many Americans come from mixed heritage and therefore can claim membership in multiple diaspora communities.” Te term is commonly used to describe the African diaspora or black diaspora, the Jewish diaspora (the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites, and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland in the Land of Israel), and the Indian diaspora, the migration of people from India. Diasporas are ofen linked to an historic event, such as the expulsion of Jews from Judea, the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, the Irish Famine, etc. DREAM Act Te DREAM Act stands for Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors. It is was frst introduced in the U.S. Senate in 2001 to provide legal residency to undocumented youth who meet several criteria. Tose include arriving in the United States as a minor, completing a high school diploma and completing two years in the military or at a four-year institution of higher learning. Supporters say the DREAM Act would help people and beneft the country economically. Opponents say it rewards people for breaking the law and encourages illegal immigration. Te DREAM Act remains a proposal and was never passed. E English-only movement An efort to make English the ofcial language of the United States. About half the states have adopted English-only laws. Opponents say such laws are unnecessary, divisive, and even racist. enslaved (person) An enslaved person is a human being who has been classed as property and forced to work for nothing. Tis language is ofen used instead of the word slave, to refer to the person and their experiences and to avoid the use of dehumanizing language. ethnic group A group of people who self-identify with one another because of geographical, linguistic, cultural, religious, and other ties. In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was common to refer to ethnic groups as races, e.g. the Hungarian race. ethnicity, mention of A person’s ethnicity should not be mentioned unless relevant. Tis also applies to references to sexual orientation and religion. Avoid stereotypes. Executive Order 9066 A war measure following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Signed February 19, 1942, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it led to the incarceration in camps of about 120,000 people of Japanese heritage, two-thirds of whom were U.S. citizens. A divided cabinet recommended the measure to Roosevelt, despite an afrmation by the Ofce of Naval Intelligence of the loyalty of Japanese Americans. Te order was designed to combat sabotage, but Americans of German and Italian heritage were largely exempt. Nazi Germany, fascist Italy, and imperial Japan formed the Axis. Te United States Supreme Court repeatedly afrmed the constitutionality of the order, but in 1983 Congress called it “a grave injustice.” exotic Avoid. When describing women of Asian and Pacifc Islander heritage, it ofen implies a departure from a white norm. Swedes, for example, are not described in the United States as exotic. Filipino/Pilipino Refers to an inhabitant of the Philippines, the former Spanish possession and American colony. Te term also refers to the ofcial language of the Philippines. Filipino American refers to those who share its heritage and culture. Some Filipino Americans, ofen younger, prefer Pilipino because Tagalog, the leading dialect of the Philippines, lacks an “F” sound. First Nations First Nations is a term used to describe Aboriginal peoples of Canada who are ethnically neither Métis nor Inuit, according to a list of terms compiled by the First Nations and Indigenous Studies Program at the University of British Columbia. Tis term came into common usage in the 1970s and 1980s and generally replaced the term Indian, although unlike Indian, the term First Nations does not have a legal defnition. First World Outdated term that refers to the developed, capitalist, industrial countries with more or less common political and economic interests in North America, Western Europe, Japan, and Australia. Te term was frst coined in the 1940s and was used during the Cold War, with G the Second World referring to the communist countries of China and the Soviet bloc. Tird World referred to the less developed countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. With the end of the Cold War, globalization, and changing geopolitics, the “Tree World” model is no longer relevant. Instead, some use developed world countries and developing world countries. gender fuidity Gender fuidity conveys a wider, more fexible range of gender expression, with interests and behaviors that may even change from day to day. Gender-fuid children do not feel confned by restrictive boundaries of stereotypical expectations of girls or boys. In other words, a child may feel they are a girl some days and a boy on others, or possibly feel that neither term describes them accurately. It is best to ask people who are gender fuid which pronouns they prefer. gender identity One’s internal, deeply held sense of one’s gender. For transgender people, their own internal gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. Most people have a gender identity of man or woman (or boy or girl). For some people, their gender identity does not ft neatly into one of those two choices. Unlike gender expression, gender identity is not visible to others. Gender Identity Disorder Outdated, avoid. gender nonconforming A term used to describe some people whose gender expression is diferent from conventional expectations of masculinity and femininity. Please note that not all gender non-conforming people identify as transgender; nor are all transgender people gender non-conforming. Many people have gender expressions that are not entirely conventional—that fact alone does not make them transgender. Many transgender men and women have gender expressions that are conventionally masculine or feminine. Simply being transgender does not make someone gender non-conforming. Te term is not a synonym for transgender or transsexual and should only be used if someone self-identifes as gender non-conforming. It is best to ask gender non-conforming people which pronouns they prefer. gender normative Refers to people whose sex assignment at birth corresponds to their gender identity and expression. gender role Tis is the set of activities, expectations, and behaviors assigned to females and males by society. Our culture recognizes two basic gender roles: masculine (having the qualities attributed to males) and feminine (having the qualities attributed to females). People who step out of their socially assigned gender roles are sometimes referred to as transgender. Other cultures have three or more gender roles. genocide Te deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic, religious, linguistic, racial, or cultural group or nation. Some examples of genocide include the Armenian Genocide, the Assyrian Genocide, the Greek Genocide, the Holocaust, the 1971 Bangladesh Genocide, the Cambodian Genocide, the Kurdish Genocide, the Bosnian Genocide, and the Rwandan Genocide. ghetto Term used as a synonym for sections of cities inhabited by poor people or minorities. Avoid this description because of its negative connotation. Ofen the name of the neighborhood is the best choice. Section, district, or quarter may also be used. Urban is also acceptable. Great Migration, the Tis was a post-Reconstruction move within the United States from the South to the North. From about 1916 to 1970, some 6 million African Americans moved out of the rural South to cities in the Northeast, Midwest, and West. People fed lynchings and other forms of violence and segregation. Tey sought opportunity. Afer moving, they faced some of the same issues and met new forms of segregation in housing, education, employment, and more. green card A United States Permanent Resident Card. Actually pink, this identifcation card allows an immigrant to reside and live permanently in the United States. Green-card holders are also able to work in the United States, to travel, and to receive some government benefts. A green card holder is not a U.S. citizen but can live in the United States permanently. Gullah Creole blend of Elizabethan English and African languages, born of necessity on Africa’s slave coast and developed in slave communities of isolated plantations of the coastal South. Even afer the Sea Islands were freed in 1861, the Gullah speech fourished because of the islands’ separation from the mainland. Access to the islands was by water until the 1950s. Gypsy, gypsy, gipsy A word used to indicate Romani (also spelled Romany) or Roma people, a traditionally itinerant ethnic group that lives in Europe and has branches in the Americas, Asia, and North Africa. Te word Gypsy (sometimes capitalized as a proper noun when referring to the ethnic H group and sometimes spelled Gipsy) has negative connotations and many Romani people see it as a racial slur. In general, it’s best to use Romani or Roma people when referring to the ethnic group unless people self-identify as Gypsies. Te term gyp, which means to cheat or swindle, likely comes from Gypsy and is seen as a negative stereotype of Roma as swindlers and thieves. Hanukkah Te Jewish Festival of Lights. It usually falls in early or mid-December. Te eight-day holiday celebrates the Maccabees’ victory over the Syrians in the second century B.C. Te Maccabees were a frst- and second-century B.C. Jewish family that brought about the restoration of Jewish religious and political life. Tey also made several unsuccessful attempts to overthrow Roman rule in Judea. Hanukkah is the preferred spelling. Hapa Once considered derogatory, hapa comes from the Hawaiian phrase hapa haole (pronounced “hah-puh how-lee”) meaning “half white/foreigner.” It now describes anyone whose heritage is white plus another racial or ethnic group, but especially Asians and Pacifc Islanders. Te term is now considered by many to be one of positive self-identifcation. Hart-Celler Act Striving for the ideals of civil equality and equal opportunity, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act) instituted new policies to reunite immigrant families and attract skilled labor, abolishing the old quota system of the National Origins Act of 1924. Tis new law changed the face of America in unexpected ways. Immigration from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East increased, more professionals lef their homelands for careers in the United States, and new restrictions were placed on the countries of the Western Hemisphere, including Mexico. Hawaiian Caution. An ethnic group. Refers to a person of Polynesian descent. Unlike a term like Californian, Hawaiian should not be used for everyone living in Hawaii. Te distinction is not trivial. If Wales were the 51st state, not everyone living in Wales would be Welsh. Hispanic An umbrella term referring to a person whose ethnic origin is in a Spanish-speaking country, as well as residents or citizens of the United States with Latin American ancestry, except for those from Brazil, which is not a Spanish-speaking country. Federal policy defnes “Hispanic” not as a race, but as an ethnicity; it notes that Hispanics can be of any race. Te term Hispanic is more commonly used in the Eastern United States and is generally favored by those of Caribbean and South American ancestry or origin. Hispanic paradox Te Hispanic paradox refers to studies showing that although Hispanic communities in the United States tend to have a higher risk factor for illnesses, they tend to have a longer life expectancy than non-Hispanics with the same health problems. Several studies have attributed this to family cohesion. Hispaniola Te large Caribbean island where Christopher Columbus made his frst settlement. Te name means “Isle of Spain.” It contains two countries: Te Dominican Republic on the east, where I Columbus landed, and Haiti on the west. Hmong (also Mong or Muong) An ethnic group living in southern China, Vietnam, Laos, and Tailand. Laotian civil war in mid-1970s led to an exodus to the United States. illegal alien Avoid. Alternative terms are undocumented worker or undocumented immigrant. Te pertinent federal agencies use this term for individuals who do not have documents to show they can legally visit, work, or live here. Many fnd the term ofensive and dehumanizing because it criminalizes the person rather than the actual act of illegally entering or residing in the United States. Te term does not give an accurate description of a person’s conditional U.S. status, but rather demeans an individual by describing them as an alien. illegal immigrant Avoid. Illegal immigrant is a term used to describe the immigration status of people who do not have the federal documentation to show they are legally entitled to work, visit, or live here. People who are undocumented according to federal authorities do not have the proper visas to be in the United States legally. Many enter the country illegally, but a large number of this group initially had valid visas, but did not return to their native countries when their visas expired. Some former students fall into the latter category. Te term criminalizes the person rather than the actual act of illegally entering or residing in the United States without federal documents. Terms such as illegal alien or illegal immigrant can ofen be used pejoratively in common parlance and can pack a powerful emotional wallop for those on the receiving end. Instead, use undocumented immigrant or undocumented worker, both of which are terms that convey the same descriptive information without carrying the psychological baggage. Avoid using illegal(s) as a noun. illegal, illegals Avoid. Alternative terms are undocumented immigrant or undocumented worker. Tis term has been used to describe the immigration status of people who do not have the federal documentation to show they are legally entitled to work, visit, or live here. Te term criminalizes the person rather than the actual act of illegally entering or residing in the United States without documents. immigrant Similar to discussing a person’s race, mentioning that a person is a frst-generation immigrant could be used to provide readers or viewers with background information, but the relevance of the term should be made apparent. immigration/migration [Adapted from Wikipedia] Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. Migration is a broader term used to describe movement within a nation, or movement not tied to citizenship. Indian Country Indian Country is a legal term used in Title 18 of the U.S. Code. It broadly defnes federal and tribal jurisdiction in crimes afecting American Indians on reservations. It also has popular usage, describing reservations and areas with Native American populations. Indian, Indian American Use Indian or person from India to refer to a person with ancestral ties to India. Use Indian American to refer to a U.S. permanent resident or citizen with ancestral ties to India. Do not confuse with American Indian. Do not use to refer to indigenous peoples of the United States. Indigenous Encompasses a variety of Aboriginal groups, according to a list of terms compiled by the First Nations and Indigenous Studies Program at the University of British Columbia. It is most frequently used in an international, transnational, or global context. indigenous religion Refers to the myriad religious traditions of local and regional societies where language, kinship systems, mythologies, and rituals shape religious practices that may borrow from traditional religion but are unique to the local culture. interdenominational A congregation or organization that is formally approved or under the jurisdiction of more than one denomination. It is not a synonym for nondenominational. interfaith Refers to activities or events that draw people from entirely diferent religious traditions, such as Christians, Jews, Buddhists, and Muslims. It is not a synonym for ecumenical, which refers to a multiplicity of Christian traditions, or interdenominational. internment, Japanese During World War II, the incarceration of about 120,000 men, women, and children of Japanese ancestry, two-thirds of them U.S. citizens. Tey were ordered to sell their homes and businesses, usually at a steep discount, to whites and then move to “relocation centers.” Te last internees were released in 1946. Some advocates urge the use of “incarceration” instead of internment as a more accurate depiction. Islam Religion founded in seventh-century Mecca by the Prophet Muhammad, who said Allah (God), through the Angel Gabriel, revealed the Quran to him between 610 and 632, the year of his death. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Tey worship in a mosque, and their weekly holy day is Friday. Islam is the second-largest religion in the world, afer Christianity. Afer Muhammad’s death, Islam split into two distinct branches—Sunni and Shiite—in an argument over who would succeed him. Sunnis make up an estimated 85 percent of all Muslims. Shiites are the majority in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Bahrain, while Sunnis are the majority in other Islamic countries. In Sunni and Shiite Islam, there are various madhhabs, or schools of thought, and other theological traditions. Tere is no central religious authority, so theological and legal interpretations can vary from region to region, country to country, and even mosque to mosque. Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and lowercase otherwise. Use the title and name on frst reference and only the person’s last name afer that. Shiites and Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but difer on others. Shiites have a more defned hierarchy than Sunnis. For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams, while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to refer to any of the twelve descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh, on the other hand, is used in both communities, but can be used either as a term of respect—to address older men, for example—or for a formally trained scholar. Among Suf Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of Suf orders. Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education. A hujjat al-Islam is more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja, the most educated of whom are called ayatollahs. In addition to imam and sheikh, Sunni titles include mufi and grand mufi, which indicate a higher status usually conferred by an institution. Grand mufis are usually the top religious scholar in a country. Because the Quran is in Arabic, it is a common misconception that all Arabs are Muslim and all Muslims are Arab; neither is true. K Issei Term for Japanese immigrants originating from the Japanese language term for “frst generation.” In the American context, the term is generally understood to apply to those who migrated prior to the cessation of Japanese immigration to the United States under the dictates of the Immigration Act of 1924, the bulk arriving afer 1885. Kwanzaa A celebration of African heritage and principles. It occurs December 26 through January 1. It grew out of the Black Nationalist Movement in the mid-1960s. From the Swahili phrase “frst fruits of the harvest,” Kwanzaa celebrates seven principles, which are also identifed in the East L African language. Tey are: umoja (unity), kujichagulia (self-determination), ujima (collective responsibility), ujamaa (cooperative economics), nia (purpose), kuumba (creativity), and imani (faith). Kwanzaa also has seven symbols. Tey are fruits; vegetables or nuts; a mat; a candleholder; seven candles (three red, three green and one black); corn; gifs; and a communal cup signifying unity. Kwanzaa was intended to be independent of religion, though some families celebrate Kwanzaa with religious holidays. Latin@ Tis post-internet construction simplifes “Latino/Latina” or “Latino and/or Latina.” Some academic departments have put this in their names. According to the University of Wisconsin at Madison Department of Chican@ and Latin@ Studies, “Te @ ending (‘a’ at the center of ‘o’) ofers a simultaneous presentation of both the feminine and masculine word endings of Chicana, Chicano, Latina, and Latino and allows the reader/speaker to choose the form she or he prefers.” Latina/Latino Umbrella terms referring to residents or citizens of the United States with Latin American ancestry. Latina is the feminine form of Latino and means a woman or girl. Use Latina(s) for a woman or women; use Latino(s) for a man or men. Latino is principally used west of the Mississippi, where it has displaced Chicano and Mexican American. In 2011, the Los Angeles Times amended its style guide to advise journalists to use Latino over Hispanic in virtually all circumstances “in keeping with the practices and sensibilities of residents of our region.” Federal policy defnes “Latino” not as a race, but as an ethnicity; it notes that Latinos can be of any race. Latinx Pronounced “La-teen-ex.” An alternative to Latino or Latina that refers to people of Latin American descent who don’t necessarily identify as female or male. Tis could include people who identify as agender, nonbinary, gender non-conforming, genderqueer, and gender fuid. M LGBT/GLBT/LGBTQ/LGBTQQIA* LGBT is an abbreviation for “lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.” Te Q in LGBTQ can stand for questioning (still exploring one’s sexuality) or queer, or sometimes both (and it is sometimes written LGBTQQ). LGBTQ is best used only in quotations or for formal names of organizations or events. In recent years initials have been added to represent intersex, asexual, pansexual, and polyamorous. LGBTQIA and LGBTQQIA, sometimes with a * at the end, are increasingly being used to represent the community. Manifest Destiny An expansionist rhetoric based on the belief that the United States was predestined to become a powerful, white Protestant “Empire of Liberty” spreading democracy from the East Coast to the West. McCarran-Walter Act Ofcially known as the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, it allowed Asians to apply for citizenship but set immigration quotas from each Asian country at only 100 annually. Liberalization of this law, in 1965, allowed the frst large-scale migration of Asians into the United States in the 20th century. Mexican, Mexican American Use “Mexican” when referring to anyone of Mexican citizenship, and use “Mexican American” when referring to those of Mexican ancestry who are permanent residents or citizens of the United States. Mexican-American War [Adapted from Wikipedia] Te Mexican–American War was an armed confict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory in spite of its de facto secession in the 1836 Texas Revolution. Te 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war and specifed its major consequence: the Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México to the United States. Te United States agreed to pay $15 million compensation for the physical damage of the war. In addition, the United States assumed $3.25 million of debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico acknowledged the loss of Texas and thereafer cited the Rio Grande as its national border with the United States. midlife References to people in midlife are more inclusive than using boomer(s), a term identifying one’s birth cohort. Midlife generally identifes the years between people’s early 40s and early 60s, but precision is somewhat slippery. Be aware that middle age traditionally was considered to begin at age 35, when 70 was regarded as a typical benchmark for very old age. militant Commonly used to describe an aggressive activist working for a cause; a person eager to engage in a struggle to achieve his or her goal, or can be used to mean any individual engaged in warfare, a fght, or combat, or generally serving as a solider. A militant view sometimes constitutes an extremist position. A militant state denotes being in a physically aggressive posture supporting an ideology or cause. Should not be used in place of terrorist. Militant is deemed to be a neutral term, whereas terrorist indicates reprehensible behavior by an individual or organization regardless of the motivations. minority Caution. Not a synonym for people of color. Group or groups difering especially in race, religion, or ethnicity from the majority of a population. Collective when used as a noun. Does not refer to an individual, so avoid such phrases as: Tere are three minorities on the council. Also, women do not constitute a minority, although they may be linked with minorities in various civil-rights contexts. Avoid saying, for example, the program is designed to encourage the representation of minorities if it also encourages the representation of women. Better to say the program is designed to encourage the representation of women and minorities. A better alternative is people of color when referring to a group. mixed Sometimes used to describe a person who is biracial. Avoid the term in this context. mixed-status couple, mixed-status family Usually refers to couples or families with members who have diferent immigration status. A mixed-status family, for example, might have a father who is an undocumented immigrant, a mother who is a legal resident and a child who was born in the United States and is a citizen. Mixed-status relationship and mixed-status couple are also sometimes used by health workers to describe a sexual relationship in which one partner is HIV-positive and the other is HIV- negative, according to AIDS.gov, a website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. model minority Te belief that a particular ethnic, racial, or religious group achieves greater success than the population average. In the United States, this myth most ofen refers to Asians. Concerns are that the myth implies that some people get ahead because of the group they are in, or that group members who do not succeed are inferior. Te myth also ignores the history and ongoing experiences of discrimination these groups face and masks socioeconomic diversity within these groups. mulatto A person who has a white parent and a black parent. Avoid using the term; it is considered insensitive. Better to use biracial. Muslim, Muslims A Muslim is a follower of Muhammad and the tenets and practices of Islam. Te N word Muslim is a noun; use the adjective Islamic when referring to the Islamic faith or the Islamic world. multicultural/multiculturalism In the 1980s and 1990s the concept of “multiculturalism” emerged as a popular way to defne the complexities of social diversity. Te concept suggests that Americans are not a single people but rather they comprise a diverse set of ethnic and racial groups working and living together. nation Federally recognized tribes are considered self-governing—or sovereign nations—by Congress. Nation of Islam A religious and political organization formed in 1930 by Wallace Fard Muhammad with the stated aim of “resurrecting” the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of black people in America and the world. Its tenets difer markedly from those of traditional Islam. Followers should be referred to as members of the Nation of Islam. Te term black Muslim, once associated with the organization, is now considered derogatory and should be avoided. Native American, Native Native American, Native, and American Indian are all generally acceptable, although individuals may have a preference. It is usually best to refer to Native people by their specifc tribe or nation, such as Navajo, Hopi, or Cherokee, or to ask people which term they prefer. Native American gained traction in the 1960s for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Over time, Native American has been expanded to include all native peoples of the continental United States and some in Alaska. Native Hawaiian Known as Kanaka Maoli in Hawaiian, Native Hawaiians trace their lineage and language to Polynesians, including Tahitians, Maoris, and Samoans. Starting in 2000, the federal government recognized Native Hawaiians and Pacifc Islanders as a distinct group, including in Census counts. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacifc Islander, U.S. Census defnition of Te U.S. Census Bureau, which adheres to the 1997 Ofce of Management and Budget standards on race and ethnicity, defnes Native Hawaiian or Other Pacifc Islander as “a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacifc Islands.” Negro Use African American or black. Do not use to describe a person of African descent. Do not use Negress. Term acceptable in organization names and historical references, for example, O National Council of Negro Women or Negro National Anthem. Nisei, nisei Term for the children of Japanese immigrants, originating from the Japanese language term for “second generation.” In the American context, the term is generally understood to apply specifcally to the American-born—and thus U.S. citizen—children of Japanese immigrants who arrived prior to the cessation of Japanese immigration to the United States under the dictates of the Immigration Act of 1924. Okies A pejorative term for people from Oklahoma dating from the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, when thousands of poor people lef the state, many heading to California. older (people, adults, individuals, Americans and so on) A national survey of nearly 100 age-beat journalists found that this is the top-choice term, seen by reporters as the more neutral and fexible general descriptor for people in later life. Operation Pedro Pan Trough Operation Pedro Pan, between 1960 and 1962, over fourteen thousand children traveled from Cuba to the United States. Afer the Cuban Revolution, Cuban parents feared for their children’s futures under communism. Tey entrusted the Catholic Church, aid societies, and the U.S. State Department to connect their children with awaiting relatives and P friends. Tese groups also cared for children until the families could be reunited. Oriental Caution. Many Asian Americans liken “Oriental” to “Negro,” a term of condescension. A vestige of European imperialism, the term, at minimum, is vague. In art, it may include countries such as China and Japan, but exclude Turkey. In rugs, it may mean India and China and include Turkey. In food, it may mean China or Japan, but not India, Vietnam, or the Philippines. Pacifc Islander U.S. Census term, referring to one of eight groups: Fijian, Guamanian, Hawaiian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Samoan, Tahitian, and Tongan. people of color Te National Association of Black Journalists’ Style Guide says, “Acceptable use as a synonym for minorities. May also use to describe groups such as journalists of color or women of color.” However, some people feel uncomfortable with the idea of lumping people of diferent groups together. people-frst language Language that avoids defning a person in terms of his or her disability. In most cases, this entails placing the reference to the disability afer a reference to a person, as in a person with a disability rather than the disabled person. Te National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention ofers an easy-to- follow guide on people-frst language. Te American Speech-Language-Hearing Association acknowledges that utilizing people-frst language sometimes can result in awkward sentence structuring. As such, the organization states that “deviations from people-frst language should be allowed in cases when the only alternative is awkward sentence structure.” Use people-frst language whenever possible. post-racial A controversial term that describes a society that’s devoid of racial preference, discrimination, and prejudice. powwow Use only when referring to the title of a specifc American Indian event. Avoid if referring to a general gathering because the term evokes a stereotypical image of American Indians. Comes from the Narragansett word for shaman. It is a celebration and social gathering, honoring sacred American Indian traditions through dancing, drumming, singing, and the gathering of people. A powwow may be held to honor an individual or for a special occasion. Most commonly, it is a social event. Protestantism [Adapted from Wikipedia] Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Te term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. With more than 900 million adherents, nearly 40 percent of Christians worldwide, Protestantism is more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Eastern Orthodox Church or Roman Catholicism, lacking both structural unity and central human authority. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of denominational families: Adventism, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Lutheranism, Methodism, and Pentecostalism. Nondenominational, evangelical, charismatic, independent, and other churches are on the rise, Q and constitute a signifcant part of Protestant Christianity. Puerto Rico Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States. Spain held Puerto Rico as a colony for more than 400 years and ceded it to the United States in 1898 at the end of the Spanish-American War. It has been under U.S. rule as an unincorporated territory ever since. Puerto Ricans were made citizens in 1917, though they had not requested it. In 1952, with Congressional approval, Puerto Ricans voted to become a commonwealth. Tis did not fundamentally change the relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States. queer Traditionally a pejorative term, queer has been appropriated by some LGBT people as a self-afrming umbrella term. However, it is not universally accepted even within the LGBT community and should be avoided unless describing someone who self-identifes that way or in a direct quote. When Q is seen at the end of “LGBT,” it typically means queer and/or questioning. quincea era Pronounced “keen-see-nyair-ah.” A Hispanic celebration of a girl’s 15th birthday, signifying her transition from youth to adulthood. Tis is both a social and religious event and, like many other Hispanic traditions, emphasizes the importance of family. A quincea era typically begins with a Mass that is attended by the girl’s parents, grandparents, godparents, and family. Te Mass is followed by a reception with food, family, music, dancing, and more. In R past times, the quincea era signifed that a girl was prepared for marriage. In contemporary times, it tends to mean that a girl is ready to begin formal dating. Some families will throw a quincea era for a son. quotas A specifc or presubscribed number than must be met to reach a certain goal. A buzzword ofen used in the afrmative action debate, however, it is not synonymous with afrmative action, which is a practice, activity, or program aimed at correcting the enduring efects of discrimination and helping to diversify businesses, organizations, and schools. race A person’s race should not be mentioned unless relevant. Tis also applies to references to ethnicity, sexual orientation, and religion. Avoid stereotypes. race card, “play the race card” To say someone is “playing the race card” is to say they are injecting race into a discussion. To say someone is doing this can be an attempt to defect, diminish, or discredit race’s efects. Black feminist scholar bell hooks writes that the expression “trivializes discussions of racism, implying it’s all just a game.” She calls this a backlash against talk about race, “more ofen than not representing it as mere hysteria.” race, U.S. Census defnitions of According to its website, the U.S. Census Bureau adheres to the 1997 Ofce of Management and Budget standards on race and ethnicity, which guide the Census Bureau in classifying written responses to the race question: White – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Black or African American – A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. American Indian or Alaska Native – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal afliation or community attachment. Asian – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Tailand, and Vietnam. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacifc Islander – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacifc Islands. Te 1997 OMB standards permit the reporting of more than one race. An individual’s response to the race question is based upon self-identifcation. rainbow fag A fag of six equal horizontal stripes (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet) symbolizing the diversity of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. red A good-luck color in several cultures, including Indian and Chinese. It is a favored color for weddings in both cultures and it is the traditional color for the bindi worn by Indian women. redneck A derogatory term for whites. Do not use. redskin Avoid. An overtly racist term that can be compared to the N-word. Some media organizations no longer use the term when referring to the Washington, D.C., professional football team. Te Native American Journalists Association strongly urges news outlets to limit use of racial team names and images. refugee [Adapted from Wikipedia] A refugee is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely. Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status. Te term refugee is ofen used in diferent contexts: in everyday usage it refers to a forcibly displaced person who has fed their country of origin; in a more specifc context it refers to such a person who was, on top of that, granted refugee status in the country the person fed to. In order to be given refugee status the person must have applied for asylum. Tis person was then, whilst waiting for a decision, an asylum seeker. However, a displaced person who would legally be entitled to refugee status may never apply for asylum, or may not be allowed to apply in the country they fed to and thus not be an asylum seeker. remittances Remittances are money and goods for family or friends in a foreign worker’s countries of origin. In the late 1900s the areas receiving the largest amount of U.S. remittances were Mexico, India, China, the Philippines, the Caribbean, and many African countries. Tis money sustains families and communities abroad, and contributes substantially to some home countries’ economies. reparations Reparations are made to right past wrongs. Tey are ofen payments. Te United States has paid more than $1.5 billion to settle claims made by black farmers in a class-action lawsuit against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Te case was called Pigford v. Glickman. It was about discrimination in farm loans and assistance paid between 1981 and 1996. In 1989, U.S. Representative John Conyers (D-Detroit) began introducing bills to create a commission S to study more sweeping reparations for events dating back to slavery. Tose bills have not advanced. Japanese Americans interned during World War II have received $1.6 billion in reparations and a formal apology from the U.S. government. Native Americans have received several payments including a $3.4 billion settlement in 2012. reservation Indian reservations are areas of land reserved by the U.S. government as permanent tribal homelands. Te United States established its reservation policy for American Indians in 1787. In 2015 there were 326 reservations. About 56 million acres are in reservations and trust land. More than 60 percent of American Indians live away from reservations. Sansei, sansei Term for third-generation Japanese Americans, originating from the Japanese language term for “third generation.” In the American context, the term is understood to refer to the grandchildren of Japanese immigrants who arrived prior to the cessation of Japanese immigration to the United States under the dictates of the Immigration Act of 1924. senior, senior citizen Use the term sparingly; can be discriminatory in nature; the preferred terminology is older adults. shaman A spiritual leader in a tribal society who heals people by channeling spirits, ofen in an altered state. Sometimes referred to as a medicine man or witch doctor. It is a description rather than a formal title; do not capitalize, even when used with a name. slave Avoid this outdated term to refer to the person. Te proper term is enslaved person. An enslaved person is a human being who has been classed as property and forced to work for nothing. slavery [Adapted from Wikipedia] Slavery is, in the strictest sense of the term, any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy, and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specifc sense of legalized slavery. In a broader sense, however, the word slavery may also refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars also use the more generic terms such as unfree labor or forced labor, to refer to such situations. Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries afer it gained independence and before the end of the American Civil War. Slavery had been practiced in British North America from early colonial days, and was legal in all thirteen colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Te Tirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery except as punishment for a crime, was passed by the Senate in April 1864, and by the House of Representatives in January 1865. Te amendment did not take efect until it was ratifed by three-fourths of the states, which occurred on December 6, 1865, when Georgia ratifed it. On that date, all remaining slaves became ofcially free. Spanglish An informal hybrid of Spanish and English. It is used among people who know both languages and who switch between languages when one language describes what they are trying to say better than the other. Linguists call that code switching. T stereotypes Te word comes from the ancient Greek for “fxed impression.” Walter Lippmann, an American journalist, popularized the word, a printing-press term, as a metaphor for “a picture in our heads” that could be true or, more ofen, false. Examples of stereotypes include geisha, delivery boy, manicurist, and Samurai (all used metaphorically). Stonewall Te Stonewall Inn tavern in New York City’s Greenwich Village was the site of several nights of raucous protests afer a police raid on June 28, 1969. Although not the nation’s frst gay civil rights demonstration, Stonewall is now regarded as the birth of the modern gay civil rights movement. Tagalog Pronounced tah-GAH-log. Widely spoken in the Philippines, and one of scores of local and regional dialects. Tejano A Texan of Mexican descent. Tejano derives from “Coahuiltejano,” a name given to the citizens of the Mexican State Coahuila y Tejas, now Texas. Tejano culture includes folk music synthesized from European and Mexican styles and contributions to Tex-Mex cuisine. Hispanic and Anglo-Saxon settlers who lived in the area during the 18th century created a bilingualism that later shaped the Tejano language. telenovela A type of “limited-run” television drama that is very popular in Latin America and has had success in the United States and elsewhere. Telenovelas are similar to traditional U.S. soap operas but they have distinctive qualities. Te run times for telenovelas are a fxed duration, with episodes shown fve to six days a week and an average of 120 episodes per telenovela. Third World Originally used to distinguish nations that were aligned with neither the West nor the East during the Cold War. Commonly used to describe underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Tese nations and the people there are ofen cast as being uncivilized or primitive. Avoid using term because of its negative connotations. Better to say developing countries. Use in quotes only if necessary. totem A representation of a person or likeness such as an animal or plant that is revered by a tribe or group. It is a part of many American Indian and African religious practices. transgender Refers to individuals whose gender identity and/or expression may not match their physical, sexual characteristics or sex assigned at birth. Some female and male cross-dressers, drag queens or kings, female or male impersonators, and intersex individuals may also identify as transgender. Use the name and personal pronouns that are consistent with how the individual lives publicly. When possible, ask which term the source prefers. Do not use transgendered. Ofensive when used as a noun; use transgender people, transgender man, or transgender woman. In cases where space is an issue, such as headlines, using trans as a shorthand adjectival form is acceptable. Transgender people may use a number of terms to describe themselves. For more guidance on transgender terminology and coverage, visit the NLGJA Journalists Toolbox article at www.nlgja.org/toolbox/transgender and the GLAAD Media Reference Guide on Transgender Issues. Transnational Going beyond national boundaries or interests. transracial Across or crossing racial boundaries. Te term is most ofen used in adoption to describe families where a child is adopted by parents of a diferent race. In 2015, the term was used to describe Rachel Dolezal, a NAACP chapter president who made international news when she was outed as a white woman who identifed herself as black. transsexual Avoid this outdated term in favor of transgender and transgender people unless a person or community prefers the term; it can carry misleading medical connotations. tribal council Te governing body of a tribe is usually referred to as the tribal council, and is elected by adult members of the tribe. Heading the council is one elected chairperson, president, chief, or governor who is the recognized leader. Te council performs legislative aspects of tribal government. tribal warfare Avoid. Eurocentric term for ethnic confict among people of color. Example: Te confict between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda was called tribal warfare, but the civil war in the former Yugoslavia between Serbs, Croats, and Muslims was “ethnic cleansing.” Both are ethnic conficts or civil wars. tribe Avoid. Use nation or ethnic group except for specifc entities like a tribal council on a reservation. Within the United States, many Native Americans prefer the term nation because their people have signed treaties with the United States that recognize them as nations. Some Native Americans prefer their national afliation instead of using the generic term Native American, e.g., Navajo, Hopi, Cherokee. In Africa, avoid referring to diferent ethnic groups as tribes. Hutu and Tutsi are ethnic groups, just like Serbs, Croats, and Muslims in the former Yugoslavia. A federally recognized tribe is an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity that is recognized as having a government-to-government relationship with the United States, U with the responsibilities, powers, limitations, and obligations attached to that designation, according to the Bureau of Indian Afairs. In 2018 there were 573 federally recognized tribes. turban A head covering in desert or other hot climates that does not necessarily have ethnic or religious signifcance and is not solely Arab. People wear turbans for diferent reasons, and there are diferent types of turbans. Sikh men wear turbans that peak at the forehead to take care of their hair, which they do not cut, and to promote equality among themselves and to declare their identity. Turbans make Sikhs distinctive in India, where they are a minority. In the United States, Sikhs have been attacked by people who assumed the turbans meant they were Muslims. Most Muslims do not wear turbans, though their religious ofcials, clergy, or leaders may wear them. Tey are typically spherical or conical. Te shape of turbans varies by country. W undocumented immigrant Preferred term to illegal alien, illegal immigrant, or illegal(s). Tis term describes the immigration status of people who do not have the federal documentation to show they are legally entitled to work, visit, or live here. Some Latinos say this term more accurately describes people who are in the United States illegally because the word points out that they are undocumented, but does not dehumanize them in the manner that such terms as aliens and illegals do. undocumented worker Preferred term to illegal alien, illegal immigrant, or illegal(s). Tis term describes the immigration status of people who do not have the federal documentation to show they are legally entitled to work, visit, or live here. West Indies A group of islands in the Caribbean Sea that includes the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, United States Virgin Islands, the Leeward Islands and Windward Islands, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad, and Tobago. Tey acquired that name because Spanish explorers erroneously thought they had sailed to India. White privilege Advantages for people with white skin. Tis includes advantages they might not even know about. It can be a product of systemic racism. Advantages can be economic, social, or educational. One kind of privilege is freedom from barriers, suspicions, or expectations that non-white people experience daily. Another can be freedom from judgment or denial surrounding success or aspirations. For example, if two people acquire the same job or car, the white person’s success might be taken for granted while the black person is asked how he or she managed it. White, U.S. Census defnition of Te U.S. Census Bureau, which adheres to the 1997 Ofce of Management and Budget standards on race and ethnicity, defnes white as “a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.” Te Census Bureau notes: “Te racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally refect a social defnition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to defne race biologically, anthropologically, or Y genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups.” White, white People in the United States who share a lineage that can be traced directly or indirectly to Europe. worship, worshipped, worshipper Worship is the act of ofering devotion and praise to a deity or deities. It is most ofen used in reference to formal religious services, but also applies to private prayer and other acts done to honor or revere the sacred. Many evangelical Protestants have a tendency to use it specifcally in reference to music—especially contemporary praise music—sung in church. Tus, the leader of the contemporary singing group may appear in the church bulletin as “praise and worship leader.” yellow peril Avoid, a slur. An imagined invasion of the United States at the beginning of the 20th century by Asian “hordes,” specifcally Japanese, who had become successful entrepreneurs in California agriculture. Led to racialist pulp fction. Yonsei, yonsei Term for fourth-generation Japanese Americans, originating from the Japanese language term for “fourth generation.” In the American context, the term is understood to refer to the great-grandchildren of Japanese immigrants who arrived prior to the cessation of Japanese immigration to the United States under the dictates of the Immigration Act of 1924.