Welcome: To The Battle of  Be sure you are on Zoom Audio Mute and Stop Video  Questions: please utilize the chat box to type in your questions during the presentation—I will try to answer them at the Break/End of Class  At the bottom (or top) of your Zoom screen is a Menu Bar  Click on the Chat icon to bring up the chat box  Hit “Enter” on your keyboard to send your Chat message

 Recommend click on “show small active speaker video” Michael W. , Ph.D. Docent, Mariners’ Museum Newport News, Source: Mariners’ Museum Meet the Instructor  Education  High School: Lafayette County C-1, Higginsville, Missouri  BS, U.S. Coast Guard Academy  MS, U.S. Defense Intelligence College (now National Intelligence University)  Ph.D., International Relations, International University  Professional Career  U.S. Coast Guard Officer ( operations/training & intelligence)  Professor at FIU and Eastern Kentucky University  In Retirement  Osher Institute Instructor, College of William & Mary  Docent, Mariners’ Museum, Newport News, Virginia Start of the U.S. Civil War  Late-1700s & early-1800s’ politics surrounding slavery led to the war  (R) elected President on November 6, 1860  seceded from the December 20, 1860  Seven total States in deep-south seceded by Lincoln’s inauguration March 4, 1961  attacked April 12-13, 1861  Virginia seceded April 17, 1861, Source: Britannica followed by Tennessee, , & Arkansas  Union Early War Strategy:  Blockade Confederate ports from Virginia to Florida, around Gulf of , and in System  Seize Confederate capital in Richmond, Virginia—first attempt was Union March-July 1862, commanded by MGen George McClellan

Source: Building the Confederate Navy Confederate Secretary of the Navy  Mallory faced building a Confederate Former U.S. (D-FL) Navy from almost nothing Stephen R. Mallory  From his work on U.S. Senate Committee on Naval Affairs, he knew the future of was Ironclads  Sent unsuccessful Confederate Navy mission to Britain and with $2 million to buy an Ironclad  He then looked for ways Confederate Navy could build their own Ironclads

Source: Blogspot.com Comparing Navies (1861-1865) Confederate Navy  War Start:  War Start:  30 total , 14 seaworthy—no  42 sail/steam frigates. -of-war or sloops-of-war, mainly seized Union  48 in ordinary (moth-balled), mainly sail, steamers, tugs, revenue cutters needed crews & re-outfitting  No ironclads  Dozens of , tugs, revenue cutters  War End:  No ironclads  101 ships total  War End:  22 coastal ironclads (28 in construction)  671 ships total  10-15 river ironclads  New frigates/sloops-of-war  Remainder gunboats, boats, tugs  Large effort building ironclads  Commerce raiders/blockade runners  60 coastal ironclads  19 armed commerce raiders: CSS Sumter (5  40-50 river ironclads guns), CSS (8 guns), & more  More gunboats, tugs, auxiliaries  200 fast blockade runners (CSS Banshee) Various Sources, Often Conflicting Evolution of Early Ironclads French Battery Lave (1855) British HMS Warrior (1860) USS Carondelet (1861) River

Source: premiershipmodels.co.uk Source: military wikia.com Source: Wikipedia

U.S. Stevens’ Battery Project Gloire (1859) USS Galena (1862) Started 1844, 1st 1861

Source: Wikipedia Source: Pinterest Source: Wikipedia Confederates Seize Gosport Naval Shipyard April 20, 1861 Located in Portsmouth, Virginia

Union destroyed: 74 gun 3rd rate ships-of- the-line--, , Columbus; 44- 45 gun frigates—Merrimack, Raritan, Columbia; 22 gun sloops-of-war--Germantown, Plymouth; 8 gun -rigged gunboat Dolphin, and abandoned United States (built 1797). The 24 gun -of-war Cumberland was towed to safety by tug Yankee and 10 gun sloop-of-war Pawnee. Merrimack, Germantown, and Plymouth were Photo Sources: Mariners’ Museum ready for sea, but had no crews. Confederates Decide to Build Their First Ironclad from Sunken of ex-USS Merrimack in Gosport Confederate Ironclad Built in Gosport Drydock USS Merrimack in 1855 on hull of ex-USS Merrimack

Source: Mariners’ Museum Source: Wikipedia CSS Virginia is Commissioned

Speed: 5-6 knots planned, 4 knots at best Ordered: July 11, 1861 Completed: March 7, 1862 Cost: $175,523 2 blade

Took 9 months to build, with much time awaiting Armament: armor plating 2 X 7 inch Brooke (pivot guns) 2 X 6.4 inch Brooke rifles (Worn-out) 2 X 2 inch iron plates, 6 X 9 inch Dahlgren 24 inches wood guns (“hot shot” furnace) Source: Pinterest Union Now Needed Ironclads  August 1861, U.S. Navy appointed Ironclad Board and issued requests for designs for commercially built Ironclads, gave only 100 days to build  Cornelius Bushnell, builder of USS Galena, took his plans for a stability review to John Ericsson of , well known naval architect  Ericsson, who did not submit original plans, unveiled old plans and a working model of his own that were eventually approved for construction by U.S. Navy Secretary and President Lincoln

Source: lenovo.com Source: Library of Congress Ericsson Had Contentious Past with U.S. Navy

Source: Wikipedia During Princeton VIP cruise on the Potomac on Source: navsource.org February 28, 1844, a test firing of a new 12 inch Ericsson designed USS Princeton—first gun “The Peacemaker,” saw the breech explode, propeller-driven U.S. , launched killing 6 and injuring 16-20, including killing 1843—at end relations were tense with CO Secretary of State and Secretary of the Navy. Robert Stockton who tried to take Ericsson had nothing to do with gun’s design or credit for the ship’s design testing, but was blamed for the accident. USS Original Plans

Turret Pilothouse

Coal Bunkers Storage

Main Engine Captain’s Office Marine Heads Crews’ & Stateroom Officers’ Quarters Staterooms Source: Mariners’ Museum

Ericsson modified other inventors’ patent for the turret, but rest of the ship was his design—included over 40 patents he later gave to the U.S. Navy Ericsson’s 1st Ironclad

Armament: 2 X 11 inch Dahlgren smoothbore guns

Wardroom Exhausts Used 15 lb. powder charges as tests not Air Intakes completed on full 30 lb. charges Took 101 days to build

(Officers) Ordered: October 4, 1861 Laid: October 25, 1861 Speed: 6 knots Launched: January 30, 1862 Cost: $275,000 Underwater Hull 4 blades ½ inch of iron Source: nhgallery.org The

USS Monitor CSS Virginia CO: Captain CO: John Worden Born , 1815 U.S. Navy , Born New York, 1834 U.S. Navy 1825 commissioned LT, extensive sea duty, 1845 midshipman, 1844 commissioned LT, 1st U.S. Naval Academy Superintendent, 1861 sea duty, naval observatory duty, 1861 joined Confederate Navy, 1862 Confederate prisoner of war, Jan. 1862 Confederate Forces assigned as CO USS Monitor XO: Lieutenant Catesby ap R. Jones XO: Lieutenant Born Virginia, 1836 U.S. Navy midshipman, Born Maryland, 1855 U.S. Naval Academy, 1849 commissioned LT, sea duty, ordnance 1859-1861 sea duty as midshipman, 1861 specialist, 1861 joined Confederate Navy, commissioned LT, Dec. 1861 assigned as 1861-1862 assigned to CSS Virginia XO of USS Monitor construction team and later as XO

Photo Sources: Multiple Hampton Roads Union Blockading Squadron: USS Roanoke, () USS St. Lawrence, sail frigate USS Minnesota, steam frigate USS Congress, sail frigate USS Cumberland, sail sloop-of-war Several gunboats &

CSS Virginia & Escorts

CSS Beaufort CSS Raleigh SS Harmony

Source: Wikipedia USS Cumberland Sunk CSS Virginia attacked USS Cumberland first because it had a 60 lb. (5.3 inch) Parrott Buchanan saw as his main threat, CSS Virginia rammed USS Cumberland and the two ships exchanged intense , estimated 120 USS Cumberland officers and crew killed

Source: artfactorygallerres.com Source: Pinterest Attack on Union Transports  After sinking USS Cumberland, CSS Virginia proceeded up the James River to turn around (3/4 mile turning circle)  As it made the turn, it bombarded Union transports moored off Newport News  Union Damage:  SS Whilden burned & sunk  Unknown burned  SS Reindeer captured  Confederate joined CSS Virginia at turn: gunboats CSS Patrick Henry, CSS Jamestown, & CSS Teaser Source: Wikipedia USS Congress Surrenders, Burns, Later Explodes As CSS Virginia passed anchored USS Congress CSS Virginia returned and began shelling USS heading for USS Cumberland, CSS Virginia and Congress, the Union frigate surrendered, but when USS Congress exchanged broadsides—CSS CSS Patrick Henry started to board, Camp Butler Virginia “hot shot” left USS Congress in flames, riflemen and shore batteries fired on the Confederate leading to its self-grounding off Camp Butler ships and they pulled away, leaving USS Congress in flames, estimated 150 officers and crew killed.

USS Congress

Source: ibiblio Source: Pinterest USS Minnesota Damaged

 With Captain Buchanan shot in the leg, Lieutenant Catesby ap R. Jones took command of CSS Virginia  On leaving USS Congress in flames, CSS Virginia joined Confederate gunboats in bombarding grounded USS Minnesota, several Minnesota officers & crew killed or injured (exact number unknown)  CSS Virginia Pilot convinced Jones the outgoing and fading daylight called for ship to return to a safe mooring, ending 1st day attacks on Union forces

Source: navsource.org 2 Union Transports USS Minnesota Destroyed, Damaged 1 Captured

A major Confederate success on 1st day of CSS Virginia sea trials

USS Cumberland Sunk 2nd Day Confederate USS Congress in Flames, Plan: Destroy Later Exploded Minnesota, Roanoke, & St. Lawrence

9:00 PM – USS Monitor arrives in Hampton Roads

Photo Sources: Multiple

USS Monitor Arrives

 CO Monitor first reports to CO USS Roanoke anchored off Ft. Monroe, briefed on March 8 battle, and assigned to protect USS Minnesota  Monitor then proceeds and anchors just off grounded Minnesota as USS Congress still burns to the west—chaos reigned on Minnesota  Around 12:30 AM on 9 March, Congress explodes when fires reach powder magazines  After being up for 48 hours as Monitor battled a storm offshore, officers and crew got little sleep this night as they were up Source: Robert Underwood Johnson & Clarence Clough Buel at commons.wikimedia.org most of the night while Minnesota tried to escape the shoals First Shots Monitor Pilothouse 8:35 AM Hit 12:10 PM

Source: Pinterest Virginia Grounds 10:30 AM Ironclad Battle Damage

 CSS Virginia Damage (8 & 9 March):  1st day 98 strikes—2nd day additional 50 shell strikes, on 2nd day Monitor shot 41 shells (most hits), plus Minnesota also had hits  1st day lost ram and most topside damaged or destroyed, 2 X 9 inch muzzles shot off  1st day 2 killed and 6 injured, CO Buchanan wounded in leg, 2nd day casualties reported (number unknown)  USS Monitor Damage (9 March):  22 shell strikes (9 to turret, 2 to pilothouse, 11 to Source: Mariners’ Museum & sides)—2 strikes were from Minnesota CSS Virginia did more damage to Union  Pilothouse damaged, one cover jammed  Several personnel had concussions from shell forces during the 2-day battle, but in the strikes on turret, CO Worden blinded, no deaths end it was a strategic victory for the  balls/rifled shells never penetrated Union, as CSS Virginia did not break either ship’s armor the blockade of Hampton Roads Ship Limitations Found CSS Virginia USS Monitor

 22 ft. limited navigation  Voice tube from pilothouse to turret  Worn-out engines, inefficient propeller broke at start of battle (used messengers) limited speed and maneuverability  Found unable to stop moveable turret  No armor piercing rounds for Brooke with any precision (just let it turn) rifles  Use of 15 lb. powder charges (instead of  Wooden hull exposed as ship lightened later approved 30 lb. full charges) kept from expending and shells/powder shells from piercing CSS Virginia armor  Lack of gun port covers exposed crew  Rectangular pilothouse did not deflect shells easily and was damaged This Single Battle Changed Naval Warfare Forever  First ever Ironclad battle— changed future warship design and naval warfare tactics  Showed the vulnerability of wooden to Ironclads  Demonstrated the utility of faster, more maneuverable ships with large rotatable armored guns  Armored , dreadn0ughts, Source: YouTube and evolved from lessons learned in this battle CSS Virginia After the Battle April 1862, a repaired CSS Virginia and Confederate gunboats sortied several times to mouth of Elizabeth River to draw USS Monitor into a fight—planned to board Monitor, place tarps over pilothouse, and throw explosives in air intakes, boiler exhausts, and turret

Union forces did not take the bait, but did Source: Mariners’ Museum prepare the USS Vanderbilt with a ram to attack CSS Virginia if it entered Hampton Roads

May 11, 1862, to prevent ship from being captured as Union forces reoccupied Norfolk and Portsmouth, CSS Virginia was run aground off and set on fire, later exploding Source: Blogspot.com Monitor in Peninsula Campaign  May 15, 1862, USS Monitor was part of Union task group that fought the Battle of Drewry’s Bluff  USS Monitor was joined by:  Ironclad screw sloop USS Galena (flagship)–4 X 9 inch Dahlgren smoothbore guns, 2 X 100 lb. Parrott rifles (6.4 inch)  Ironclad semi- USRC Naugatuck (Stevens’ Battery project)—1 X 100 lb. (6.4 inch) Source: 26nc.org  Screw gunboat USS Aroostook Confederate Battery included several CSS Virginia guns and was commanded by former-CSS Virginia  Sidewheel gunboat USS Port XO/CO, Lieutenant Catesby ap R. Jones  One additional gunboat (unidentified) Battle of Drewry’s Bluff

Source: Wikipedia

Source: Pinterest Summer of 1862 Was Hot!  After Drewry’s Bluff, USS Monitor spent the summer of 1862 on the James River supporting Union land forces and continuing the blockade  It was a boring and hot summer!  Main threat was snipers ashore  Galley fire forced cooking on deck  Crew ate fish, crabs, and oysters  Escaped slave (contraband) Siah Hulett Carter joined crew that summer as ship’s boy (cook’s asst.) Fall and Winter 1862

 After Fall 1862 refitting at Navy , USS Monitor returned to blockading squadron at Hampton Roads  December 29, 1862, USS Rhode Island took USS Monitor in tow to Beaufort, North Carolina  Night of December 30-31, 1862, USS Monitor foundered and sank

Source: NOAA in a storm off Monitor Sinking  Taking on significant water in high seas, Acting Master Louis Stodder cut the towline  USS Rhode Island boats rescued crewmembers—CO Commander John Bankhead, XO Lieutenant Samuel Greene, and Stodder were last to abandon ship  47 of crew were rescued, 16 were lost (4 officers, 12 enlisted) Source: Mariners’ Museum USS Monitor wreck site found in 1973

Designated a National Marine Sanctuary in 1974

Major salvage started around 2000 due wreck’s increasing deterioration

Source: NOAA USS Monitor Salvage

Monitor turned upside-down while sinking, NOAA designed “spider” used to raise gun had broken loose during sinking turret (raised upside down and still is today) and was found under hull at port quarter

Source: NOAA

Source: NOAA Mariners’ Museum Monitor Repository Some Items Completed Items in Conservation Conservation & On Display Use “Electrolytic Reduction” to break down concretion, remove salt (chlorides), & stabilize metal

Sources: Mariner’s Museum & NOAA Please Come Visit!

$1 Entrance Fee

Batten Conservation Lab

USS Monitor Center

CSS Virginia Partial Full-Scale Model USS Monitor Full-Scale Model

Photo Sources: Mariners’ Museum Recommended Reading I will stay online and answer any questions in Zoom Chat, or via Zoom Audio, or you can send me an Email at [email protected]