National Park Service Petrifi ed Forest U.S. Department of the Interior Petrifi ed Forest National Park Petrifi ed Forest,

Triassic and Other

Fossils are clues to the past, allowing researchers to reconstruct ancient environments. During the Late , the climate was very diff erent from that of today. Located near the equator, this region was humid and tropical, the landscape dominated by a huge river system. Giant and amphibians, early dinosaurs, fi sh, and many invertebrates lived among the dense vegetation and in the winding waterways. New fossils come to light as paleontologists continue to study the Triassic treasure trove of Petrifi ed Forest National Park.

Invertebrates Scattered throughout the sedimentary beds of the ancient lakes and rivers. layers of the are fossils of Antediplodon thomasi is one of the clam many types of invertebrates. Trace fossils fossils found in the park. including possible insect nests and beetle borings in the petrifi ed logs. Thin slabs of Horseshoe crabs shale have preserved more delicate animals Horseshoe crabs have been identifi ed such as shrimp, crayfi sh, and insects, by their fossilized tracks (Kouphichnium including the wing of a cockroach! arizonae), originally left in the soft sediments at the bottom of fresh water Clams lakes and streams. These invertebrates Various freshwater bivalves have been probably ate worms, soft mollusks, plants, found in the Chinle Formation, some and dead fi sh. forming vast colonies in the muddy

Freshwater Fish The freshwater streams and rivers of Forest National Park is Chinlea sorenseni the Triassic landscape were home to (pictured) . This large lobe-fi nned fi sh numerous species of fi sh, especially sharks could reach up to 5 feet (1.5 m) long and and lungfi sh. Bony fi sh of the weigh up to 150 pounds (68 kg). Its jaws included Turseodus sp., Semionotus sp., were equipped with large, sharp teeth for and Hemicalypterus weii. catching and holding prey.

Freshwater Sharks Lungfi sh Lissodus humblei was a blunt-toothed Arganodus dorotheae were heavy fi sh up to shark about 6-9 inches (15-23 cm) long. 3 feet (1 m) in length and weighing up to The blunt teeth indicate it survived on 70 pounds (32 kg). They had fascinating, clams and clam shrimp; it was probably a comb-shaped teeth used as crushing plates bottom dweller. “” moorei for clams. Some lungfi sh living today are was a 3 foot (1 m) long prong-toothed able to leave the water for periods of time shark that fed on smaller fi sh, aquatic and breathe air. reptiles, and amphibians.

Coelacanth Living species of coelacanths (seal-a- kanths) are still found in the world today. The fossil species found in Petrifi ed Amphibians Metoposaurs (meh--poe-sores) were settled in the muddy bottom of ponds and giant amphibians. A common fossil ambushed prey from below. Koskinonodon animals found in the lower portion of the rarely occurs in the northern section of the park is the large fl at-headed amphibian park, which contains sediments younger Koskinonodon perfecta (pictured), 10 feet than the Blue Mesa and Rainbow Forest. (3 m) long and weighing up to half a ton. Giant amphibians are represented in these These animals were most likely voracious layers by a smaller yet similar named predators feeding on fi sh and smaller Apachesaurus gregorii. animals. With their fl at heads and upward directed eyes, Koskinonodon probably

Archosaurs are a specialized group Rauisuchians of reptiles that includes and Rauisuchians (rau-i-su-key-ans) ranked crocodiles. In the Triassic, archosaurs as the top terrestrial predators of the Late were represented by , , Triassic, thanks to huge armed with rauisuchians, and dinosaurs. powerful biting jaws and 3 inch (7.6 cm) long serrated teeth. Species of rauisuchians Phytosaurs found in the park include Phytosaurs (fi e-toe-sores) were crocodile- kirkpatricki (pictured) and like reptiles, some species reaching gracilis. Some rauisuchians could grow up lengths possibly exceeding 20 feet (6.1 to 20 feet (6 m) in length. meters). Distantly related, phytosaurs probably fi lled similar ecological niches as crocodiles, feeding mainly on fi sh and any other animals that came too near. Phytosaurs are the most common fossil animal found in the park, species including Smilosuchus gregorii (pictured) and Pseudopalatus pristinus. Dinosaurs Most visitors to the park are surprised to learn that dinosaurs are a relatively rare and minor component of the Triassic fauna preserved at the park. Separated from the Aetosaurs other archosaurs by characters of the Aetosaurs (a-ee-toe-sores) were 10-15 feet and ankle, Late Triassic dinosaurs were (3-4.5 m) long, herbivorous reptiles with mainly small, bipedal carnivorous predators broad fl at bodies protected by plate-like including Chindesaurus (pictured) and scutes. Some species had large spikes on . Coelophysis (seal-o-fi e-sis) was their sides or back that were possibly used an early carnivorous that probably for defense. Aetosaurs had short limbs and walked on two legs. It was about 8 feet (2.4 small skulls with a -like snout for rooting m) long and could weigh 50 pounds (23 kg). in soil for plants and roots. spurensis (pictured) or wellesi are two of the aetosaurs found in Petrifi ed Forest National Park.

Therapsids Therapsids were large reptiles that small tail, and a beak-like with large possessed many mammalian characters tusk-like bones protruding from its upper including a “cheek” bone, enlarged canine jaw. The beak-like jaws helped them pull teeth, pelvis, and a specialized attachment up and tear tough plants and roots. While of the skull to the spine. hesternus Placerias is represented in the park by (pla-seer-ee-us) was a isolated elements, it is common elsewhere therapsid. This massive plant-eater was in Arizona, especially near St. Johns, just up to 9 feet (2.7 m) long and might have southeast of the park, where large numbers weighed as much as two tons. Placerias of Placerias were found in a single quarry. had a short neck, barrel-shaped body,

Like pieces of a puzzle, fossils have long provided clues to the past. Paleontologists are reconstructing the Triassic ecosystem in Petrifi ed Forest National Park by piecing together fossil records. The scientifi c and educational value of a fossil can only be interpreted when it is properly documented and studied. The displacement of a specimen from its surroundings reduces it to a mere curiosity. Help us by not disturbing any fossils you fi nd during your visit. Report your fossil discoveries to any uniformed employee.

January 2010 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Visit our website at http://www.nps.gov/pefo