Teacher’s Guide for

Art History: A Century of

Ten 15-minute programs in and art appreciation for intermediate, junior high, high school, and adult students

Instructional designer and writer Donna Easter Metropolitan Nashville Schools

Producer-director Carol Cornsilk WDCN

© 1988 Nashville Public Television, Inc. WDCN, Nashville, Tennessee and the Agency for Instructional Technology

All rights reserved

This guide, or any part of it, may not be reproduced without written permission with the exception of the student summary sheets, which may be reproduced and distributed freely to students. All inquiries should be directed to Agency for Instructional Technology, Box A, Bloomington, IN 47402

Acknowledgements

Consultants Enid Zimmerman Candice Schilz Daria Smith Trudy Wilson

Credits Museum of , Los Angeles Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Allan Stone Gallery, Inc., New York National Endowment for the Arts BMW of North America, Inc. Newark Museum Baltimore Museum of Art Museum of Art Ben Rickert, Inc. Phillips Collection, Washington Brooklyn Museum Poster Originals, Limited, New York Cincinnati Art Museum Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago Country Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University Detroit Institute of Arts Rosenthal Art Slides, Chicago Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Sandak, Ind., Stamford, Connecticut Hirshhorn Museum and Garden, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Smithsonian Stephen Lawrence Company, Carlstadt, New Hunter Museum of Art, Chattanooga Jersey Jaguar Cars, Inc. Tennessee Arts Commission Lands’ End Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Temple, Nashville Maier Museum of Art, Randolph-Macon Toledo Museum of Art Women’s College Van Vechten Gallery, Fisk University Memphis Brooks Museum of Art Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond Metropolitan Museum of Art Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago

Contents

Introduction...... 1

Series Overview...... 2

European Artists

Program 1. ...... 5

Program 2. The Fauves...... 9

Program 3. ...... 14

Program 4. ...... 19

Program 5. ...... 24

Program 6. Modern Mavericks...... 29

American Artists

Program 7. American Landscapes ...... 37

Program 8. ...... 42

Program 9. ...... 47

Program 10. Pop ...... 52

Textbook Correlation Bibliography ...... 57

Textbook Correlation...... 58

Additional Resources...... 60

Introduction

Purpose of the Series Teachers should view the programs before showing them—if possible—to familiarize Art History: A Century of Modern Art is themselves with appropriate pauses for dis- designed to make art history exciting for cussion, clarification, and reinforcement. junior high, high school, and adult students of art, history, and the humanities. The ob- jective of the series is to help students recog- nize and appreciate the work of sixty modern Guide Format artists. Along with program objectives, summaries, and lists of featured artists and their works, Art History was designed to meet the this teacher’s guide contains a variety of National Art Education Association’s guide- opportunities for related discussions and lines for a quality art program, which em- classroom activities. Pre- and post-discus- phasize the importance of art history in the sion questions serve to prepare students to curriculum. view the program and to reinforce and re-

view its content. For each program, the guide The series presents famous modern Euro- contains a student summary sheet, which pean and American artists through works available for television: some notable art- could be given to students directly after the program for review, or withheld until after works had to be omitted because of unavail- the discussion questions have been an- ability. Other works were purposely omitted swered. The guide also contains activities for because the series is limited conceptually to each program expressly designed to extend the introduction of art history, aesthetics, the program content into both art analysis and criticism. For instructional purposes, characteristics of style and subject matter and art making. choices of the artists have been generalized. The series overview chart on page 3 enables teacher’s to see at a glance which artists are featured in each program. Program Format The textbook correlation on pages 58–59 Each program illustrates a modern Ameri- relates each Art History program to appro- can or European through a priate sections and related activities in 13 selection of works by several major artists. widely used art history, art appreciation, or Host Denice Hicks encourages students to art making texts. look carefully and critically at style and subject matter and to distinguish both simi- The resources on page 60 offer additional larities and differences among the featured well known texts and educational packages artists. Hicks discusses the selected works for enhancing, extending and reinforcing with humor and enthusiasm, relating the program content. artists’ personal histories and cultural and historical influences.

Each program ends with a review of the fea- tured artists during which Hicks offers quick clues—characteristic brush work, favored colors and subjects—for identifying their styles. At the end of each program, students are challenged to identify each artist through one work. Teachers may wish to elicit verbal or written responses at that time.

Introduction 1

European Artists

Program

1 Impressionism

Objectives Program Summary After watching the program and participating Manet is introduced as the Father of Modern in post-viewing discussion and related activi- Art and is credited with inspiring other nine- ties, students should be able to teenth century artists to emphasize their tal- ents and techniques, rather than lofty • recognize the styles of five Impression- subject matter. Manet’s followers, the Impres- ists: Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, sionists, were painters who tried to render and Cassatt; and two Post-Impres- the play of light on the surfaces of objects sionists: Seurat and Toulouse- with flickering touch and bright-colored Lautrec dabs. Four Impressionist masters—Manet, • understand that the shift to an em- Monet, Renoir, and Cassatt are presented. phasis on spontaneity and technique Post-Impressionism is explored through the rather than lofty subject matter sig- works of Seurat and Toulouse-Lautrec. At naled the beginning of modern art the end of the program the narrator quickly reviews each artist before flashing a work by each on the screen for students to identify.

Before the Program 1. The program title and artists’ names Presentation of Artists should be listed on the board. In this program, artists and their 2. Ask students to describe what they know are discussed in the order that follows. about or associate with Impressionism. 1. Manet What particular artists, paintings, im- Bar at the Folies Bergère ages, colors, ideas, or places—if any—do The Guitarist they associate with the movement? Re- Mademoiselle Victorine cord these on the chalkboard and refer to Woman with Parrot them in your post-viewing discussion. If the students are unfamiliar with Impres- sionism, ask them to look up the term in a dictionary. 2. Monet La Grenouillère 3. Ask students to brainstorm some quali- Landscape Near Zaandam ties or features that Impressionist art Grand Canal (Venice) might possess. Write their ideas on the Antibes chalkboard. Ask students to listen and Rouen Cathedral look for anything in the program that Bridge Over Waterlilies might support or contradict their ideas. Japanese Bridge

4. Tell students to pay close attention to 3. Renoir the styles and favorite subjects of each Madame Renoir artist presented. They will have an oppor- Mademoiselle Samary tunity to test their ability to identify each Two Young Girls artist’s style at the end of the program.

Program 1: Impressionism 5 4. Degas 5. At the Moulin Rouge (Toulouse- Dancers Practicing at the Bar Lautrec) Rehearsal of Ballet on Stage 6. Sketch of Mother and Daughter Dancers at Their Toilet Looking at the Baby (Cassatt) The Dancing Class 7. (Manet) Two Dancers

5. Cassatt In the Garden After the Program Women Admiring a Child Distribute the student summary sheet on

page 8. Use the summary sheet as a means 6. Seurat to review with students the artists and their Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La styles. The glossary will help students iden- Grande Jatte tify unfamiliar terms, places, and people. La

Discussion Questions 7. Toulouse-Lautrec Englishman at the Moulin Rouge 1. What painter is generally recognized Le Divan Japonais as the “Father of Modern Art”? Jane Avril (Manet) At the Nouveau Cirque At the Moulin Rouge 2. How were the paintings Manet dis- played before the French Academy of Art in 1863 different from the ac- Short Review of Artists cepted paintings of the period? (Manet’s subjects were everyday peo- Using the following paintings to illustrate ple, not kings and queens, or figures their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- from mythology. He emphasized and view of each artist. displayed his technical skill, rather than focusing on subject matter.) 1. Manet—Young Man in Costume 2. Monet—Haystacks in Snow 3. What technique of composition did Manet and the Impressionists borrow 3. Renoir—In the Meadow from Japanese artists? (the arrange- ment of subjects on the diagonal; “the 4. Degas—Dancers in Rehearsal slant”) 5. Cassatt—Mother and Child 4. Why did Monet frequently paint the 6. Seurat—La Chahut same subject more than once? (He 7. Toulouse-Lautrec—In a Private was fascinated by changes of atmo- Room at the Rat Mort sphere and of time upon his subjects.)

5. Which Impressionist said, “Skin is

never yellow, black, red, or white, but Student Challenge blue, orange, and lavender”? (Renoir) Do you agree? At the conclusion of the program, students are invited to identify the artists who created 6. Why do you think Degas used danc- the following works. ers as a frequent subject for his 1. Dancer with Fan (Degas) paintings? (possible answers: He was interested in the human form. The bal- 2. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of let dancers gave him an opportunity to La Grande Jatte (Seurat) study the human form in movement 3. By the Seashore (Renoir) and at rest.) Why did he make little or no attempt to conceal the original 4. San Giorgio Maggiore-Venice (Monet) sketch marks in his paintings? (De- gas, like Manet, wanted viewers to see his technical skill. He wanted viewers

6 Program 1: Impressionism to appreciate his technique—the proc- visual files, or let each student ess of drawing and itself—as choose one. Ask students to “enter part of the finished work.) the painting” and to write a story or poem about who they meet and what 7. What did Mary Cassatt have in com- they see, hear, and do there. Encour- mon with many other Impressionists? age them to write about colors and (Cassatt worked to infuse light into her forms as descriptively as possible. Op- canvases and used bright pigments.) tion: Have each student read his or her story or poem to the class. If each 8. What is ? (the scientific jux- student chose a painting, ask the taposition of dots of pure color to induce class to try to guess—based on their involuntary optical mixing—the brain readings—which painting each stu- blends the colors) In the program, dent chose. which Post-Impressionist painter was characterized as a Pointillist? (Seurat) 4. Explore color theory. Cut a variety of shapes from colored paper. Place two 9. Which Post-Impressionist painter was sheets of different-colored paper next also a master of poster design? (Tou- to each other. Cut two paper circles of louse-Lautrec) identical color and place one in the

center of each sheet. Compare the cir-

cles. Do they look the same? Does Activities one appear lighter? Darker? Ask stu- dents to discuss the changes they Analyzing Art perceive. Try this experiment with 1. Have students construct a visual file other colors and with various shades for each artist. The files could include of grey. reproductions from postcards, old calendars, and art magazines. Write 5. Have students look for the influences the artist’s name and the title of the of Impressionism on contemporary work on the back of each repro- visual arts, particularly in magazine duction. Use these files to create bul- illustrations and television adver- letin board displays, or to play tisements. Ask students to write a recognition games. Set aside time for verbal description of a magazine il- students to work with the files. For lustration or television ad, identifying example, you might create games that and explaining the Impressionist in- require students to organize the im- fluences they discover. ages by artist, subject matter, tech- nique, and compositional elements. Art Making

2. Show students a series of Impres- 1. Ask each student to paint a land- sionist and non-Impressionist works. scape or using the brush Ask them to identify which are Im- strokes, color scheme, and other pressionist works and which are not. techniques of the Impressionist During this process, encourage stu- painter of his or her choice. dents to formulate a definition of Im- pressionism based on their decisions. 2. Have each student make a sketch Write their ideas on the board as the journal of a nearby outdoor scene. discussion develops. Ask students to draw the scene at dif- ferent times of the day. Encourage 3. Ask students to take an imaginary them to use both written and visual journey into a painting. Select one notes to document the changing painting for the entire class from the light.

Program 1: Impressionism 7 Student Summary Sheet 1: Impressionism

Impressionism was a nineteenth-century movement that emphasized cap- turing the first impression of light at a given moment. The eye—not the brush—mixes the paint.

Artist Major Work Clues

Manet The Fifer the stare

Monet Sunrise mist, shimmering water

Renoir Luncheon of the Boating Party pretty girls having fun

Degas The Studio dancers on the diagonal

Cassatt Women Admiring a Child mothers and children

Seurat Sunday Afternoon on the Island dots-Pointillism of La Grande Jatte

Toulouse-Lautrec At the Moulin Rouge cabaret scenes

Glossary Giverny—small town in north- Salon—annual exhibition of painting west of , where Monet spent his last and sculpture in France, dating from the twenty years. seventeenth through the nineteenth cen- tury. Paris—capital of France. Salon des Refusés—the exhibition pro- Pointillism—an outgrowth of Impres- moted by Napoleon III in 1863 to show sionism based on the scientific juxtapo- works rejected by the Paris Salon. sition of dots of pure color. The brain blends the colors automatically in the in- Santa Maria Della Salute—Italian Ba- voluntary process of optical mixing. roque church in Venice, masterpiece of Baldassare Longhena (1598–1682). Rouen—city in France, northwest of Paris. Site of famous Gothic cathedral. Venice—A seaport in northeast , built on numerous small islands.

8 Program 1: Impressionism Program

2 The Fauves

Objectives Program Summary After watching the program and participating Van Gogh and Gauguin are presented in post-viewing discussion and activities, through some of their most colorful works. students should be able to Selections of their paintings reveal how both used color to express emotions, memories, • recognize the styles of van Gogh, moods, and fantasies, rather than to repre- Gauguin, and four Fauves: Matisse, sent objects precisely as they appear in na- Derain, Vlaminck, and Dufy ture. Exhilarated by this exciting new art, • understand that van Gogh’s tanta- the Fauves brought new life through color to lizing complementary colors and French painting. The Fauves, or “Wild Gauguin’s arbitrary use of color freed Beasts” represented here are Matisse, Derain, other artists to assign any color to Vlaminck, and Dufy. Viewers see how van any object Gogh’s influence appears in the work of Vlaminck and how Matisse adopted some of the qualities of his line from Gauguin. At the end of the program, the narrator quickly re- Before the Program views each artist before flashing a work by 1. The program title and artists’ names each on the screen for students to identify. should be listed on the board.

2. Ask students to describe what they know Presentation of Artists about or associate with the Fauves or . What particular artists, paint- In this program, artists and their paintings ings, images, colors, ideas, or places—if are discussed in the order that follows. any—do they associate with the move- 1. Van Gogh ment? Record these on the chalkboard Self-Portrait and refer to them in your post-viewing Arles: View from the Wheatfields discussion. If your students are unfamil- Olive Trees iar with the Fauves, have them look up View of Arles with Irises in the Fore- the term in a French/English dictionary ground or encyclopedia. Still Life with Fruit Van Gogh’s Chair 3. Discuss the meaning of fauve (wild beast). Sunflowers Ask students to imagine what kind of Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear and artists might earn such a nickname. Pipe Write their ideas on the chalkboard. Ask students to listen and look for anything 2. Gauguin in the program that might support or Self-Portrait with Halo contradict their ideas. Parahi Te Marae (There Is the Temple) Ia Orana Maria (Ave Maria) 4. Tell students to pay close attention to Tahitian Landscape the styles and favorite subjects of each Street in Tahiti artist presented. They will have an oppor- tunity to test their ability to identify each artist’s style at the end of the program.

Program 2: The Fauves 9 5. Vlaminck 3. Matisse View from Martigues Trivaux Pond A Glimpse of Notre Dame in the Late 6. Dufy Mediterranean Scene Afternoon

Still Life with Geraniums and Fruit

Still Life Interior, Nice, 1918 Student Challenge Music Breakfast At the conclusion of the program, students are invited to identify the artists who created Purple Robe and Anemones the following works Sorrow of the King 1. I Raro Te Oviri (Under the Pandamus) 4. Derain (Gauguin) Matisse Matisse 2. The Pool of London (Derain) Road in the Mountain 3. The Sower-detail (van Gogh) The Trees Port Le Havre 4. Versailles (Dufy) St. Paul’s from the Thames 5. The Moorish Screen (Matisse) House at Chatou 6. The Blue House (Vlaminck) 5. Vlaminck Sailboats on the Seine Village After the Program

6. Van Gogh Duplicate and distribute the student sum- The Langlois Bridge mary sheet on page 13. Use the summary sheet as a means to review with students the 7. Vlaminck artists and their styles. The glossary will help View of the Seine students identify unfamiliar terms, places, and people. 8. Dufy Villerville Discussion Questions Chaumont 1. Why might it be said that the Fauves Saumur “scandalized with color the whole of Beach at Le Havre Europe”? (Some critics found the Nice Fauves’ use of bright and arbitrary col- Chateau and Horses ors uncontrolled, wild, and barbaric.) The Opera, Paris 2. Van Gogh was a forerunner of the Fauves. How did he express turbu- Short Review of Artists lent, sometimes violent emotions in his paintings? (He used color and Using the following paintings to illustrate broad, bold brush work to show emo- their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- tions. Sometimes he used colors in view of each artist. complementary arrangements, or juxta- 1. Van Gogh posed color opposites to evoke terrible The Olive Grove emotions.)

2. Gauguin 3. What forerunner of the Fauves was Te Tamari No Atua (Son of God) known for his exotic paintings of Ta- 3. Matisse hitian life? (Gauguin) Woman Seated in Armchair 4. Derain House of Parliament at Night

10 Program 2: The Fauves 4. How did Gauguin’s use of color differ 10. Why did the narrator characterize from the way artists had traditionally Dufy as “the gentle Fauve”? (Dufy’s used color in the nineteenth century? brush work is usually lighter and softer (Gauguin used arbitrary colors—colors than the brush work of Vlaminck, De- that don’t correspond to nature. For ex- rain, or Matisse. His work is more lyri- ample, he may have painted a mauve cal and charming than intensely mountain, or a turquoise tree, not be- emotional. He used black sparingly cause they appeared that way in na- and often painted first and drew last. ture, but be-cause he saw them that He drew to accent his forms rather than way in his imagination or memory.) to heavily outline them, as some Fauves did.) 5. What did the narrator mean when she said van Gogh and Gauguin lib- erated with color the work of their Activities successors—Matisse, Derain, Vlaminck, and Dufy? (van Gogh and Analyzing Art Gauguin began to use color as a means of expressing and evoking emotions, 1. Have students construct a visual file ideas, and fantasies rather than as a for each artist. The files could include means of depicting objects as they ap- reproductions from postcards, old pear in nature. The Fauves adopted calendars, and art magazines. Write these color experiments and carried the artist’s name and the title of the them on in a variety of styles.) work on the back of each repro- duction. Use these files to create bul- 6. Who is known as “King of the letin board displays, or to play Fauves”? (Matisse) Why? (Matisse was recognition games. Set aside time for magnificently trained, a skillful practi- students to work with the files. For tioner who knew the color theories of all example, you might create games that of the past masters. His inventiveness require students to organize the im- with color and his curving lines pro- ages by artist, subject matter, tech- foundly influenced the course of modern nique, and compositional elements. art.) 2. Show students a series of Fauvist 7. Describe a scene that Matisse might and non-Fauvist works. Ask them to have enjoyed painting and explain identify which are Fauvist works and why. (many possible answers) which are not. During this process, encourage students to formulate a 8. Which Fauve painted several portraits definition of Fauvism based on their of Matisse and many landscapes and decisions. Write their ideas on the riverscapes of England and France? board as the discussion develops. (Derain) How was he influenced by Gauguin? (Like Gauguin, Derain often 3. Ask students to take an imaginary used pure zones of color juxtaposed journey into a painting. Select one against each other, or outlined in painting for the entire class from the black.) visual files, or let each student choose one. Ask students to “enter 9. What earlier painter was Vlaminck the painting” and to write a story or most influenced by? (van Gogh) Com- poem about who they meet and what pare and contrast his style with van they see, hear, and do there. Encour- Gogh’s. (Both Vlaminck and van Gogh age them to write about colors and used black as an actual color, not just forms as descriptively as possible. Op- as a means of shading and toning. tion: Have each student read his or Both depicted turbulent emotion in their her story or poem to the class. If each landscapes. Vlaminck’s brush work is student chose a painting, ask the wilder and wider than van Gogh’s, his class to try to guess—based on their colors more Fauve and often darker— readings—which painting each stu- black skies.) dent chose.

Program 2: The Fauves 11 4. Show students an early work and a wallpaper samples). Have each stu- later work by Matisse. In class dis- dent make a painting of the class- cussion, compare and contrast the two paintings. Possible questions: room incorporating many of these patterns into walls, desks, floor, etc. Did his style change? How? What Ask students to share and discuss elements are different in the later their paintings. work? Option: You may choose to

have several students research the 2. Show students some works by two works and share their findings with the class. Gauguin and other Fauves that fea- ture the use of arbitrary color. Ask students to paint a still life using ar- Art Making bitrary colors. Afterward, ask stu- dents to show and explain their 1. Have students study several Matisse choice of colors. paintings that feature patterns. Bring to class samples of patterns (fabric or

12 Program 2: The Fauves Student Summary Sheet 2: The Fauves

The Fauves (Wild Beasts) were a group of French painters who exhibited their work at the Salon d’Automne ( Salon) in 1905. They were called wild beasts because of their use of harsh, arbitrary color, violent distortion, and broad, bold brush work.

Artist Major Work Clues

Van Gogh Starry Night violent strokes

Gauguin Ia Orana Maria Tahiti

Matisse Open Window patterns and cut-outs

Derain London Bridge “Duran Duran”

Vlaminck Fauve Landscape “violent Vlaminck thanks van Gogh”

Dufy Nice. des Anglais painted first, drew later

Glossary arbitrary color—color from the imagina- Marquesas—a group of French islands in tion. the South Pacific. casbah—Algerian quarter with booths. Riviera—the Mediterranean coastline of France. celadon—a pale gray-green. spontaneous—resulting from a natural cerulean—deep blue; sky blue; azure. impulse. dénouement—unfolding. Tahiti—the principal island of the So- heliotrope—light purple; reddish laven- ciety Islands in the South Pacific. der. vermillion—scarlet red. juxtaposed—placed close together, or Versailles—in northern France, a palace side by side for comparison or contrast. of the French kings.

Program 2: The Fauves 13 Program

3 Expressionism

Objectives tunity to test their ability to identify each artist’s style at the end of the program. After watching the program and participating in post-viewing discussion and activities, students should be able to Program Summary • recognize the styles of six Express- Expressionism in art is the communication ionist painters: Munch, Kirchner, of feelings. Northern artists, in general, Kandinsky, Marc, Jawlensky, and adopted eerie forms and colors that were dic- Beckmann tated by cold weather, isolation, and the • understand that external forces such struggle to make a living. Their feelings re- as cold weather, unemployment, and garding these circumstances are seen political unrest influenced the styles through works by the Norwegian Munch; the of northern artists Russians Kandinsky and Jawlensky; and the Germans Kirchner, Marc, and Beckmann. Expressionist works date from the turn of the century to the post-war years of the Before the Program 1940s. Two major Expressionist groups are 1. The program title and artists’ names discussed. The first is Die Brücke (The should be listed on the board. Bridge), a band of artists including Kirchner that formed around 1905 and sought to 2. Ask students to describe what they know unite a new generation of northern artists. about or associate with the Expression- ists or Expressionism. What particular (The Blue Rider), which artists, paintings, images, colors, ideas, formed around 1911, was a more intellectual or places—if any—do they associate with and experimental group including Kandin- the movement? Record these on the sky, Marc, and Jawlensky. The program de- chalkboard and refer to them in your scribes the Expressionist’s—particularly post-viewing discussion. Kandinsky’s—gradual movement toward ab- straction. Paintings by Marc and Beckmann 3. If the students are not familiar with Ex- demonstrate how social and political factors pressionism, ask them to make some also influenced these artists. At the end of speculations based on their understand- the program, the narrator quickly reviews ing of the word “expression.” Ask them to each artist before flashing a work by each on brainstorm some qualities or features the screen for students to identify. that an art focused on expression might possess. Write their ideas on the chalk- board. Ask students to listen and look for Presentation of Artists anything in the program that might sup- port or contradict their ideas. In this program, artists and their paintings are discussed in the order that follows. 4. Tell students to pay close attention to 1. Munch the styles and favorite subjects of each The Scream artist presented. They will have an oppor- Moonshine

14 Program 3: Expressionism 2. Dufy Short Review of Artists La Promenade Des Anglais Using the following paintings to illustrate 3. Monet their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- Antibes view of each artist.

4. Munch 1. Munch Anxiety Ashes Self-Portrait Man in Cabbage Patch 2. Kirchner The Dance of Life (Unknown) Girls on a Bridge 3. Kandinsky Two Girls by An Apple Tree Improvisation 1914

5 Kirchner 4. Marc Wrestlers in Circus The Mandrill Seated Woman 5. Jawlensky Woman in Street Seated Woman Women in Street 6. Beckmann 6. Kandinsky Self-Portrait Landscape with Two Poplars Study for Improvisation #5 Autumn Student Challenge Fragment 2 for Composition #7 Composition Storm At the conclusion of the program, students Landscape are invited to identify the artists who created Circles in a Circle the following works. Violet (poster) 1. Improvisation #29 (Kandinsky)

7. Marc 2. (Unknown) (Kirchner) Blue Horses 3. Animals in Landscape (Marc) Deer in the Forest The Red Deer 4. (Unknown) (Jawlensky) Cattle 5. Self-Portrait (Beckmann) The Wolves (Balkan War) 6. The Voice (Munch) 8. Jawlensky of Woman Girl with Green Face After the Program Head of Woman Duplicate and distribute the student sum- 9. Beckmann mary sheet on page 18. Use the summary Self-Portrait sheet as a means to review with students the Beginning artists and their styles. The glossary will help Blindman’s Buff students identify unfamiliar terms, places, Aerial Acrobat and people.

10. Munch Discussion Questions The Scream 1. What do you think Norwegian master 11. Beckmann Edvard Munch meant by his state- Carnival in Naples ment “I hear the scream in Nature”? What aspects of his artistic style or subject matter support your ideas? (many possible answers)

Program 3: Expressionism 15 2. What environmental factors influ- 9. Which member of Der Blaue Reiter enced Munch’s painting? (harsh, cold (The Blue Rider) created what might weather; barren landscapes; darkness, be described as a “shelter of color” for isolation) Imagine that you are an art- the animals he painted? (Marc) Why ist. What aspects of your environ- did Marc’s paintings gradually become ment might be reflected in your art? more fragmented and his animals (many possible answers) more tormented? (His later paintings were an expression of his growing dis- 3. Why did Munch’s style of painting in- satisfaction with the political situation spire German artists in the early years in . Also, he was influenced of this century? (Many artists were by the Cubists.) disgusted and disappointed with their government and with the authoritarian 10. What personal experience may be re- attitudes prevalent in German society. flected in Max Beckmann’s scenes of Munch’s tragic subject matter and people packed into suffocatingly tight bleak palette inspired them to develop spaces? (Beckmann spent time in the styles that expressed their own anxiety, trenches as a medical orderly during anger, and despair.) World War I.) What emotions do you feel when you look at his paintings? 4. To what group of Expressionist (many possible answers) painters did Kirchner belong? (Die Brücke—The Bridge) What was the significance of their name? (They tried Activities to “bridge the gap” between French and German art and to unite northern Ex- Analyzing Art pressionist artists from , , Austria, and Russia.) 1. Have students construct a visual file for each artist. The files could include 5. What shape did Kirchner often use reproductions from postcards, old repeatedly in his paintings to express calendars, and art magazines. Write a sense of anxiety and nervousness? the artist’s name and the title of the (v-shape) Why is it effective in creating work on the back of each reproduc- these emotions? (many possible an- tion. Use these files to create bulletin swers) board displays, or to play recognition games. Set aside time for students to 6. At the beginning of his career Kand- work with the files. For example, you insky painted predictable, traditional might create games that require stu- landscapes. What style did he gradu- dents to organize the images by artist, ally adopt? (abstraction) subject matter, technique, and com- positional elements. 7. What is ? (Art in which elements of form, not surface appear- 2. Show students a series of Expres- ance, have been stressed in handling sionist and non-Expressionist works. subject matter, which may or may not Ask them to identify which are Ex- be recognizable. An abstract painting pressionist works and which are not. may possess no visible subject or rec- During this process, encourage stu- ognizable objects, but it may express dents to formulate a definition of Ex- the artist’s emotions, moods, and ideas pressionism based on their decisions. through line and color.) Write their ideas on the board as the discussion develops. 8. Are Kandinsky’s abstract paintings meaningless? (Kandinsky’s abstract 3. Ask students to take an imaginary canvases reflect his interest in the idea journey into a painting. Select one that, like music, form and color can stir painting for the entire class from the our emotions and make us think. Ab- visual files, or let each student stract art is not always de-void of choose one. Ask students to “enter meaning simply because it is abstract.) the painting” and to write a story or

16 Program 3: Expressionism poem about who they meet and what 2. Ask each student to choose an ex- they see, hear, and do there. Encour- treme weather condition (blizzard, age them to write about colors and hurricane, wind storm, etc.) and forms as descriptively as possible. Op- paint a landscape that reflects the tion: Have each student read his or condition through exaggeration. her story or poem to the class. If each student chose a painting, ask the 3. Show students several of Kandin- class to try to guess—based on their sky’s abstract paintings and discuss readings—which painting each stu- the different brush techniques he dent chose. used. Using watercolor, have each student paint an abstract, explora- 4. Show students an improvisation by tory composition using a variety of Kandinsky and a work by Kirchner. In brush techniques. class discussion, compare and con- trast the two paintings. How are they 4. Show students some of the animal different? How are they alike in ex- compositions of Kandinsky and Marc. pression? Option: You may choose to Have each student paint a portrait of have several students research the a favorite animal using colors, lines, two works and share their findings and a composition that characterizes with the class. the animal. Or have students draw an animal or object in motion using line and shape repetition to express Art Making energy and rhythmic motion. 1. Have each student paint a self- portrait that expresses an exagger- ated emotion. Encourage them to choose a color scheme that helps ex- press the emotion.

Program 3: Expressionism 17 Student Summary Sheet 3: Expressionism

Expressionism is art in which the emotions of an artist take precedence over a realistic rendering of subject matter. Expressionist compositions and forms tend toward distor- tion and exaggeration. In modern art, Expressionism is associated with the German movements Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) and with the period between the turn of the century and the post-war years of the 1940s.

Artist Major Work Clues

Munch The Scream the wail; the cry; wavy lines in the sky

Kirchner The Street v-shapes; angularity; street scenes

Kandinsky Improvisation abstraction; horseback riders

Marc Blue Horses hidden animals; Cubist landscapes

Jawlensky Head of Woman rainbow faces; heavy lashes

Beckmann Blindman’s Buff heavy outlines; mouths like gashes

Glossary abstract art—art in which elements of fiord—long, narrow arm of the sea form, not surface appearance, have been formed by glacial erosion. stressed in handling subject matter, marzipan—German almond candy which may or may not be recognizable. molded into fruits and other whimsical anxiety—distress or uneasiness caused shapes. by fear of danger or misfortune. Munich—city in southwest Germany. Berlin—city in East Germany. Norway—kingdom in northern Europe, Der Blaue Reiter—(German, The Blue in the west part of the Scandinavian Rider) a group of Munich-based artists peninsula. who came together in 1911 to bear wit- ness to modern art. Stravinsky—(Igor. 1882–1971) American composer born in Russia. Die Brücke—(German, The Bridge) a group of German Expressionist painters associating in Dresden about 1905. The counterpart to the Fauves, Die Brücke used strong color, broad forms, and hard outlines.

18 Program 3: Expressionism Program

4 Cubism

Objectives Program Summary After watching the program and participating in post-viewing discussion and activities, In abbreviated terms, Cubism is a style com- students should be able to posed of cubes, cones, and cylinders. It is presented here as the blockbuster of modern • recognize the styles of eight Cubist art. is hailed as the genius behind painters: Cézanne, Picasso, Braque, Cubism. “His name alone sums up the cen- Gris, Delaunay, Léger, Duchamp, and tury in art,” the narrator says. The program Mondrian describes how Cézanne’s paintings, with • understand that the Cubists took Cé- their architectural and geometrical qualities, zanne’s geometrical forms and re- inspired Picasso, Braque, and Gris to create a organized them imaginatively into new art capable of interpreting the new ideas various contexts of the century.

Selections from these artists’ works illustrate some characteristics of Cubism: multiple and Before the Program mixed perspectives, emphasis on multi- 1. The program title and artists’ names dimensions, abstraction, and mono- should be listed on the board. chromatic palettes. The works of Delaunay, Léger, Duchamp, and Mondrian demonstrate 2. Ask students to describe what they know the breadth of the movement and illustrate about or associate with the Cubists or how it reflected the upheavals of the twenti- Cubism. What particular artists, paint- eth century. ings, images, colors, ideas, or places—if any—do they associate with the move- ment? Record these on the chalkboard Presentation of Artists and refer to them in your post-viewing discussion. If the students are unfamiliar In this program, artists and their paintings with Cubism, have them look up the term are discussed in the order that follows. in a dictionary or encyclopedia. 1. Picasso (Unknown) 3. Ask students to brainstorm some quali- (Unknown) ties or features that Cubist art might (Unknown) possess. Write their ideas on the chalk- Woman Weeping board. Ask students to listen and look for anything in the program that might sup- 2. Cézanne port or contradict their ideas. Self-Portrait in Bowler Hat Mont Sainte-Victoire #1 4. Tell students to pay close attention to Mont Sainte-Victoire #2 the styles and favorite subjects of each The Card Players #1 artist presented. They will have an oppor- Man in a Straw Hat tunity to test their ability to identify each Madame Cézanne in the Conservatory artist’s style at the end of the program. Still Life Oranges on a Plate

Program 4: Cubism 19 Still Life Still Life with Peaches and Cherries Red Tree The Card Players #2 Composition in Black and Gray Self-Portrait Composition with Blue (Unknown) 3. Picasso (Unknown) Study for Les Demoiselles d’Avignon Painting #9 The Lovers (Unknown) Mother and Child Short Review of Artists The Coiffure Girl Ironing Using the following paintings to illustrate their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- view of each artist. Half-Length Nude Violin and Compote 1. Cézanne Lake Annecy Woman by the Sea 2. Picasso The Red Arm Chair (Unknown) Still Life with Glass and Lemon 3. Braque 4. Braque Still Life Flute and Harmonica 4. Gris Basket with Fish Still Life with Guitar Still Life (Guitar) Still Life (Vin) 5. Delaunay Still Life on Table (Café Bar) (Unknown) Musical Forms 6. Léger Still Life (Reverse on Table) Man with Dog

5. Gris 7. Duchamp The Table Nude Descending a Staircase #2 La Place Ravignan 8. Mondrian Abstraction: Still Life with Guitar Composition with Blue and Yellow

6. Delaunay (Unknown) (Unknown) Student Challenge #1 At the conclusion of the program, students Eiffel Tower #2 are invited to identify the artists who created Sun, Tower, Airplane the following works.

7. Léger 1. (Unknown) (Delaunay) The Yellow Stair 2. Mont Sainte-Victoire #3 (Cézanne) Smoke 3. Musical Forms (Braque) The Mechanic 4. Portrait of Chess Players (Duchamp) Contrast of Forms 5. The Open Window (Gris) 8. Duchamp Nude Descending a Staircase #2 6. Cow with Red, Yellow, and Blue Nude Descending a Staircase #1 (Mondrian) 7. Mother and Child—study (Léger) 9. Mondrian Red Mill 8. (Unknown) (Picasso) Yellow Mill Blue Pot

20 Program 4: Cubism After the Program ferent or multidimensional personali- ties, or to suggest shifting time and Duplicate and distribute the student sum- space. He also wanted to de-emphasize mary sheet on page 23. Use the summary subject and color and to emphasize sheet as a means to review with students the form.) artists and their styles. The glossary will help students identify unfamiliar terms, places, 6. How were Picasso’s and Braque’s and people. Cubist paintings like modern jazz? (Just as the melody of a jazz piece is Discussion Questions frequently fragmented or taken apart and explored musically, Braque and 1. How did Cézanne’s paintings influ- Picasso fragmented and explored their ence the development of Cubism? (Cé- subjects by breaking them down into zanne emphasized the architectural pieces [Analytical Cubism], or by put- and geometrical qualities of his sub- ting elements together in form jects. His landscapes and still lifes [Synthetic Cubism].) have angularity, mass, volume, and

weight; even his people are squared off. 7. What favorite subject did Joan Gris The Cubists were inspired by his work frequently paint? (cafés, café tables, and continued his experiments with Café Ravignan) form.)

8. What artist attempted to free Cubism 2. Cézanne’s paintings became more ab- from its original palette of browns, stract toward the end of his life. Why blues, and grays with “stained glass do you think he became less inter- colors”? () ested in depicting his subjects as they

might be seen through a camera lens? 9. What themes and images appear in (many possible answers) Note to both Léger’s and Duchamp’s paint- teacher: Cézanne discovered that by ings? (mechanization, robots and the probing and searching his subjects he mechanization of the human figure; in- could discern qualities of structure be- dustrial settings; the dehumanizing yond visible reality. He literally looked qualities of the mechanical age) for the “cylinder, sphere, and cone”

within his subjects. He realized that 10. Which Cubist painted highly ab- painting could do more with a subject stract, seemingly aerial views of Hol- that just reproduce it. land and New York City? (Piet

Mondrian) 3. What do you think Picasso meant

when he said “I paint objects as I

think them, not as I see them”? (many possible answers) Activities

4. What were some of the artistic, social, Analyzing Art or scientific influences that led to the 1. Have students construct a visual file development of Cubism? (Cézanne’s for each artist. The files could include paintings; non-European art, especially reproductions from postcards, old African masks; the development of new calendars, and art magazines. Write mechanical and electrical technologies the artist’s name and the title of the such as the airplane and the radio; work on the back of each reproduc- Freudian theory.) tion. Use these files to create bulletin board displays, or to play recognition 5. What do you think Picasso and games. Set aside time for students to Braque were trying to achieve or real- work with the files. For example, you ize in their Cubist canvases? (many might create games that require stu- possible answers) Note to teacher: Pi- dents to organize the images by artist, casso wanted to show all sides of a subject matter, technique, and com- subject at once, perhaps to suggest dif- positional elements.

Program 4: Cubism 21 2. Show students a series of Cubist and Art Making non-Cubist works. Ask them to iden- 1. Show students a reproduction of tify which are Cubist works and which are not. During this process, Duchamp’s Nude Descending the Staircase and discuss how Duchamp encourage students to formulate a achieved a sense motion in the sub- definition of Cubism based on their ject. Ask students to draw a series of decisions. Write their ideas on the five gesture drawings in which a sub- board as the discussion develops. ject completes an action in five steps

3. Ask students to take an imaginary (throwing a ball, walking while swing- ing arms, etc.). If students are suffi- journey into a painting. Select one ciently advanced, ask them to overlap painting for the entire class from the each successive gesture drawing so visual files, or let each student that their figures appear to move choose one. Ask students to “enter across the page. the painting” and to write a story or poem about who they meet and what 2. Show students works by Braque, Pi- they see, hear, and do there. Encour- casso, and Gris that feature multiple age them to write about colors and perspectives of objects. Ask each stu- forms as descriptively as possible. Op- dent to draw a simple still life that in- tion: Have each student read his or cludes more than one view of an her story or poem to the class. If each student chose a painting, ask the object. Objects may also be split in half in the drawings to create visual class to try to guess—based on their interest. The drawings could be com- readings—which painting each stu- pleted in oil pastels, charcoal, or pen- dent chose. cil.

4. Show students a reproduction of Pi- casso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon and 3. Show students several examples of Synthetic Cubism and discuss the several examples of African masks. In use and effect of collage in the paint- class discussion, compare and con- ings. Ask each student to create a trast the painting and the masks. Cubist drawing that incorporates col- Possible questions: What shapes are lage elements (letters or patterns). En- common to both? How would you de- scribe these shapes? What effect does courage them to keep their shapes and forms simple and to concentrate the influence of African carving have on the unique surface qualities of on the painting? Option: You may each object. choose to have several students re- search the history of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon and share their findings with the class.

5. Explore the influence of Cubism upon successive twentieth century artists. Show students some examples of the work of Stuart Davis, an American painter (1894–1964). Have students identify and discuss Cubist influences in his work.

22 Program 4: Cubism Student Summary Sheet 4: Cubism

Cubism was in 1907 a new art that took up Cézanne’s search for basic geometric forms in nature. Cubism was mainly concerned with the liberation of form; color played a sec- ondary role. Some characteristics of Cubism included multiple and mixed perspectives, multiple dimensions, abstraction, and monochromatic palettes.

Artist Major Work Clues

Cézanne Mont Sainte-Victoire cubes, cones, cylinders; Cézanne-Cubism

Picasso Les Demoiselles d’Avignon faces seen simultaneously from front and side views

Braque Still Life with Violin brown and blue still lifes

Gris La Place Ravignan v-shaped spotlights on still lifes

Delaunay Circular Forms “round Cubism”

Léger Three Women tin men, “

Duchamp Nude Descending a Staircase “explosion in a shingle factory”

Mondrian Broadway Boogie Woogie red, white, blue, and yellow tulip fields

Glossary Aix-en-Provence—city in northeastern intellectual—possessing or showing France, north of . mental capacity to a high degree; brainy, cerebral. classical—pertaining to Greek and Ro- man antiquity. monochromatic—consisting of one color. Possessing tones of one color in cylindrical—shaped like a tin can. addition to the ground hue. Freud—(Sigmund. 1856–1939) Austrian nostalgic—reminiscent of one’s home, neurologist and founder of psycho- family, friends, and former times. analysis. Noyes—(Alfred. 1880–1958) English poet. geometrical—resembling the lines of fig- ures used in Geometry. psychoanalysis—a technical procedure for investigating unconscious mental Holland—a kingdom in western Europe, processes. bordering on the North Sea, West Ger- many, and Belgium. Also called The Netherlands.

Program 4: Cubism 23 Program

5 Surrealism

Objectives each artist presented. They will have an opportunity to test their ability to After watching the program and participating identify each artist’s style at the end in post-viewing discussion and activities, of the program. students should be able to

• recognize the styles and subject mat- ter of six Surrealist painters: Dali, Program Summary Miró, Rousseau, Magritte, de Chirico, Surrealism is the name given to the explora- and Chagall tion of dreams, thought, and the uncon- • understand that Surrealism in art scious mind through art. It is a kind of can be best appreciated when indi- “dictation of the imagination” in which the vidual artist’s symbols and subject undeniable and the unbelievable coexist. The matter choices are revealed lush fantasy paintings of the French artist Rousseau—an important early fore-runner of the Surrealists—show the beginnings of fan- tasy and of inner and other reality in Surre- Before the Program alist paintings. Through the works of the 1. The program title and artists’ names Spaniards Dali and Miró, the program dem- should be listed on the board. onstrates how the Surrealists developed original and often highly personal vocabular- 2. Ask students to describe what they ies of imagery. know about or associate with the Surrealists or Surrealism. What par- The program illustrates the variety of styles ticular artists, paintings, images, col- and concerns of the Surrealists through the ors, ideas, or places—if any—do they provocative canvases of Magritte, de Chirico, associate with the movement? Record and Chagall. The narrator suggests that Sur- these on the chalkboard and refer to realism reflects an early twentieth century them in your post-viewing discussion. obsession with the unconscious mind and psychology, and with the absurdity and irra- 3. If the students are not familiar with tionality of war. Surrealism, ask them to look up the term in a dictionary. Encourage them to make some speculations about Presentation of Artists Surrealist art based on the definition. Have them brainstorm some qualities In this program, artists and their paintings or features that Surrealist art might are discussed in the order that follows. possess. Write their ideas on the 1. Dali chalkboard. Ask students to listen (Unknown) and look for anything in the program Banquet in the Sun that might support or contradict their The Last Supper ideas. Sleep Self-Portrait 4. Tell students to pay close attention to Mae West the styles and favorite subjects of

24 Program 5: Surrealism 2. Miró 6. Chagall The Farm Poet with Birds Self-Portrait Man with Pipe Woman Student Challenge Night Guided by Snails At the conclusion of the program, students (Unknown) are invited to identify the artists who created Head of Woman the following works. 3. Rousseau 1. Waterfall (Rousseau) Self-Portrait Repast of the Lion 2. The Dance and the Circus (Chagall) Young Girl 3. Self-Portrait (De Chirico) Landscape with Cattle Carnival 4. (Unknown) (Miró) Notre Dame 5. Desire (Dali) 4. Magritte 6. (Unknown) (Magritte) Rêve (Dream) The Surprise Answer Liberator Not to Be Reproduced After the Program Promenade Duplicate and distribute the student sum- Time Transfixed mary sheet on page 28. Use the summary sheet as a means to review with students the 5. De Chirico artists and their styles. The glossary will help The Philosopher students identify unfamiliar terms, places, (Unknown) and people. Self-Portrait

Departure Peasant Life Discussion Questions 1. Why can Surrealism be characterized 6. Chagall as a kind of “dictation of the imagina- Red Rooster tion”? (Many Surrealists drew upon Then the Old Woman Mounted on personal fantasies and dreams for their the Ifrit’s Back subjects—they dictated these images The Poet onto canvas, allowing others to experi-

ence them.) Short Review of Artists 2. What social, scientific, or political Using the following paintings to illustrate factors influenced the Surrealists? their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- (Freud’s and Jung’s investigations into view of each artist. the nature of the unconscious; the shocking and frequently irrational bru- 1. Dali tality of World War I) (Unknown)

2. Miró 3. The Surrealists frequently used sym- (Unknown) bols as a kind of shorthand for ideas and hidden meanings. What are some 3. Rousseau of the frequently recurring symbols in Merry Jesters the paintings of Dali? (insects, melting 4. Magritte watches) Of Miró? (asterisks stand for (Unknown) stars; scribbles for birds)

5. De Chirico 4. Why is Rousseau considered an im- (Unknown) portant artist even though he was not formally trained and did not con- form to traditional rules of scale and

Program 5: Surrealism 25 perspective? (Rousseau’s art was spon- calendars, and art magazines. Write taneous. Spontaneity of expression was the artist’s name and the title of the highly regarded by the Surrealists, work on the back of each reproduc- who surmised that Rousseau’s fantasy tion. Use these files to create bulletin jungles and animals were connected to board displays, or to play recognition our primitive, un-conscious memories, games. Set aside time for students to magical beliefs, and fantasies, and work with the files. For example, you therefore closer to the essential myster- might create games that require stu- ies of existence than academic, overly dents to organize the images by artist, intellectualized art.) subject matter, technique, and com- positional elements. 5. What effect do you think Magritte was trying to achieve through his use 2. Show students a series of Surrealist of “dislocation” (taking an object out and non-Surrealist works. Ask them of its usual context and putting it in to identify which are Surrealist works an unfamiliar one—as in the train in and which are not. During this proc- the fireplace in Time Transfixed)? ess, encourage students to formulate (many possible answers) Note to a definition of Surrealism based on teacher: Magritte, like other Surrealists, their decisions. Write their ideas on used techniques to create visual jolts in- the board as the discussion develops. tended to shock viewers into seeing ob- jects and their hid-den relationships 3. Ask students to take an imaginary with fresher and more penetrating vi- journey into a painting. Select one sion. painting for the entire class from the visual files, or let each student 6. Why can de Chirico’s work be charac- choose one. Ask students to “enter terized as “vacant vistas where time is the painting” and to write a story or layered”? (many possible answers: the poem about who they meet and what emptiness of the courtyards, piazzas, they see, hear, and do there. Encour- and other open spaces in his paintings age them to write about colors and seems to signify timeless-ness. His jux- forms as descriptively as possible. Op- taposition of old towers and tion: Have each student read his or with modern trains and vehicles sug- her story or poem to the class. If each gest layers of history—the past and student chose a painting, ask the present fused into eternity.) class to try to guess—based on their readings—which painting each stu- 7. What Surrealist created a joyful, dent chose. sometimes mournful dream imagery in which figures frequently float 4. Show students a work by Rousseau through the air? (Chagall) What did and a work by Dali. In class discus- the narrator mean when she said sion, compare and contrast the two Chagall “favors irrational arrange- paintings. After comparing the two ments of natural objects”? (The sub- paintings, ask students what they jects Chagall frequently chose to can surmise about the inner worlds paint—animals, peasants, and vil- of Rousseau and Dali. What personal lages—are real, but the scenarios he dreams or fantasies are reflected in created on canvas have a dreamlike ir- their work? Options: You may choose rationality.) to ask the students to write a short essay based on the previous question. Or you may elect to have students re- Activities search the two works and share their findings with the class. Analyzing Art 1. Have students construct a visual file for each artist. The files could include reproductions from postcards, old

26 Program 5: Surrealism Art Making 3. Show students several works by Dali, and discuss his use of symbols. Ask 1. With student input, make a list of each student to create a symbol sys- places or locations on the chalk- tem to represent various important board. Make a list of common items aspects of his or her life. Then ask next to it. Choose one location (bus, each student to create a drawing or kitchen) and two or three objects painting incorporating the symbols. (snake, flagpole, engine) that don’t The drawing may be illogical, but the ordinarily go together. Ask each stu- symbols should be in sharp detail. dent to make a drawing or painting Conduct a class discussion in which that incorporates all of the objects students share and explain their into a single composition. Encourage drawings. them to share their paintings and to discuss their creative thought proc- 4. Have each student make a collage of esses with the class. an imagined “dreamscape” using im- ages from magazines. Pick a theme, 2. Ask each student to draw an illustra- such as a childhood memory or a tion of a recent nightmare, or of a story from literature (Gulliver’s Trav- particularly vivid nightmare from early els, Alice in Wonderland ). childhood.

Program 5: Surrealism 27 Student Summary Sheet 5: Surrealism

Surrealism, a Western art movement that prevailed in the first quarter of the twentieth century, sought to reveal the inner reality behind outward appearances. It drew heavily on dreams, Freudian and Jungian theories of the unconscious, the irrational, and fan- tasy.

Artist Major Work Clues

Dali Persistence of Memory beaches; bugs; melting watches

Miró Harlequin’s Carnival stars and birds

Rousseau The Virgin Forest dream jungles

Magritte Golconda booby traps; dislocation

De Chirico The Anguish of Departure “TNT” (Trains ’n Towers)

Chagall I and My Village people flying through the air

Glossary Barcelona—city and port in northeast- medieval—characteristic of the Middle ern Spain. Ages, a period of European history from 500 to 1500. Belgium—country in Western Europe, bordering on the North Sea. melancholy—depression of spirit; a pen- sive mood. Cataluña—region in northeastern Spain, bordering on France and the Mediterra- Notre Dame—a famous early (1163) nean. Gothic cathedral in Paris. dislocation—displacement (Magritte piazza—an open square in an Italian or takes objects from their usual places and other European town. puts them in unfamiliar ones). Poe—(Edgar Allan. 1809–1849) American Douanier—(French) customs officer. poet and story writer. Jung—(Carl. 1875–1961). Swiss psy- Polynesia—islands of the central and chologist. South Pacific. marionette—a wooden puppet with Vitebsk—city in western Russia. jointed limbs that is moved from above with strings.

28 Program 5: Surrealism Program

6 Modern Mavericks

Objectives Program Summary After watching the program and participating Many European artists are overlooked be- in post-viewing discussion and activities, cause they do not fall under specific catego- students should be able to ries. Often these artists are left out because they belong to bizarre, or brief movements. • recognize the styles of six independ- “Modern Mavericks” examines six such ent European artists: Klimt, Klee, Europeans through artistic style and influ- Rouault, Modigliani, Balla, and ence. In this program, Klimt’s unique decora- Kokoschka tive Expressionist figure paintings and • understand that the works of these portraits are compared to works of Art six “mavericks” reflect and influence Noveau, Munch, Gauguin, and Matisse. Paul not only the styles of other Europe- Klee’s gift of innovation and his role in every ans, but also those of American art- major twentieth century art movement is dis- ists who follow cussed.

Selected paintings of Rouault depict the hid- eousness of his early works and the more Before the Program compassionate, religious spirit of his later 1. The program title and artists’ names ones. Balla’s Futurist paintings suggest the should be listed on the board. importance of the machine in twentieth cen- tury art. Modigiliani’s elegant portraits and 2. Ask students to define the word mav- Kokoschka’s expressionistic city portraits are erick. Discuss why it might be said also featured. that the featured painters are maver- icks among their peers. Presentation of Artists 3. Ask students if they are familiar with any of the artists listed on the chalk- In this program, artists and their paintings board. What paintings, ideas, images, are discussed in the order that follows. places, colors—if any—do they asso- 1. Klimt ciate with these artists? Re-cord this Water Nymphs information on the chalk-board and Elisabeth refer to it in your post-viewing discus- Fulfillment sion. The Kiss (Unknown) 4. Tell students to pay close attention to (Unknown) the styles and favorite subjects of Hygieia each artist presented. They will have Fritza an opportunity to test their ability to Emilie Flöge identify each artist’s style at the end Hope of the program.

Program 6: Modern Mavericks 29 2. Klee 3. Rouault Demon as a Pirate Head of Clown Before the Town Movement of Vaulted Chambers 4. Modigliani The Little Servant Girl Glance of Landscape Howling Dog 5. Balla Couch, Still Life II (Unknown) Village Carnival House with Gardens 6. Kokoschka Scarecrow Genoa Temple Gardens

4. Rouault Student Challenge The Three Judges #1 Circus Trio At the conclusion of the program, students The Three Judges #2 are invited to identify the artists who created (Unknown) the following works. Mother and Child 1. Clown (Rouault) Still Life 2. Hamburg (Kokoschka) 5. Modigliani 3. Mada Primaves (Klimt) Mademoiselle Brunet Joan Gris 4. (Unknown) (Modigliani) and His Wife 5. (Unknown) (Balla) The Polish Woman Madame Pompadour 6. Le Kash-Ne (Klee) Madame Hebuterne After the Program 6. Balla Hands of the Violinist Duplicate and distribute the student sum- Flight of Swifts mary sheet on pages 33–34. Use the sum- Mercury Passing before the Sun as mary sheet as a means to review with Seen through a Telescope students the artists and their styles. The glossary will help students identify unfamil- 7. Kokoschka iar terms, places, and people. Venice The Duomo, Florence Discussion Questions Vienna 1. Why does the narrator characterize Dresden all of these artists as mavericks? Prague (They don’t conform to one particular Stockholm artistic movement or trend. Their work Lyon is either highly original, or separate London from the mainstream art movements of New York their time.)

2. What are some of the characteristics Short Review of Artists of Klimt’s style? (decorations of flowing plant forms, whiplash lines, water lily Using the following paintings to illustrate stems; intricate designs; use of gilding their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- and mosaic) What do Klimt and Ma- view of each artist. tisse have in common stylistically? 1. Klimt (Both used elaborate abstract patterns Expectancy in a decorative manner—Matisse’s car- pets and wall-papers; Klimt’s mosaics.) 2. Klee Weimar Austeilung

30 Program 6: Modern Mavericks 3. What did the narrator mean when Activities she said that Klee’s paintings were “simple in appearance, but compli- Analyzing Art cated in their inner meaning”? (Klee’s art was deliberately childlike. He used 1. Have students construct a visual file simple images as symbols and meta- for each artist. The files could include phors to evoke complex ideas about reproductions from postcards, old human existence.) calendars, and art magazines. Write the artist’s name and the title of the 4. How did Rouault’s art change over work on the back of each reproduc- the course of his life? (His earlier tion. Use these files to create bulletin works depicted the corrupt and evil as- board displays, or to play recognition pects of society—miserable clowns, games. Set aside time for students to leering judges, corrupt politicians— work with the files. For example, you with “slashes of hot, dark paint.” Later, might create games that require stu- when his work began to sell, his paint- dents to organize the images by artist, ings took on a more compassionate subject matter, technique, and com- tone. He painted mostly religious im- positional elements. ages in a stained-glass style—heavily outlined in black.) 2. Select two of the featured artists and show students several works by each. 5. What Italian artist’s “elegant, sinu- Conduct a discussion in which you ous line produced slender, oval lead students in comparing and con- heads, sloping shoulders, and necks trasting these works. Encourage them with swan-like grace”? (Modigliani) to analyze subjects, colors, shapes, What seems to have been Modigliani’s and techniques. Then ask students most obvious influence? (artists of the to select one work of art from the vis- Italian tradition) ual files and write a short descriptive essay about their response to the 6. What factors caused many twentieth painting. To help students structure century Italian artists to embrace Fu- their essays, you might want to write turism? (Italy had not progressed tech- questions on the chalkboard such as nologically as rapidly as the rest of “What is the subject of this painting? Europe. Many artists felt that this was How does this painting make me feel due to an unremitting worship of past when I look at it? How does the artist Italian masters and heroes. They hoped create this feeling?” to free themselves and Italy from the past through .) 3. Ask students to take an “imaginary group journey” through a Klee paint- 7. What did Futurist at- ing. Show the painting—preferably a tempt to convey through simultane- slide so that the entire class can see ous views and multiplication of ob- and participate together. Ask stu- jects, as in the painting Hands of the dents to “enter the painting” and to Violinist? (motion) discuss who they meet and what they see, hear, and do there. Encourage 8. Why can Kokoschka be described as them to talk about colors and forms an “expressionistic-impressionistic” as descriptively as possible. painter? (Kokoschka used impression- istic techniques, such as the applica- 4. Show students The Kiss and several tion of brilliant colors applied in bands, other works by Klimt. Explain Klimt’s to create his city portraits. But Kok- role as the leader of the schka never merely captured a scene, (Jugendstil) movement in Austria. he imbued it with his own emotional Discuss the stylistic characteristics of responses and experiences—an Ex- Art Nouveau. With this background, pressionist method of painting.)

Program 6: Modern Mavericks 31 assign students to work in small simple drawing or design and experi- groups to research various aspects of ment with impasto to create a similar Art Nouveau in Europe: architecture, effect. Impasto can be made from illustration, the historical and cul- melted crayons, or by mixing dry tem- tural context for the movement, and pera with wheat paste. other Art Nouveau artists, illustra- tors, and designers such as Aubrey 3. Show students several of Modigliani’s Beardsley, Alphose Mucha, Walter portraits and review how he achieved Crane, and Jules Chéret. dignity and elegance through simplic- ity and distortion. Working with Options: You might ask each group to charcoal or pencil, have each student write a short report summarizing draw a portrait or self-portrait in their findings. Each report could be which they consciously strive to re- presented to the class along with a duce details and develop graceful, slide show of illustrations, which you simple shapes. En-courage them to help the groups obtain and organize. try to preserve the unique identity of Students could also create their own the person while reducing detail. Art Nouveau-inspired poster illustra- tions or clay sculptures. Or students 4. Collect a large number and variety of could create a museum-style or poster color swatches from magazines. Have display of reproductions of significant each student find and bring to class a Art Nouveau art and architecture, full-length photograph of a person annotated with their re-ports. Stu- from a magazine article or advertise- dents from other classes could be in- ment. To begin the activity, show vited to view the display. students Klimt’s The Kiss, in which mosaic-like shapes produce a rich texture. Discuss how he achieved this Art Making texture by using colors of different in- 1. Show students a reproduction of tensities and values. Have each stu- Klee’s Twittering Machine, a fanciful dent select swatches in a range of drawing using watercolor wash and color values and hues. Next, have pen and ink. Using this work as a students cut their swatches into model, have each student create his small, mosaic-like bits. Using these or her own “contraption” in a similar bits, have each student create a col- medium, if possible. lage directly over a section of his or her photo. The final piece could be 2. Show students several examples of mounted on cardboard, or students Rouault’s work and discuss how he could cut away the background of used intense colors and thick paint their pieces and recreate them in neu- (impasto) to achieve a stained-glass tral tones. effect. Have students create or copy a

32 Program 6: Modern Mavericks Student Summary Sheet 6: Modern Mavericks

The artists featured in this program are six European turn-of-the-century artists who do not fit into specific categories, yet are unique and significant.

Artist Major Work Clues

Klimt Adele Bloch-Bauer curves; patterns; gold

Klee La Belle Jardinière primitive; child-like; cryptic

Rouault Three Judges “stained-glass” people

Modigliani Head of a Woman long necks; oval faces

Balla Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash wheels in motion; Futurism

Kokoschka The Tempest Impressionistic-Expres- sionistic; city portraits

Glossary and emphasizing an aggressive national- Byzantine—art of the East Roman Em- ism and often racism. pire (fifth through fifteenth century) that frequently exhibits stylized, oriental com- Fermi—(Enrico. 1901–1954) Italian ponents, or Greek classical realism. physicist. Lived and worked in the U.S. after 1939. Won the Nobel Prize in 1938. Capone—(Alphonse “Scarface.” 1899– 1947) notorious Chicago gangster with Futurism—an Italian style that stressed reputed $20 million-dollar income. Alleg- the dynamism of machine motion. edly engineered St. Valentine’s Day Mas- Galileo—(Galileo Galilei. 1564–1642) Ital- sacre. Died in prison while serving ian physicist and astronomer. sentence for tax evasion. Jugendstil—Art Nouveau; a northern caricature—a picture that exaggerates European and American style (1895– the peculiarities or defects of persons or things. 1905) characterized by flowing plant forms. Caruso—(Enrico. 1873–1921) Italian op- Leonardo—(Leonardo da Vinci. 1452– eratic tenor. 1519) Italian painter, sculptor, architect, compassionate—showing deep sympa- musician, engineer, mathematician, and thy and sorrow for another who is scientist. stricken by suffering or misfortune. Marconi—(Guglielmo Marchese. 1874– Dresden—a city in East Germany, on the 1937) Italian electrical engineer and in- Elbe River. ventor, especially in the field of wireless telegraphy. Won the Nobel Prize for Phys- fascism—a governmental system led by a ics, 1909. dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, Continued on page 34 regimenting all industry, commerce, etc.,

Program 6: Modern Mavericks 33 Michelangelo—(Michelangelo Buonar- sinuous—winding or crooked. Serpentine roti. 1475–1564) Italian sculptor, painter, in form. architect, poet. Sonny Corleone—hot-tempered son in mosaic—a picture or decoration made of Mario Puzo’s novel and movie The God- small pieces of inlaid stone, glass, etc. father. Mussolini—(Benito. 1883–1945) Italian Stockholm—chief seaport and capital of Fascist leader. Premier of Italy 1922–1943. Sweden—southeast part. Prague—capital of Czechoslovakia— Verdi—(Giuseppe. 1813–1901) Italian western part, on the Moldau River; also composer. the capital of Bohemia. Vivaldi—(Antonio. 1675–1741) Italian Renaissance—the activity, spirit, or time violinist and composer. of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the four- teenth century and extending to the sev- enteenth century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world.

34 Program 6: Modern Mavericks

American Artists

Program

7 American Landscapes

Objectives Program Summary After watching the program and participating Not the usual amber waves of grain, purple in post-viewing discussion and activities, mountains majesty, and fruited plains, students should be able to “American Landscapes” features seascapes, skyscapes, and cityscapes from Maine to • recognize the styles of six American Manhattan to New Mexico. Viewers see how painters who revealed the new spirit Cubism influenced Stella through examples of America through city and country of his vertical abstract paintings of the panoramas: Stella (Joseph), Demuth, Brooklyn Bridge. The factories, grain eleva- Sheeler, O’Keeffe, , and Marin tors, and warehouses of Precisionists De- • understand that some American muth and Sheeler illustrate their interest in landscapes and cityscapes depict the America’s new industrial landscape. The character of people as well as regions more abstract and organic aspects of the landscape are seen in the paintings of O’Keeffe and Dove. Marin, a New England painter whose expressionistic images are Before the Program compared to “painted music,” is also fea- 1. The program title and artists’ names tured. should be listed on the board.

2. Ask students to describe what scenes Presentation of Artists and images they imagine when they think of landscape painting. What In this program, artists and their paintings are the typical subjects they associate are discussed in the order that follows. with it? Write their ideas on the 1. Stella chalkboard and refer to it in your American Landscape post-viewing discussion. The Brooklyn Bridge Brooklyn Bridge 3. Ask students if they recognize any of Factories the artists listed on the chalkboard. The Bridge What paintings, ideas, images, places, Tropical Sonata colors—if any—do they associate with these artists? Record this information 2. Demuth on the chalkboard and refer to it in Apples and Green Glass (detail) your post-viewing discussion. I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold Buildings, Lancaster 4. Tell students to pay close attention to Buildings, Abstraction the styles and favorite subjects of And the Home of the Brave each artist presented. They will have My Egypt an opportunity to test their ability to Lancaster identify each artist’s style at the end Pears (detail) of the program. Eggplants (details)

Program 7: American Landscapes 37 3. Sheeler Interior 1926 7. Wright Home Sweet Home Guggenheim Museum Staircase, Doylestown American Frontier 8. O’Keeffe River Rouge Plant Radiator Building Upper Deck City Night Offices 9. Dove 4. O’Keeffe Silver Tanks Cow’s Skull Haystack The Mountain, New Mexico Fields of Grain as Seen from Train Abstractions Plant Forms Ranchos Church Cow Ferry Boat Wreck 5. Lachaise Clouds and Water Georgia O’Keeffe 10. Marin 6. O’Keeffe Deer Isle Maine: Boat and Sea The White Flower Sea Piece Two Jimson Weeds with Green Movement: Boats and Objects, Blue- Leaves, Blue Sky Gray Sea Peach and Glass Off York Island, Maine The Mountain, New Mexico Region of the Brooklyn Bridge Waterfall #1 The Brooklyn Bridge (Unknown) Short Review of Artists 3. The Bridge (Stella) Using the following paintings to illustrate 4. Maine Island (Marin) their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- view of each artist. 5. Lancaster (Demuth) 1. Stella 6. (Unknown) (Sheeler) The Brooklyn Bridge

2. Demuth Machinery After the Program 3. Sheeler Duplicate and distribute the student sum- (Unknown) mary sheet on page 41. Use the summary sheet as a means to review with students the 4. O’Keeffe artists and their styles. The glossary will help Perdenal students identify unfamiliar terms, places, 5. Dove and people. Cars in Sleet Storm Discussion Questions 6. Marin Pertaining to Stonington Harbor, 1. The narrator compares Stella’s image Maine of the Brooklyn Bridge in his painting American Landscape with what other object? (a giant cathedral) How do the Student Challenge two compare? (The bridge’s Gothic- style arches and towers form stained- At the conclusion of the program, students are invited to identify the artists who created the following works. 1. Fog Horns (Dove) 2. It Was Blue and Green (O’Keeffe)

38 Program 7: American Landscapes glass window shapes; cables and Activities skyscrapers form organ pipes. The two objects also compare in stature, Analyzing Art and as examples of human techno- logical achievement.) 1. Have students construct a visual file for each artist. The files could include 2. Why might Demuth be referred to as a reproductions from postcards, old Precisionist? (He drew and painted calendars, and art magazines. Write clean, clear, crisp forms and smooth the artist’s name and the title of the geometric shapes in brilliant white.) work on the back of each reproduc-

tion. Use these files to create bulletin 3. In what ways are Demuth’s and board displays, or to play recognition Sheeler’s visions of America similar? (Both were primarily interested in the games. Set aside time for students to American architectural landscape, work with the files. For example, you particularly industrial sites— might create games that require stu- warehouses, factories, smoke stacks, dents to organize the images by artist, and grain elevators. Both favored subject matter, technique, and com- clean, clear, crisp lines.) positional elements.

4. Which of the landscape painters fea- 2. Select two of the featured artists and tured in the program was referred to show students several works by each. as the “Daughter of the American Conduct a discussion in which you Prairie”? (Georgia O’Keeffe) Why? (She lead students in comparing and con- is well-known for her landscapes of trasting these works. Encourage them the American west: bad-lands, prai- to analyze subjects, colors, shapes, ries, desert scenes. and techniques. Then ask students to select one work of art from the vis- 5. What are some of the stylistic charac- ual files and to write a short descrip- teristics of O’Keeffe’s landscape paint- tive essay about their response to the ings? (They emphasize open spaces, painting. To help students structure emptiness. She favored diamond-hard surfaces and explored the architec- their essays, you might want to write tural side of nature.) questions on the chalkboard such as “What is the subject of this painting? 6. Who was America’s first full-fledged How does this painting make me feel abstract painter? (Dove) when I look at it? How does the artist create this feeling?” 7. What subjects did Marin typically paint? (New England landscapes: sea, 3. Ask students to take an imaginary sky, and sun) In what way were his journey into a painting. Select one canvases expressionistic? (He im- painting for the entire class from the posed his own emotional and intellec- visual files, or let each student tual spirit on the landscapes he choose one. Ask students to “enter painted. They convey his personal vi- the painting” and to write a story or sion of the explosive forces of nature.) poem about who they meet and what they see, hear, and do there. Encour- 8. Most of the paintings featured in the age them to write about colors and program capture a distinctly Ameri- forms as descriptively as possible. Op- can scene or place. Could it be said tion: Have each student read his or that these artists describe or express her story or poem to the class. If each more than their obvious subject mat- student chose a painting, ask the ter? If so, what else? Give an example class to try to guess—based on their using one of the paintings in the pro- readings—which painting each stu- gram. (many possible answers) dent chose.

Program 7: American Landscapes 39 Art Making 3. Take students to a nearby scenic area and have them draw a landscape. 1. Have each student make a sketch journal of a landscape near his or her Later, in the classroom, have them draw the same landscape from mem- home. Ask students to draw the ory. Encourage students to compare scene at different times of the day or and contrast these drawings and to in different kinds of weather. Encour- discuss the similarities and differ- age them to capture a variety of ences. moods.

2. Have each student choose a photo- graph of a landscape. Glue the pho- tographs onto a piece of drawing paper. Have each student continue to extend or expand the landscape out onto the drawing paper. Help stu- dents choose a medium that harmo- nizes best with their photograph.

40 Program 7: American Landscapes Student Summary Sheet 7: American Landscapes

From 1900 to 1950 (and, in the case of O’Keeffe, through the 1980s), American artists painted brave urban and rural vistas. The painters featured in this program did more than just capture a scene with paint, they revealed new insights about America, and about the character of its people.

Artist Major Work Clues

Stella The Brooklyn Bridge Cubist searchlights

Demuth I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold fruit, flowers, factories, grain elevators

Sheeler Abandoned Mill frozen, silent architecture

O’Keeffe Ranchos Church giant flowers; painted prairies

Dove Ferry Boat Wreck abstract sirens

Marin Maine Island frame within a frame

Glossary concatenation—linkage in a series. O’Hara—(John. 1905–1970). American author. contemporary—marked by characteris- tics of the present period. Patrician—aristocratic. Crane—(Hart. 1899–1932) American Precisionists—a group of American art- poet. ists interested in cold, scrupulous real- ism. Cultural Literacy—E. D. Hirsh, Jr.’s, 1987 book and coined phrase alluding to predella—the base of an altarpiece, often the knowledge and understanding of cul- decorated with small paintings or reliefs. tural references and the pleasure of ap- plying them in the mind’s eye. serendipitous—characterized by the finding of agreeable things not sought. depression—a period of low economic Stieglitz—(Alfred. 1864–1946) American activity marked by ongoing levels of un- photographer, editor, and promoter of employment. American artists. Guggenheim Museum—a New York mu- subterranean—lying under the surface. seum of contemporary art. labyrinth—a place constructed of intri- Taos—an art colony and resort town in northern New Mexico. cate passageways and blind alleys. Williams—(William Carlos. 1883–1963) Manhattan—borough of New York City American poet, novelist, and physician. comprising Manhattan Island and sev- eral small adjacent islands. Wright—(Frank Lloyd. 1869–1959) American architect. mocha—a color resembling coffee with cream.

Program 7: American Landscapes 41 Program

8 Realism

Objectives identify each artist’s style at the end of the program. After watching the program and participating in post-viewing discussion and activities, students should be able to Program Summary • recognize the styles of eight American The 1930s and 1940s were troubling decades realist painters: Hopper, Shahn, for America. Beginning with the stock market Levine, Pippin, Avery, Wyeth, Wood, crash of 1929, savings were lost, jobs were and Benton scarce, and people were without hope. American artists portrayed this struggle in • understand that American artists regional paintings that are not only realistic, portrayed the Post-Depression strug- but also romantic in their mystery, exoticism, gle through a regional, romantic real- and nostalgia. ism that haunts and saddens, amuses and encourages Hopper’s stark, brooding paintings reveal the isolation of life in the inner cities. Shahn drew upon German Expressionism to make Before the Program his artistic commentary on the political and social injustices of the day. Levine, a social 1. The program title and artists’ names satirist, pokes fun at government officials should be listed on the board. and mobsters alike, using distortion and ex- aggeration. Pippin’s interiors reflect his black, 2. Ask students to describe what they rural heritage; he strikes a balance between know about or associate with Ameri- primitivism and sophistication. The influence can Realism. What particular artists, of Matisse is obvious, yet thoroughly re- paintings, images, colors, ideas, or worked in Avery’s unique abstract land- places—if any—do they associate scapes. The landscapes and portraits of with the movement? Record these on Wyeth, Wood, and Benton illustrate their the chalkboard and refer to them in unique and separate, yet related visions of your post-viewing discussion. rural American life—a kind of new regional

realism. 3. If students are not familiar with Real-

ism, ask them to look up the term in a dictionary. Encourage them to make some speculations about Real- Presentation of Artists ism based on the definition: what In this program, artists and their paintings qualities might Realist art possess? are discussed in the order that follows. Write their ideas on the chalkboard. Ask students to listen and look for 1. Hopper anything in the program that might Approaching a City support or contradict their ideas. Early Sunday Morning First Row Orchestra 4. Tell students to pay close attention to People in the Sun the styles and favorite subjects of Nighthawks each artist presented. They will have Tables for Ladies an opportunity to test their ability to Lighthouse at Two Lights

42 Program 8: Realism Street Scene 2. Shahn Mrs. Scott’s House Conversation

2. Shahn 3. Levine Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti (Unknown) Reconstruction 4. Pippin Scott’s Run, West Virginia Saturday Night Bath Miners’ Wives 5. Avery Park Bench in Brooklyn Girl in a White Dress The Call of the Shofar 6. Wyeth 3. Levine Coon Hunter Gangster Funeral The Syndicate 7. Wood Reception in Miami Dinner for Threshers Café 8. Benton The Trial The Lord is My Shepherd

4. Pippin End of the War: Starting Home Fall Landscape Student Challenge Christmas Morning Breakfast At the conclusion of the program, students Domino Players are invited to identify the artists who created Victorian Interior the following works.

5. Avery 1. Domesticity (Pippin) March on the Balcony The Checker Players 2. Second Story Sunlight (Hopper) Newsreader 3. Dinner for Threshers (detail) (Wood) Interlude Dunes 4. Swimmers (Avery)

6. Wyeth 5. July Hay (Benton) The Country 6. Everyman (Shahn) Back Pasture Winter Fields 7. Waiting for McGinley (Wyeth)

7. Wood 8. Welcome Home (Levine) Birthplace of Herbert Hoover Midnight Ride of Paul Revere American Gothic After the Program Daughters of Revolution Duplicate and distribute the student sum- 8. Benton mary sheet on page 46. Use the summary Cotton Pickers sheet as a means to review with students the Preparing the Bill artists and their styles. The glossary will help The Wreck of the Ole ’97 students identify unfamiliar terms, places, Sources of Country Music and people.

Discussion Questions Short Review of Artists 1. Describe the atmosphere Hopper cre- ated in many of his paintings. (sti- Using the following paintings to illustrate fling, stagnant, claustrophobic, their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- brooding) How did he achieve this view of each artist. atmosphere? (by creating stark, cold 1. Hopper light and by isolating his subjects: Seven A.M. buildings are often deserted, isolated,

Program 8: American Realism 43 as though abandoned. Hopper’s peo- about American life in the 1930s and ple seem detached—they never move 1940s from this painting? (many pos- or talk to each other, creating an sible answers) atmosphere of detachment.) 9. What technique did Benton fre- 2. Which American Realist was heavily quently use in his paintings to em- influenced by German Expression- phasize his ideas and emotions about ism? (Shahn) the American experience? (extreme exaggeration and distortion) Can you 3. How did Levine reveal his attitudes give an example of exaggeration in toward society through his paintings? one of the Benton paintings featured (Through his choice of subject matter in the program? (tilting railroad and style. Levine painted government tracks, rearing horse, billowing officials, small-time hoodlums, the smoke, writhing people in The Wreck mob, and the clergy. He used a satiri- cal approach, poking fun at his sub- of the Ole ’97; other possible answers) jects through the use of distortion and exaggeration—“taffy-pull faces.”) 10. Which of these painters do you think presents the most compelling or in- 4. Why can Pippin’s style be character- teresting vision of America in the ized as primitive? (His style was sim- 1930s and 1940s? Why? (many possi- ple and uncomplicated, naive but ble answers) charming. He possessed a sophisti- cated sense of color and pattern, and imagination.) Note to teacher: you Activities might want to discuss primitivism in more depth. Are painters with primi- Analyzing Art tive or naive styles less important than other artists? Why or Why not? If 1. Have students construct a visual file students are familiar with Rousseau, for each artist. The files could include ask them to compare his art with Pip- reproductions from postcards, old pin’s. calendars, and art magazines. Write the artist’s name and the title of the 5. What twentieth century French work on the back of each reproduc- painter’s influence is evident in tion. Use these files to create bulletin Avery’s paintings? (Matisse) How so? board displays, or to play recognition (Avery incorporated Matisse’s drawing games. Set aside time for students to technique and flattened color masses into his own fresh style.) work with the files. For example, you might create games that require stu- 6. What vision of America does Wyeth dents to organize the images by artist, portray in his wind blown, brown subject matter, technique, and com- landscapes and portraits? (the tough- positional elements. ness of the Great Depression; the iso- lation and difficulty of life in rural 2. Show students a series of Realist and America) non-Realist works. Ask them to iden- tify which are Realist works and 7. Like Wyeth, Grant Wood’s art also which are not. During this process, dealt with the Depression in an encourage students to formulate a oblique way. In what way were his definition of Realism based on their paintings a reaction to the Great De- decisions. Write their ideas on the pression? (Wood reacted to the De- board as the discussion develops. pression by painting what people needed and wanted most: nostalgia, 3. Ask students to take an imaginary reassurance, clean fields, pure at- journey into a painting. Select one mosphere.) painting for the entire class from the

visual files, or let each student 8. What is the name of Wood’s best- choose one. Ask students to “enter known painting? (American Gothic) the painting” and to write a story or What conclusions might you draw poem about who they meet and what

44 Program 8: Realism they see, hear, and do there. Encour- students explore why many Realists age them to write about colors and chose local color as a means to con- forms as descriptively as possible. Op- vey their ideas. Ask students to use tion: Have each student read his or local color to create a simple still life her story or poem to the class. If each drawing in oil pastel. Help students student chose a painting, ask the mix several colors to create “muddy” class to try to guess—based on their realistic colors. readings—which painting each stu- dent chose. 3. Show students several images of buildings and houses painted by Re- 4. Ask each student to decide which of alists and discuss their value as his- the featured artists they find most in- torical artifacts. Locate a Victorian or teresting. Have them research and 1930s vintage home or building in write a short biography of the artist’s your community, preferably one that early life. With the class, brainstorm a is run down or has been modernized. series of questions that will help to On a field trip to the building, have structure their essays such as Where students draw or paint the house as was the artist born? Did he grow up they imagine it might have looked in the city or country? What were his when new. Option: To complete the parents’ occupations? Encourage project, you might also have students them to find out as much as they can paint the structure as it appears to- about the artist’s early experiences. day in a realistic style. Students Students should present these brief might also research the history of the biographies to the class. After each structure. Possible questions. Who report, conduct a class discussion in were its original owners? What was which—based on the evidence the its original purpose? How has it been student collects—the class suggests used over the years? how these early experiences may have influenced the artist in his or her 4. Show and discuss Grant Wood’s choice of subject matter and style. painting, American Gothic. The paint- ing has been called an American icon. Wood sketched the woman, the man, Art Making and the house at different times and 1. During the 1930s Thomas Hart Ben- in different places. Later, these images ton, like many artists, found work were combined into one visual image through government programs. He by the artist—the scene never really painted murals depicting historical existed. Each element in the painting themes of a regional nature in post represents some aspect of the typical offices and other public buildings. way of life in the rural Midwest of the Show students some examples of 1930s. Have students develop some these murals. Have the class identify symbols that represent their way of several important events in the his- life, culture, and interests. Then ask tory of their community or school and them to incorporate these into one create a mural to illustrate them. The visual image. This could be done by mural could be sketched and painted drawing or by selecting images from on sections of poster board and fas- magazines or scrapbooks and using a tened together when it is finished. collage technique.

2. Show students several examples of Realism. Explain that Realist painters did not always feel that their paint- ings should be “pretty” or “beautiful.” Explain that many Realists used local color (the actual color of an object when seen up close), which is gener- ally muddy rather than bright. Con- duct a discussion in which the

Program 8: American Realism 45 Student Summary Sheet 8: Realism

In American art, Realism is an effort by painters to depict—by region and through actual rather than ideal scenes—the American struggle after the 1929 stock market crash and ensuing depression.

Artist Major Work Clues

Hopper Early Sunday Morning claustrophobic isolation

Shahn Miners’ Wives delicate line

Levine Gangster Funeral taffy-pull faces

Pippin Christmas Morning Breakfast sweet domestic scenes

Avery Seated Girl with Dog brightly colored, flat, faceless people

Wyeth Christina’s World dry, brown landscapes

Wood American Gothic table-top Corn-Belt scenes

Benton July Hay exaggeration; distortion

Glossary antimacassar—a cover used to protect oblique—indirectly stated or expressed. the back or arms of furniture. Not straightforward. chic—cleverly stylish. poignant—touching; deeply affecting. claustrophobia—abnormal dread of be- pristine—fresh and clean. ing in closed or narrow spaces. stagnant—motionless, stale; dull, in- Gothic—relating to twelfth century active. European architecture; desolate, remote, Steinbeck (John. 1902–1968) American macabre, mysterious. novelist who wrote The Grapes of Wrath. —country in northern central veneration—respect or awe inspired by Europe, bordering on the Baltic (since dignity. 1940, a republic of Russia). Victorian—prim; stiff; stuffy; relating to monochromatic—consisting of one the nineteenth century reign of Queen color. Possessing tones of one color in Victoria of England. addition to the ground hue.

46 Program 8: Realism Program

9 Abstract Expressionism

Objectives 4. Tell students to pay close attention to the styles and favorite subjects of After watching the program and participating each artist presented. They will have in post-viewing discussion and activities, an opportunity to test their ability to students should be able to identify each artist’s style at the end • recognize the styles of four Action of the program. painters, Pollock, Kline, de Kooning, and Gottlieb; three paint- ers, Rothko, Frankenthaler, and Program Summary Louis; and one Hard-Edge painter, Post-World War II painters communicated Stella (Frank) their frustrations and struggles through a • understand that Abstract Expres- new, underivative art that usually did not sionism was an attempt by New York portray recognizable forms. It got across feel- artists to break away from traditional, ings through gestures, motion, and a graphic conventional, and derivative styles shorthand in a “knock-em-dead style” that outraged the public. Abstract Expressionism, sometimes called “,” or “The Before the Program New York School,” led to Color Field and Hard-Edge painting. Examples of these 1. The program title and artists’ names phases of the movement are also presented. should be listed on the board. The bold, gestural paintings of Pollock, Kline, 2. Ask students to describe what they de Kooning, and Gottlieb demonstrate the know about or associate with Ab- early movement’s preoccupation with auto- stract Expressionism. What particu- matic writing, motion, and chaos. Pollock’s lar artists, paintings, images, colors, technique of spattering paint with brushes ideas, or places—if any—do they as- and dribbling it from pails is presented. The sociate with the movement? Record importance of color as a powerful emotive these on the chalkboard and refer to element that can stand on its own is demon- them in your post-viewing discussion. strated through works by Rothko, Franken- thaler, and Louis. The precise, hard, and 3. If the students are not familiar with immaculate shaped canvases of Stella sug- Abstract Expressionism, ask them to gest a reaction to the emotional outbursts of look up the term in a dictionary. En- Abstract Expressionism. courage them to make some specula-

tions about Abstract Expressionism

based on the definition. Have them brainstorm some qualities or features Presentation of Artists that Abstract Expressionist art might In this program, artists and their paintings possess. Write their ideas on the are discussed in the order that follows. chalkboard. Ask students to listen and look for anything in the pro-gram 1. Pollock that might support or contradict their Yellow Islands ideas. Autumn Rhythms (Unknown)

Program 9: Abstract Expressionism 47 Tiger 2. Kline Grayed Rainbow Monitor

2. Kline 3. De Kooning Buttress Woman IV (Unknown) 4. Gottlieb Delaware Gap Dialogue Crossways 5. Rothko Dahlia Violet and Yellow on Rose 3. De Kooning 6. Frankenthaler Door to the River The Bay (Untitled) Gotham News 7. Louis Woman and Bicycle Number Three 8. Stella 4. Gottlieb Daradjerd III Frozen Sounds Excaliber (Unknown) Two Disks Student Challenge Rising At the conclusion of the program, students are invited to identify the artists who created 5. Rothko the following works. Orange and Yellow Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue 1. Line through White (Kline) Black, Ochre, Red over Red 2. Damascus Gate, Stretch Variation Orange Brown (Stella) Blue Orange Red (Untitled) 3. Delta (Louis)

6. Frankenthaler 4. Number 27 (Pollock) White Sage 5. Rock Pond (Frankenthaler) Blessing of the Fleet Flood 6. Woman (De Kooning)

7. Louis 7. Black on Dark Sienna (Rothko) TeT 8. Spray (Gottlieb) Beth Alpha Color Line After the Program

8. Stella Duplicate and distribute the student sum- Agbatana mary sheet on page 51. Use the summary Half Moon sheet as a means to review with students the (Unknown) artists and their styles. The glossary will help Lac L’Orange III students identify unfamiliar terms, places, Tahkt-I-Sulayman, Variation II and people.

Discussion Questions Short Review of Artists 1. Which artists presented in the pro- Using the following paintings to illustrate gram can be characterized as Action their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- painters? (Pollock, Kline, de Kooning, view of each artist. Gottlieb) Why? (The techniques used to apply paint to the canvas required 1. Pollock grand gestures of motion and energy, Autumn Rhythm which are reflected in the paintings themselves.)

48 Program 9: Abstract Expressionism 2. How did Pollock create his paintings? “color fields” form the shapes in (He swirled and dribbled paint with Rothko’s and Frankenthaler’s can- brushes and pierced paint cans di- vases, rather than linear details. Louis rectly onto large canvases placed on used bands of color on white grounds the floor. The size of his canvases and to create huge chromatic fantasies. their placement on the floor allowed With these artists, color is celebrated him literally to enter a painting as he for its capacity to evoke human emo- created it.) tions and ideas.)

3. What did the narrator mean when 9. How is Frank Stella’s work different she said that Kline’s paintings from the work of the other artists fea- dramatized the conflict of positive tured in this program? (many possible and negative? How did he do this? answers: He used shaped canvases. (Kline used black and white as if to He favored clean, immaculate geomet- represent opposing forces, which col- ric shapes. His work is formal and lide and interlock on his canvases as mathematically calculated.) Compare though caught up in battle. The se- your emotional re-action to a Stella verity of his palette and his use of painting with your reaction to a swift, dramatic gestures suggest the Rothko. (many possible reactions) interplay of powerful opposites: black and white; good and evil; left and right, etc.) Activities 4. De Kooning is probably best known Analyzing Art for painting what images? (the image series called Woman—humorous and 1. Have students construct a visual file disturbing images of leering women) for each artist. The files could include reproductions from postcards, old 5. Which Abstract Expressionist’s works calendars, and art magazines. Write frequently featured red bursts and the artist’s name and the title of the black explosions? (Gottlieb) What do work on the back of each reproduc- his images call to mind? (many possi- tion. Use these files to create bulletin ble answers: power of the bomb; the board displays, or to play recognition beginning of the Nuclear Age; Hi- games. Set aside time for students to roshima) work with the files. For example, you 6. Describe some of the typical charac- might create games that require stu- teristics of a Rothko painting. dents to organize the images by artist, (roughly rectangular canvas; delicate subject matter, technique, and com- bands of horizontal color sandwiched positional elements. together; color is most important in his paintings in expressing ideas and 2. Show students a series of Abstract emotions) Expressionist and non-Abstract Ex- pressionist works. Ask them to iden- 7. Why can it be said that Rothko’s tify which are Abstract Expressionist canvases represent experiences? works and which are not. During this (Rothko wanted people to be moved by process, encourage students to for- his canvases as they might be moved mulate a definition of Abstract Ex- by other kinds of human experiences. He understood that color, independent pressionism based on their decisions. of other elements, could evoke human Write their ideas on the board as the emotions. He manipulated colors with discussion develops. the intention of creating paintings that express tragedy, doom, ecstasy, and 3. Ask students to take an imaginary subtle emotions.) journey into a painting. Select one painting for the entire class from the 8. Rothko, Frankenthaler, and Louis are visual files, or let each student described as Color Field Painters. Can choose one. Ask students to “enter you speculate why? (Color is pre- the painting” and to write a story or dominantly important in their can- poem about who they meet and what vases. For example, large unbroken

Program 9: Abstract Expressionism 49 they see, hear, and do there. Encour- 2. Show students a selection of Abstract age them to write about colors and Expressionist art that illustrates the forms as descriptively as possible. Op- use of gesture as an expressive tech- tion: Have each student read his or nique. Have students explore gesture. her story or poem to the class. If each Discuss the difficulty of expressing student chose a painting, ask the gesture and the importance of quick class to try to guess—based on their observation. Ask one student to readings—which painting each stu- model an active pose. Through either dent chose. drawing or clay modeling, have stu- dents create a full action figure in a 4. Show students a work by Pollock and short period of time. A limit of two a work by Kline. In class discussion, minutes for drawing and five minutes compare and contrast the two paint- for clay would be appropriate. ings. After comparing the two paint- ings, ask students what they can 3. Through collage or drawing, have surmise about the artistic visions of students create a work that employs Pollock and Kline. What ideas and organic shapes to express an emotion emotions did they express through (calmness, anger, joy). Repeat the ex- their art? Option: You may choose to ercise with geometric shapes. ask the students to write a short es- say based on the previous question. Or you may elect to have several stu- dents research the two works and share their findings with the class.

Art Making 1. Play a selection of instrumental mu- sic (jazz, classical, swing). Have each student construct a collage of colored paper expressing the mood of the mu- sic. Encourage them to use a variety of construction techniques (cutting, tearing, etc.) to create their designs. Afterward in class discussion ask students to share their and explain what techniques they used to reflect the music.

50 Program 9: Abstract Expressionism Student Summary Sheet 9: Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism was an American art movement of the 1940s and 1950s that manifested the creative feelings, frustrations, and struggles of painters through gestures and motion. Branches of the movement include Action Painting, Color Field Painting and Hard-edge Painting.

Artist Major Work Clues

Pollock Blue Poles “Jack the Dripper”

Kline Palladio railroad tracks

De Kooning Woman and Bicycle nightmare ladies

Gottlieb Blast bursts and blasts

Rothko Orange and Yellow muted squares

Frankenthaler Flood soak and stain

Louis Lambda melted candy canes and stripes

Stella Sinjerli Variation IV rainbow protractors

Glossary calligraphy—beautiful, elegant hand- manifesto—a public declaration of in- writing or penmanship. tentions, motives, or views. chauvinist—person with an undue at- Rorschach test—a personality test in tachment to a group. Prejudiced devotion which a person interprets inkblot de- to any cause. signs to determine intellectual and emo- tional factors. ecstatic—overwhelmed by emotion. Stonehenge—a prehistoric monument electrocardiogram—a tracing made by on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, an instrument recording heartbeat. consisting mainly of a large circle of equilibrium—a state of balance. megalithic posts and lintels. gargantuan—gigantic; colossal. underivative—not having derived from something else; original. machete—a heavy knife used for cutting sugar cane, underbrush; sometimes used as a weapon.

Program 9: Abstract Expressionism 51 Program

10 Pop

Objectives Program Summary After watching the program and participating Pop is an art movement that satirizes Ameri- in post-viewing discussion and activities, can advertising, politics, movie stars, TV, students should be able to magazines, billboards, soup cans, cosmetics, and fast foods. Painters and sculptors of the • recognize the styles of six Pop artists: 1960s spoofed familiar people, pastimes, Lichtenstein, Warhol, Rosenquist, pleasures, and products. Pop artists shocked Thiebaud, Oldenburg, and Indiana the public into seeing these subjects in a • understand that Pop artists satirized new way. They reprimanded the public for the superficiality of American pleas- putting too much emphasis on money and ures and pastimes of the 1960s material things. Lichtenstein’s comic book through tragicomic works images, Warhol’s instantly recognizable faces, and Rosenquist’s day-glo canvases il- lustrate Pop’s spirit and typical subject mat- Before the Program ter. Thiebaud’s paintings of cakes and pies and Oldenburg’s burger sculptures empha- 1. The program title and artists’ names size Pop’s obsession with common place ob- should be listed on the board. jects. Indiana’s work with letters, words, numbers, and signs is also featured. 2. Ask students to describe what they know about or associate with . What particular artists, paint- ings, images, colors, ideas, or places— Presentation of Artists if any—do they associate with the In this program, artists and their paintings movement? Record these on the are discussed in the order that follows. chalkboard and refer to them in your post-viewing discussion. 1. Lichtenstein As I Opened Fire 3. If the students are not familiar with The Kiss Pop Art, ask them to look up the term Forget It, Forget Me in a dictionary. Encourage them to Crying Girl make some speculations about Pop Cherry Pie based on the definition. Have them Still Life with Goldfish brainstorm some qualities or features it might possess. Write their ideas on 2. Warhol the chalkboard. Ask students to lis- Marilyn ten and look for anything in the pro- Coca Cola Bottles gram that might support or Money contradict their ideas. 100 Cans Triple Elvis 4. Tell students to pay close attention to Marilyn the styles and favorite subjects of Jackie each artist presented. They will have Ingrid an opportunity to test their ability to Mao identify each artist’s style at the end Pete of the program.

52 Program 10: Pop 3. Rosenquist Firepole 4. (Untitled) (Rosenquist) U-Haul-It 5. The American Stock Company (Indi- Fahrenheit ana) Early in the Morning 6. Hamburger (Oldenburg) 4. Thiebaud Assorted Cakes Cake After the Program Pie Counter Gumball Machine Duplicate and distribute the student sum- mary sheet on page 56. Use the summary 5. Oldenburg sheet as a means to review with students the Hamburger with Pickle artists and their styles. The glossary will help Tray Meal students identify unfamiliar terms, places, Ice Bag Scale C and people. Typewriter Eraser White Gym Shoes Discussion Questions 1. What are some of the typical subjects 6. Indiana portrayed in Pop Art? (movie stars Love and other famous people, products X-5 like Campbell’s Soup, everyday ob- Beware-Danger, American Dream jects)

2. Why do you think Pop artists were in- Short Review of Artists terested in these subjects? (They were interested in the shock value of mak- Using the following paintings to illustrate ing common objects into high art as a their styles, the narrator provides a brief re- means of making people see the ob- view of each artist. jects—and themselves—in a fresh way. They were reacting to a society 1. Lichtenstein obsessed by consumerism, superficial- M-Maybe He Became Ill ity, the “package” rather than its con- tents.) 2. Warhol Elvis 3. Why don’t Lichtenstein’s images of 3. Rosenquist romance and war cause us to be emo- Two 1959 People tionally moved? (His comic book style suggests that his characters are fic- 4. Thiebaud tional—not to be taken entirely seri- Candy Counter ously. His use of speech balloons and written sound effects make his large, 5. Oldenburg bright panels seem trivial or amusing.) Giant Hamburger What is Lichtenstein trying to convey 6. Indiana with these large, impersonal images? American Dream (many possible answers)

4. Why do you think Warhol frequently grouped multiple images of his sub- Student Challenge jects in one work (three images of El- At the conclusion of the program, students vis, the grid of Jackie, etc.)? (many are invited to identify the artists who created possible answers: perhaps to reflect the following works. America’s obsession with mass pro- duction, with clichés like “bigger is 1. Various Cakes (Thiebaud) better,” and “the more the better”)

2. Whaam (Lichtenstein) 5. What images in Rosenquist’s paint- 3. Jackie (Warhol) ings reveal his wanderlust? (feet,

Program 10: Pop 53 highway signposts, and other inter- forms as descriptively as possible. Op- state images) tion: Have each student read his or her story or poem to the class. If each 6. Which Pop artist is best known for student chose a painting, ask the his paintings of bakery counter cakes class to try to guess—based on their and pies? (Thiebaud) What thoughts, readngs—which painting each stu- ideas, or emotions do you experience dent chose. while looking at Thiebaud’s Assorted Cakes? (many possible answers) 4. Show students a work by Lichten- stein and a work by Rosenquist. In 7. Which artist said “I’m for an art that class discussion, compare and con- spits and drips. For an art so big that trast the two paintings. After compar- nobody can possess it”? (Oldenburg) ing the two paintings, ask students What do you think he meant? (many what they can surmise about the ar- possible answers) tistic visions of Lichtenstein and Rosenquist. What ideas and emo- 8. Indiana’s best-known work appeared tions did they express through their on postage stamps. What was it? art? Option: You may choose to ask (Love) the students to write a short essay based on the previous question. Or you may elect to have students re- Activities search the two works and share their

Analyzing Art findings with the class. 1. Have students construct a visual file for each artist. The files could include Art Making reproductions of postcards, old cal- 1. Have each student collect several ad- endars, and art magazines. Write the vertisements that make use of cul- artist’s name and the title of the work tural clichés or stereotypes to sell on the back of each reproduction. products. In class discussion, analyze Use these files to create bulletin how these images reflect societal val- board displays, or to play recognition ues and attitudes. Possible questions: games. Set aside time for students to Why are they powerful enough to sell work with the files. For example, you products? What target group do they might create games that require stu- appeal to? Have each student pick a dents to organize the images by artist, common household object not usu- subject matter, technique, and com- ally advertised on television or in positional elements. magazines (rubber bands, soap dishes, lamp shades, etc.) and create 2. Show students a series of Pop and an advertisement that links the non-Pop works. Ask them to identify product to a popular cultural cliché which are Pop works and which are or stereotype. Have each student not. During this process, encourage share and discuss his or her ad with students to formulate a definition of the class. Pop based on their decisions. Write their ideas on the board as the dis- 2. Have each student choose a maga- cussion develops. zine advertisement. By redrawing or through collage, recreate it in a satiri- 3. Ask students to take an imaginary cal fashion. journey into a painting. Select one painting for the entire class from the 3. Ask students to bring to class “junk” visual files, or let each student from home: pieces of broken radios choose one. Ask students to “enter and clocks, discarded clothing, toys, the painting” and to write a story or and parts of other common objects. poem about who they meet and what Using these objects, have each stu- they see, hear, and do there. Encour- dent assemble a sculpture from dis- age them to write about colors and carded parts and pieces. Have

54 Program 10: Pop students title their sculptures. After- while assembling the sculpture. Ask ward, in class discussion, have each them to explain the titles of their student share and discuss the works and how they chose them. thought process he or she followed

Program 10: Pop 55 Student Summary Sheet 10: Pop

Pop, a 1960s art movement in America, adopted its imagery from popular culture and commercial art and used techniques of commercial illustration. Pop artists satirized America’s obsession with television, fame, and material objects.

Artist Major Work Clues

Lichtenstein Live Ammo Ben Day dots and comic strips

Warhol Marilyn Monroe people as products; electric lines; Campbell’s Soup Cans colored photographs

Rosenquist F-111 billboards

Thiebaud Quick Snack fast foods; pretty pastries

Oldenburg Giant Hamburger huge, drippy foods; products

Indiana Love numbers; letters; slogans; signs

Glossary Ben Day—a process that produces shad- Leonardo—(Leonardo da Vinci. 1452– ing, texture, or tone in line drawings and 1519) Painter, sculptor, architect, and photographs with a fine screen or a pat- engineer from Florence, Italy. tern of dots; used in the printing and en- graving process. manifest—to make evident. manipulate—to manage skillfully. camp humor and reverse snobbery— examples of irony; the tacky or common- Mao—(Tse-tung. 1893–1976) Founder of place becomes appealing (thirty-year-old the Chinese Communist Party. cars; bathtubs with feet; pink flamin- goes). melodramatic—extremely dramatic; stagey. cerebral—smart; brainy; intellectual. satirize—poke fun; spoof. epitomize—to serve as the ideal or ex- ample of something. trappings—ornamental outward signs or decoration. facsimile—look-alike; replica. wanderlust—strong impulse to go from immortalized—made everlasting. place to place.

irony—(in very simple terms) “the oppo- site is true; the joke is on you!”

56 Program 10: Pop Textbook Correlation Bibliography

Alexander, Kay. Learning to Look and Create: Janson, H. W., and Anthony F. Janson. His- The Spectra Program, Grades 5 and 6. Palo tory of Art for Young People. 3rd ed. Grades 5– Alto, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1988. 12. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1987. Teacher text: art-making activities related to slides that emphasize art through the ages. Mittler, Gene A. Art in Focus. Junior high and high school. Peoria, IL: Bennett and Brommer, Gerald F., and David Kohl. Discov- McKnight Publishing Co., 1986. Student ering Art History. 2nd ed. High school. text. Criticism, history, and studio activities. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc.,

1988. Student text and teacher’s guide. Phipps, Richard, and Richard Wink. Invita- Many resources and art appreciation activi- tion to the Gallery. Adult/college. Dubuque, ties. IA: William Brown, 1987. Art history. Art movements studied through museum collec- Chapman, Laura H. Discover Art. Grade 6. tions. Additional activities in art apprecia- Print Guide. Worcester, MA: Davis Publica- tion and art making. tions, Inc., 1985. Student text and teacher’s guide: K–6 series. Art making and art appre- Ragans, Rosalind. Art Talk. Mission Hills, CA: ciation. Glencoe Publishing Co., 1988. Intermedi- ate/junior high. Art appreciation. Includes Fearing, Kelly, Emma Lee Mayton, and Evelyn art appreciation, art history and criticism, Beard. Helping Children See Art and Make aesthetics, and art-making activities. Art. Grades 4–6. Austin, TX: W.S. Benson,

1982. Teacher text. Many art-making activi- Rodriguez, Susan. Art Smart! Junior high ties related to art work and high school. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pren- tice Hall, 1988. Teacher text, slides, and ac- Goldstein, Ernest, Theodore H. Katz, Jo D. tivities for teaching art history and Kowalchuk, and Robert Saunders. Under- appreciation. Also includes many art-making standing and Creating Art I, II. Junior high activities. and high school. Dallas: Garrard Publishing

Co., 1986. Student text and annotated Wilson, Brent, Al Hurwitz, and Marjorie Wil- teacher edition. Art appreciation and art- son. Teaching Drawing from Art. Grades 1– making activities. 12. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc., 1987. Teacher text. Art appreciation and Hartt, Frederick. Art—A History of Paint- drawing activities. ing/Sculpture/Architecture. 2nd ed. Grades 7–12. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1985.

Hubbard, Guy. Art in Action. Grades 7–8. Print Guide (Art in Action Enrichment Pro- gram I and Art in Action Enrichment Program II by Barbara Herberholz). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986. (Originally published by Coronado Publishers of San Diego.) Student texts and teacher’s guides: K–8 series. Art appreciation and art-making activities.

Textbook Correlation Bibliography 57

Textbook Correlation

Program 1 Program 2 Program 3 Program 4 Program 5 Program 6 Program 7 Program 8 Program 9 Program 10 Impressionism The Fauves Expressionism Cubism Surrealism Modern American Realism Abstract Pop Mavericks Landscapes Expressionism

Alexander Grade 5 46, 47 61–65 66–71 76–78, 82–84 79–81

Grade 6 50–54 55–57 55–57 58–61 62–27 71–73

Brommer 348, 362–375, 392–395 386–387, 392, 404–409, 416, 417, 418, 392–399, 400, 434–443 354–358, 442, 399, 437, 439, 477–480, and Kohl 385 403 419, 435, 437 422–424, 439 420–422 443, 489 471–477, 479 490

Chapman Grade 6 63, 69, 91, 93, 22, 23, 92 96 92, 95, 96, 97 7, 97, 122 67 71, 73 94, 125

Print Guide 7, 21, 22 15, 25 16, 18, 65 14, 24 8, 17, 23 10, 30

Fearing 61, 89, 93 14, 63, 65, 85, 68 57, 96, 131, 65, 85 73, 136, 79, 95, 139, 70, 133, 141 et al. 87, 171 164 180–181, 230 166, 168, 169 135–136, 140 172, 174–175

Goldstein et al. I 56, 202 60, 64 58, 59, 192 79, 90 129, 145, 208, 131 209, 213, 234– 236, 263–265

II 293 225, 267, 268, 259, 260 258, 310 89, 203–243 77–79, 169, 179 281, 307–314 280

Hartt 839–872 873–886 887–891 892–912 913–924 878–924 925–930 925–930 931–938 938–942

Textbook Correlation (continued)

Program 1 Program 2 Program 3 Program 4 Program 5 Program 6 Program 7 Program 8 Program 9 Program 10 Impressionism The Fauves Expressionism Cubism Surrealism Modern American Realism Abstract Pop Mavericks Landscapes Expressionism

Hubbard Grade 7 60, 64, 93, 59, 72, 92, 93, 125 6, 118, 208 93, 191 87, 202, 211 52, 123, 213 70 117 200, 201 106–109, 122 208

Herberholz Print Guide I 8, 29 12, 19, 30 17 10, 23 20, 26 18 6, 24 28

Hubbard Grade 8 12, 13, 22, 43, 14, 64, 80–83, 186 20, 54, 61, 82, 112, 180, 198, 38, 78 35, 76, 154, 34, 39, 67, 77, 48, 83, 84, 182, 86, 87, 123 147, 188–191 206 155 79, 184, 200 205

Herberholz Print Guide II 21, 25 31 20 9, 23 10, 19 16, 27 22 15

Janson and 332–345 357–367, 375, 357–365, 384, 365–383 381–384 349, 352, 360– 364, 371, 435, 383–390 393–400 Janson 402 390, 433, 435 362, 371–373 437

Mittler 42–46, 282, 318–337 332–341 54, 313–317, 361–366 332–337, 363, 372–376, 388, 359–371 359, 376–378 391, 392 296, 306–308 323, 341–345 364 389

Phipps and 207–217 218–224, 230–235 235–240 243–249 272 255–268 268–271 Wink 228–229

Ragans 12, 33, 183, 110, 159, 170, 36, 290 34, 36, 74, 99, 292 68, 223, 226 72, 208, 212, 21, 38, 63, 71, 151, 190 129, 220, 188, 323 185 162, 163, 186, 260, 268 72, 102, 247, 279, 331 227, 291, 329 252

Rodriquez 157–159, 162– 169–170, 171–173 164, 165–166, 176–177, 180–181 167–168 178–179

Wilson and 142, 183 153 60, 132 59, 108, 116, 153 70, 71, 135, 182 40, 87 28 35, 176 Wilson 121, 152, 185 141

Additional Resources

Books • Toulouse-Lautrec and His Con- Brookes, Mona. Drawing with Children: A temporaries: Posters of the Belle Creative Teaching and Learning Method that Epoque Works for Adults Too. New York: St. Martin’s • Jim Dine and Contemporary Prints Press, 1986. • The Spiritual in Art: Abstract Clark, Gilbert and Enid Zimmerman. Art/ Painting, 1890–1985 Design: Communicating Visually. Blauvelt, • Master Drawings from the Perma- NY: Art Education, Inc., 1978. Student text nent Collection and teacher’s guide: junior high and high school level. Art history, art criticism, aes- Available from: Education Department, thetics, and art making activities. L.A. County Museum of Art, 5905 Wil- shire Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90036. De La Croix, Horst, and Richard C. Tansey. Gardner’s Art through the Ages. 8th ed. San 3. SWRL Comprehensive Art Program. Film- Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986. strips and teacher’s guide: elementary Art history text: adult/college level. through junior high school levels. Art making, art criticism and history, art Hughes, Robert. . New perception. Available from Phi Delta York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980. Art history text: Kappa, P.O. Box 789, Bloomington, IN adult/college level. Emphasis on modern art 47402-0789. development. 4. Milliken Art and Culture Series. Five Schuman, Jo, M. Art from Many Hands: Mul- teacher texts, full color transparencies, ticultural Art Projects. Worcester, MA: Davis and duplicating pages for students: jun- Publications, Inc., 1981. Teacher text: ior high and high school levels. 1978. Grades 3–6. Multicultural art projects. • Images of Fantasy

• Images of Change I: Art and Soci- Educational Packages ety in Transition 1. History through Art and Architecture. • Images of Nature Sound filmstrip and video series includ-

ing student workbooks and charts: ele- • Images of Change II: Art, Science, mentary through secondary levels. and Technology Available from Alarion Press, P.O. Box • Images of Man 1882, Boulder, CO 80306. Available from Milliken Publishing Com- 2. L.A. County Museum of Art. A series of pany, 1100 Research Blvd., St. Louis, MO teacher materials for classroom use with 63132-0579; telephone: 1-800-643-0008. slides often included.

• The Face Behind the Mask: Ger- man Expressionist Sculpture • Picasso’s Sculpture

60 Resources