Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Current Opinion in ScienceDirect Colloid & Interface Science
Colloidal systems with a short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Phase diagrams, structures, and dynamics Yun Liu1,2,3 and Yuyin Xi1,2
Abstract Colloidal systems with both a short-range attraction and long- Keywords Colloids, Short-range attraction, Long-range repulsion, Phase diagram. range repulsion (SALR) have rich phases compared with the traditional hard sphere systems or sticky hard sphere systems. The competition between the short-range attraction and long- Introduction range repulsion results in the frustrated phase separation, Colloids are commonly encountered in many materials which leads to the formation of intermediate range order (IRO) of our daily life. They can exist in a wide range of shapes structures and introduces new phases to both equilibrium and and compositions, such as micelles, quantum dots, nonequilibrium phase diagrams, such as clustered fluid, clus- proteins, star polymers, synthetic nanoparticles, and ter percolated fluid, Wigner glass, and cluster glass. One active colloids. Studying the structure and dynamics of hallmark feature of many SALR systems is the appearance of colloidal systems is essential to understand, control, and the IRO peak in the interparticle structure factor, which is predict the macroscopic properties of these materials associated with different types of IRO structures. The rela- [1e4]. Model colloidal systems have been serving as tionship between the IRO peak and the clustered fluid state important testbeds to prove theories and demonstrate has been careful investigated. Not surprisingly, the morphology the underlining physics mechanisms of many interesting of clusters in solutions can be affected and controlled by the phenomena in complicated systems [3,5e7]. SALR potential. And the effect of the SALR potential on the Commonly studied model systems are usually spherical dynamic properties is also reviewed here. Even though much particles with isotropic interactions. Even though this is, progress has been made in understanding SALR systems, to some extent, an oversimpliﬁcation of most real sys- many future works are still needed to have quantitative com- tems, information obtained from these model systems parisons between experiments and simulations/theories and has been shown to be tremendously useful for us to understand the differences from different experimental sys- understand complex interactions between many soft- tems. Owing to the large parameter space available for SALR matter materials [1,8e10]. Spherical systems with hard systems, many exciting features of SALR systems are not fully sphere (HS) interactions are arguably the most well- explored yet. Because proteins in low-salinity solutions have studied class of colloidal systems . And HS systems SALR interactions, the understanding of SALR systems can with a short-range attraction, or sticky HS (SHS) sys- greatly help understand protein behavior in concentrated so- tems, have also been extensively studied in the past lutions or crowded conditions. several decades [2,4,6]. More recently, the colloidal Addresses science community has seen the increased interests in 1 Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and studying HS systems with both a short-range attraction Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899, USA and long-range repulsion (SALR) [10e17]. 2 Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA 3 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, SALR interaction is not something new to the colloidal DE, 19716, USA science community. Many charged colloidal particles have been demonstrated to have SALR interactions. At Corresponding author: Liu, Yun ([email protected]), ([email protected]) certain conditions, the well-known Derjaguine LandaueVerweyeOverbeek potential is one type of Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 2019, SALR interactions . For many proteins in low-salinity 39:123–136 solutions, it has been long recognized that there should This review comes from a themed issue on Special Topic Section: be both a short-range attraction and long-range repul- Outstanding Young Researchers in Colloid and Interface Science sion between them [18e21]. Because the attraction Edited by Nick Abbott and Marie Pierre Krafft favors the formation of aggregates that can eventually lead to the phase separation of a system, it has been a For a complete overview see the Issue and the Editorial widely used practice by introducing charge repulsions to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cocis.2019.01.016 stabilize a colloidal system . The revived interests in 1359-0294/Published by Elsevier Ltd. www.sciencedirect.com Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 2019, 39:123–136 124 Special Topic Section: Outstanding Young Researchers in Colloid and Interface Science
the past decade for colloidal systems with SALR in- nonequilibrium phase diagrams and dynamics of systems teractions have been triggered by understanding the can be different for systems with identical effective in- structures and dynamics of SALR systems in solutions teractions but with different physics origins [39,44]. when the range of the repulsion is relatively long. Especially, there have been strong interests in the Because there are two control parameters (range and cluster formation in the liquid states and their conse- strength) for either attraction or repulsion, there are at quence to the macroscopic properties of the solutions least total four control parameters for a system with an [12,13,16,17,22e24]. It is important to point out that SALR interaction. Based on the potential parameters protein cluster formation has been found also important that have been explored in literature, most SALR sys- to control the viscosity of many therapeutic proteins tems studied recently can be approximately categorized [1,25e28]. Hence, there is a strong interest from the into three different types of SALR systems. For the type industry to understand the reversible self-association, or I, the range of VSAðrÞ is less than 20% of the particle clusters, in concentrated proteins solutions [25,28]. diameter, and the range of repulsion is only a fraction of Even though many therapeutic proteins, such as the particle diameters. Hence, Z is usually larger than 1. monoclonal antibodies, have irregular shapes with For the type II, the range of VSAðrÞ is still less than 20% anisotropic potentials, the properties of some protein of the particle diameter, but the range of repulsion is solutions can be qualitatively explained by a SALR comparable or larger than the particle diameter. Hence, interaction [25,29]. Also, by controlling the parameters Z is usually less than 1. For the type III, the range of of the SALR interaction, particles in solutions can self- VSAðrÞ is signiﬁcantly larger than 20% of the particle assemble into interesting structures, which can poten- diameter but still smaller than the range of the repul- tially lead to a new way to synthesize materials [30,31]. sion. Table 1 shows the potential parameters of a And the competitive nature of the short-range attraction selected list of SALR systems. The difference of pa- and long-range repulsion also has profound impact on rameters used in different types of SALR systems has the gelation and glass transitions of SALR systems strong impacts on the structures and dynamics of SALR compared with the widely studied SHS systems [14e systems. The type-I systems are most commonly 17,32,33]. encountered in experimental SALR systems [12,14,16,45]. Computer simulation and theoretical A typical SALR interaction potential, V ðrÞ, can be works cover the cases for both the type-I and type-II expressed as systems [13,15,23,36]. There are relatively small number of works on the type-III systems [46,47]. Note e Zðr 1Þ that the aforementioned classiﬁcation is only an bV ðrÞ¼bV ðrÞþbA SA r empirical approach based on the parameters used in different studies. b ¼ 1 kB T where kBT and is the Boltzmann constant and is the absolute temperature. r is the center-to-center dis- In this article, we would like to review the recent tance between two particles normalized by the particle progress of studying SALR systems by focusing on the diameter, s. V ðrÞ is an effective potential based on the phase diagrams, structures, and dynamics. The physical mean ﬁeld concept by including the effects of all solvent origins of effective interactions of different experi- molecules, such as counterions, coions, and any other small mental systems may be mentioned but will not be solvent molecules added to the solution. VSAðrÞ represents discussed in this article due to limited space. We will a short-range attraction. And the second term is a Yukawa mainly focus on the progress for the type-I and type-II function that has been commonly used in many works to SALR systems but will also brieﬂy discuss the type-III represent the long-range repulsion. This is not surprising as systems. There may be other types of SALR systems in most experimental SALR systems, the long-range that do not belong to the three types of systems repulsion is due to the screened Coulombic repulsion. mentioned here and will not be discussed in this article. A Thus, is the strength of the repulsion that always has a Even though we tried to include many relevant works, =Z positive value. And 1 can be considered the range of the we are certainly biased by our own research experience repulsion normalized by s. Unlike the function form of the V ðrÞ and thus may have unintentionally omitted some long-range repulsion, SA has many different forms in important works. In addition, the limited space here literature. The commonly used functions for VSAðrÞ in- does not allow us to have an exhaustive review of all cludes Yukawa function, Lennard-Jones potential, and works. square well [12,15,34e36]. The physical origins of the short-range attraction can be different for different exper- imental systems, such as due to depletion attraction Phase diagrams of SALR systems [6,16,17,37], bridging attraction [38,39], counterion- For systems without long-range repulsions, attractions mediated attraction , or hydrophobicehydrophilic can drive the phase separation. When introducing an surfaces . The equilibrium solution structure and additional long-range repulsion, the phase separation phase diagrams are expected to be similar as long as the can be suppressed, resulting in a frustrated phase effective interaction is identical [13,42,43]. However, the separation or microphase separation [13,15,23,
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The parameters of the SALR interactions are listed for a selected list of references, in which the potential parameters are given or can be estimated.
Method Ref Year First author Range of SA Z Type Diameter Particles
Experiment  2005 Campbell 0.13 1.55 Ia 1.55 um PMMA Experiment  2007 Cardinaux z0.036 1 to 3.4 I ~3.4 nm Lysozyme Experiment  2008 Shukla <0.1 1.1 to 3.3 I ~3.4 nm Lysozyme Experiment  2010 Klix 0.19 z1 I and IIa 1.95 um PMMA Experiment  2011 Liu 0.1 2 to 4 I ~3.4 nm Lysozyme Experiment  2012 Zhang 0.028 0.56 IIa 0.892 um PMMA Experiment  2015 Godfrin 0.1 1.2 to 4.4 I ~3.4 nm Lysozyme Simulation  2004 Sciortino 0.03 0.5 II Simulation  2008 Toledano 0.03 0.5 II Simulation  2013 Valadez 0.01 1.6 I Simulation  2015 Godfrin <0.2 0.5, 2b I and II Simulation  2015 Jadrich z0.03 0.5 II Simulation  2016 Bollinger z0.1 0.25–1.4 I and II Simulation  2016 Ioannidou z0.2 2 I and II Simulation  2018 Das <0.05 0.56 II Theory  2004 Mossa 0.03 0.5, 0.8, 2 I and II Theory  2004 Wu 0.1 0.5 II Theory  2007 Archer 1 0.5 III Theory  2008 Archer 1 0.5 III Theory  2015 Riest 0.1 0.5 II
SALR, short-range attraction and long-range repulsion; PMMA, Poly(methyl methacrylate). This is not a complete list of all references in this article. Based on the range of the SA and the range of repulsion ð1=Z Þ, these works are empirically classified into three types of SALR systems. The details are given in the main text. The particle materials together with their diameters are also listed for experimental articles. a The interaction potential for most PMMA systems is estimated at relatively low concentrations. The potential parameters may change at higher concentrations. b In this article, most discussions have been focused on Z ¼ 0:5.
47,50,57]. This frustrated phase separation results in only a few works on the type-III SALR systems by an intermediate range order (IRO) that will be theories and computer simulations. Thus, we focus on discussed in detail later in this article [12,13]. For HS the type-I and type-II systems but brieﬂy discuss the systems or charge repulsion systems, particles tend to type-III systems at the end of this section. disperse relatively uniformly at a long-range length scale. For SHS systems, the attraction drives the par- The phase diagram of an SALR system is intrinsically ticle aggregation to form heterogeneous density dis- linked to the phase diagram of systems with only a short- tribution at the large length scale that form fractal range attraction. Based on the extended law of corre- clusters spanning through the whole system .SALR sponding state proposed by Noro and Frenkel, if the systems have the features of both HS and SHS sys- range of the attraction is small enough, the equilibrium tems. At the length scale smaller than that of the IRO, phase diagram of all systems with a short-range attrac- the attraction drives the formation of heterogeneous tion can be converted to a master phase diagram if the density distribution [14,32]. But the repulsion can effective temperature is expressed with the corre- stop the growth of the heterogeneous clusters and sponding Baxter’s sticky parameter (or normalized result in a relatively uniform density distribution at a second virial coefﬁcient) . Thus, we start with the long-range scale that is similar to HS or charged HS classical phase diagram of SHS systems, whose sche- systems. Here, we discuss the phase diagrams before matic phase diagram is shown in Figure 1(a). At low discussing the structures and dynamics at different concentration below the percolation transition, the phase regions. cluster distribution has a continuous decay without any peak (no clusters with an optimal size). Such a system is Equilibrium phase diagrams deﬁned as the dispersed ﬂuid state . Increasing the An SALR system has a very rich phase diagram. Its concentration causes the formation of percolated clus- equilibrium phase diagram for type-I and type-II SALR ters to enter the random percolated state . When systems is mostly studied by computer simulations and cooling the temperature, a system enters the two-phase lysozyme samples in low-salinity solutions. There are region. www.sciencedirect.com Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 2019, 39:123–136 126 Special Topic Section: Outstanding Young Researchers in Colloid and Interface Science
Figure 1 the binodal transition line of the reference attractive system shown in Figure 1(a). The reference attractive system is deﬁned as the system with the interaction containing only the attractive portion of the total SALR interaction, which is discussed in detail in Ref. . And the boundary between the random percolated and cluster percolated states can be also approximated with the same binodal line of its reference attractive system. Thus, the details of the shape and range of the attrac- tion do not alter the state diagram in Figure 1(b). Hence, a generalized state diagram is proposed to generalize the extended law of corresponding state for systems with a short-range attraction to SALR systems. With the generalized phase diagram proposed by Godfrin et al., the calculation of the transition boundary for an SALR system between the dispersed ﬂuid state and clustered ﬂuid state becomes simple as we only need to estimate the Baxter’s sticky parameter using only the attractive portion of an SALR interaction. The same is true to calculate the boundary between a random percolated state and the cluster percolated state.
Except a few cases with the type-I potential parameters, the SALR systems discussed by Godfrin et al. in Ref.  are mostly type-II SALR systems where the range of repulsion is comparable to the size of a particle. They brieﬂy discussed that if the range of repulsion becomes smaller, the clustered ﬂuid state may disap- pear, that is, the repulsion range may not long range enough to maintain clusters with a regular size. There has been no systematic study of the state diagram yet for
Schematic phase diagrams of (a) systems with a short-range attraction, a wide range of the type-I SALR systems. All four liquid (b) systems with a type-II SALR interaction, and (c) systems with a type-I states shown in Figure 1(b) are in the one-phase region. SALR interaction. High temperature means a weak attraction. And low But as shown in Figure 1(c), when the range of the temperature means a strong attraction. SALR, short-range attraction and repulsion becomes smaller and smaller, it is reasonable long-range repulsion. to speculate that there should be a two-phase region of the SALR system as shown in Figure 1(c). This two- phase region should be at lower temperature than that of the binodal line of the reference attractive system. It When introducing a long-range repulsion to a system is expected that the dispersed ﬂuid state and random with a short-range attraction, computer simulations percolated state boundary above the binodal line of the show that the cluster size distribution of an SALR reference attractive system should be qualitatively system can show a local peak [13,23,49,58]. This in- similar, even though the structures of liquid states may dicates there is a formation of clusters with an optimal be different. And the clustered ﬂuid state region and size that is unique to some SALR systems. Godfrin et al. cluster percolated state region should become narrower deﬁned a clustered ﬂuid state if there is a cluster for- and eventually may disappear. It is, thus, very inter- mation with an optimal size. By studying many type-II esting to study the structures and dynamics for the and a couple of type-I SALR systems, Godﬁn et al.  systems sandwiched by these two binodal lines: one is found that in the one-phase region without any macro- the binodal line of the reference attractive system and scopic phase separation, there can be four different another one is the binodal line of the SALR system. liquid states: dispersed ﬂuid state, clustered ﬂuid state, When the range of the repulsion becomes inﬁnitesimally random percolated state, and cluster percolated state. small, the two-phase region should coincide with that of The schematic picture is shown in Figure 1(b). Note the reference attractive system. Certainly, more future that the existence of the long-range repulsion shifts the works are needed to systematically study the phase di- percolation line . Interestingly, for the systems they agram of the type-I SALR system. In addition, varying examined, the boundary between the dispersed ﬂuid the potential parameters continuously can shift the and clustered ﬂuid states approximately coincides with phase diagram from Figure 1(b) to Figure 1(c). It would
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be interesting to evaluate the potential parameters at strength can be controlled by the size and concentration the transition boundary of the phase diagram change, of polystyrene polymers. Cluster formation is observed which may or may not coincide with the empirical at low particle concentrations. By increasing the con- deﬁnition used here to classify different types of SALR centrations, clusters can percolate to form gels. Gelation colloidal systems. transitions happen at the volume fraction f, larger than 0.1 . Experimentally, using lysozyme samples at low-salinity solutions, the state diagram of lysozymes is studied Klix et al. studied the kinetic phase diagram of charged systematically at a wide range of concentrations and PMMA particles with the depletion attraction too . temperatures . Based on the interaction potential The repulsion range estimated at low concentrations is obtained from the experiments, these lysozyme samples about the size of the particle diameter. Therefore, at low are almost all type-I SALR systems. They are either in concentrations, this system is at the border line of the the dispersed ﬂuid state or in the random percolated type-I and type-II SALR systems. The interaction po- state . Thus, even though there are clusters formed tential parameters at higher concentrations were not in concentrated lysozyme solutions, there is no optimal discussed in the article. But it is possible that when the cluster size as there is no peak in their cluster size concentration increases, it is likely that this system distribution. The temperature dependence of the becomes mostly the type-I SALR system. Figure 2(a) structure and dynamics are quite different for a sample shows the phase diagram of their samples. They have in the dispersed ﬂuid region or in random percolated observed Wigner glassy state, cluster glassy state, and gel region [14,32]. state. The gel state is a structural arrested state. It is still not clear if Wigner glassy and cluster glassy states When the range of the attraction becomes much longer are true nonergodic states as they could not measure the than 20% of particle diameter, systems become type-III mean square displacements long enough to observe a SALR systems [46,55,59,60]. Archer et al. [46,47,55] plateau. Note that the volume fraction of the gel state is studied a type-III SALR system and discovered also larger than 0.1 similar to that is observed by different liquidevapor transitions: one is transition from Campbell et al.  It is interesting to note that the the vapor to a liquid of spherical clusters and another percolation transition also happens between 0.1 and 0.15 one is the transition to liquids with spherical voids. The volume fraction for many SALR systems when the equilibrium phase diagram has been also determined. attraction is very strong . Therefore, the gelation However, there are no experimental systems yet to transition for these experimental systems is likely driven verify the theoretical predictions in bulk solutions. by the percolation . Thus, the physics mechanisms of the gelation transition in these SALR systems are Nonequilibrium phase diagrams intrinsically different from those SHS systems with the Nonequilibrium phase diagrams, for example, gelation depletion attraction  but qualitatively agree with and glass transitions, of SALR systems have also been that of other SHS systems with different types of at- studied. Wu et al.  applied the mode coupling tractions [39,44], such as systems with bridging attrac- theory (MCT) by using the analytical structure factor of tions . two Yukawa potential as inputs to predict the kinetic phase diagram of a type-II SALR system .To Lysozyme samples in low-salinity solutions (type-I address the issue of the large heterogeneity density SALR systems) have also been studied in a wide range of distribution in SALR systems, cluster MCT approach concentration [14,32]. The true structural arrested has been proposed to understand the gelation transition transition has not been experimentally observed in low- . Using the computer simulation for a type-II SALR salinity lysozyme samples. As shown in Figure 2(b), at system, Sciortino et al.  proposed that gelation relative dilute conditions, all lysozyme samples (sym- transitions at low concentrations can be introduced by a bols) are in the dispersed ﬂuid states . By increasing glass transition driven by the repulsive interaction be- the concentration, they enter the random percolated tween clusters. Even though these theoretical works are state. But the mean square displacements of samples are useful qualitatively, most experimental systems are still still very large indicating mobile particles. By further type-I SALR systems. Hence, it is difﬁcult to have a increasing the concentrations, the normalized mean direct quantitative comparison between simulations/ square displacement of lysozymes becomes comparable theories and experimental results similar to what have to that of glassy states observed by Klix et al. [14,17,32]. been achieved in HS or SHS systems. Therefore, these lysozyme samples are proposed to be in a locally glassy state. Figure 2(b) shows that the locally Campbell et al.  studied the gelation transitions in glassy state is deep inside the random percolated state. charged PMMA particles in cycloheptyl bromide and Note that for all samples studied in Refs. [14, 32], they cis-decalin (type-I SALR system). The short-range all show Newtonian behavior as a function of shear rate attraction is the depletion attraction introduced by even for the samples in locally glassy states. The shear adding polystyrene polymers. The attraction range and thinning region happens only at the shear rate above www.sciencedirect.com Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 2019, 39:123–136 128 Special Topic Section: Outstanding Young Researchers in Colloid and Interface Science
Phase diagram of (a) glass and gelation transitions of a PMMA particle with both an SALR interaction; (Reprinted with permission from Ref.  Copyright (2010) by the American Physical Society. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.165702.) and (b) lysozyme samples at low-salty solutions . (Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry).