THIS MONTH IN SCIENCE:J 1 July 1983, India’s fi rst 235 Mw unit of the size attached to the same beam”, was 1818, Karl von Vierordt who invented Kalpakkam station was born. fi the sphygmograph (the rst instrument commissioned near Chennai, after it 1888, who shared to trace a human pulse by a non-invasive attained criticality. (with ) the measurement of blood pressure) was 2001, the fi rst for or Medicine in 1944 “for born. self-contained, their discoveries relating to the highly 1847, the second asteroid “Hebe” was mechanical heart differentiated functions of single nerve discovered by M. Henckle. replacement fi bers”, was born. 1858, the Wallace-Darwin theory of was implanted 1891, who was evolution was fi rst published at the into 59-year-old awarded (with James B. Sumner and Linnaean Society in London. Robert Tools at Wendell M. Stanley) the Nobel Prize 1907, Norman Wingate Pirie (British Jewish Hospital in for in 1946 “for successfully biochemist and virologist) was born. He Louisville. purifying and crystallizing certain discovered (with Frederick Bawden) that thus enables him to determine a can be crystallized by isolating 3 July their chemical ”, was born. tobacco mosaic virus in 1936. This was 1886, Karl Benz drove 1951, the invention of the junction an important milestone in understanding transistor was announced by Dr. William DNA and RNA. the fi rst automobile in the world in Shockley in Murray Hill, N.J. This new 1929, Gerald Maurice Edelman who Mannheim, , type of transistor overcame the problems shared (with Rodney R. Porter) the Nobel reaching a top speed of the earlier point-contact transistors. Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1972 of 16 km/h (10 mph) 1996, Dolly, a cloned sheep (the “for their discoveries concerning the powered by a 0.75-hp fi rst mammal cloned from a chemical structure of antibodies” was one-cylinder four- cell from an adult), was born at born. stroke gasoline engine. the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, 1934, the fi rst X-ray 1929, foam rubber developed at Dunlop Scotland. had replaced photograph of the Latex Development Laboratories in the nucleus of an egg cell with whole body taken in a Birmingham. the nucleus from a parent cell - in one-second exposure, Dolly’s case, an udder cell from a 2002, NASA launched Contour (Comet using ordinary Finn Dorset sheep clinical conditions by Nucleus Tour), a U.S. unmanned satellite Arthur W. Fuchs of on a mission to get within 60 miles of a the Eastman Kodak comet nucleus to study frozen samples of 6 July Company. the solar system from its infancy. 1817, Rudolph Albert von Kölliker 1941, Alfred Goodman (Swiss anatomist, physiologist and Gilman who shared (with ) 4 July histologist), who was one of the founders of embryology, was born. the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology 1826, fi rst malleable iron casting made in or Medicine “for their discovery of the U.S. was produced in Newark, N.J. by 1889, Louis Pasteur injected the G- and the role of these proteins Seth Boyden. fi rst inoculation for rabies of human beings. The rabies virus in in cells” was born. 1998, Japan launched Nozomi (“Hope”) is transmitted by the bite of an 1997, Asia’s fi rst Science City was from Kagoshima Launch Centre, the infected animal, like a domestic inaugurated in Calcutta (Kolkata), second country’s fourth “deep space” mission, dog. only in the world after Paris. trying to become the third nation 1903 2008, HIMADRI (‘the abode of snow’), (after Russia and the U.S.) to reach for , Axel Hugo Teodor Theorell India’s fi rst research station located at Mars. who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 1955 “for his discoveries the International Arctic Research base, 2004, India’s surface to concerning the nature and mode of action Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, was surface ballistic missile of oxidation enzymes”, was born. inaugurated. It is located at a distance of Agni A1 was test- 1,200 kilometres from the North Pole. fi red from Interim Test Range, Orissa. Agni 7 July 2 July missile was developed 1843, , who shared (with by DRDO. 1819, Thomas Anderson (Scottish organic the Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y ) who discovered pyridine was Cajal) the 1906 Nobel Prize for Physiology born. 5 July or Medicine in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”, 1862, Sir who was 1687, the Principia, by was born. awarded (with his son Sir Lawrence published, bringing to the world his 1965 Bragg) the Nobel Prize for in now famously-known three Laws of , the fi rst 1915 “for their services in the analysis of , and the Law of Universal successful surgery to crystal structure by means of X-rays” was Gravitation. replant a completely amputated thumb born. 1753, Jonathan Carter Hornblower who was accomplished by 1940, U.S. patent issued to et “invented the fi rst compound steam Shigeo Komatsu and al., for a process of producing radioactive engine for which he claimed better Susumi Tamai. substances (No. 2,206,634). effi ciency, using two cylinders of unequal SCIENCE REPORTER, JULY 2015 60 THIS MONTH IN SCIENCE 8 July molecular content of gases. Margarine is an imitation butter spread 1894, Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Russian 1916, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov, used for spreading, baking, and cooking. who shared (with Arno Penzias who received (with Nikolay G. Basov, 1918, Bertram N. Brockhouse who shared and ) the 1978 USSR and Charles H. Townes, US), (with American physicist Clifford G. Nobel Prize for Physics “for his basic the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1964 Shull) the Nobel Prize for Physics in strong magnetic fi eld inventions and “for fundamental work in the fi eld of 1994 “for the development of discoveries in the area of low-temperature quantum electronics, which has led to the ” was born. physics”, was born. construction of oscillators and amplifi ers 1921, Robert Bruce Merrifi eld who 1895, Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm, who based on the maser- principle”, was received the 1984 Nobel Prize for shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physics born. Chemistry “for his development of the with Pavel A. Cherenkov and Ilya M. 1927, Theodore Harold Maiman, the phase peptide synthesis method Frank “for his efforts in explaining American physicist who built the fi rst to build up large organic molecules on a Cherenkov radiation”, was born. working laser was born. LASER is an solid matrix” was born. acronym for Amplifi cation by 1922, Leon M. Lederman who was awarded (with and Jack 9 July Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Steinberger) the Nobel Prize for Physics 1856, Elias Howe, who invented the 12 July in 1988 for the beam method and sewing machine, was born. the demonstration of the doublet structure 1926, Ben R. Mottelson, who shared (with 1928, , who was of the through the discovery of Aage N. Bohr and ) the awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in the neutrino” was born. 1975 Nobel Prize for Physics “for the 1990 “for his development of the theory discovery of the connection between and methodology of organic synthesis”, collective motion and particle motion in was born. 16 July atomic nuclei and the development of 1913, , who shared (with 1888, who was awarded the theory of the structure of the atomic ) the Nobel Prize for the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1953 “for nucleus based on this connection”, was Physics in 1955 “for his discoveries his invention of the phase-contrast born. concerning the fi ne structure of the , an instrument that permits spectrum”, was born. the study of internal cell structure without the need to stain and thus kill the cells” 10 July was born. 13 July 1856, Nicola Tesla was born. He designed 1926, who was awarded and built the fi rst alternating current 1995, the spacecraft (with Israelis and induction motor in 1883. The SI unit Galileo released a ) the 2004 Nobel Prize of magnetic fl ux density or magnetic probe towards Jupiter in Chemistry “for discovering the role induction, the Tesla, is named in his to become the fi rst Earth emissary ever of the ubiquitin in cells” was honour. to penetrate the atmosphere of any of the born. outer gas giants. 1902, , who shared (with Otto 1945, the world’s fi rst atomic bomb Diels) the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in was successfully exploded in the 1950 “for their development of the Diels- 14 July desert near Alomogordo, Alder reaction (1928), or diene synthesis, 1867, demonstrated as the “” test. a widely used method of synthesizing dynamite for the fi rst time at a quarry in 1969, the Crew of Apollo XI, Neil A. cyclic organic compounds”, was born. Redhill, Surrey. In 1866 Nobel produced Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and 1908, Kamerlingh Onnes made helium what he believed was a safe and Michael Collins, blasted off from Cape liquid at a temperature of 4.2 K (about manageable form of nitroglycerin called Kennedy on the fi rst manned mission to -269 ºC). dynamite. the surface of the . 1920, , who shared 1918, Jay W. Forrester, who invented the (with Emilio Segrè) the Nobel Prize for random-access magnetic core memory, 18 July Physics in 1959 “for their discovery of the the information-storage device employed 1635, Robert Hooke who discovered the ”, was born. in most digital computers, was born. 1962, Telstar 1, the world’s law of elasticity was born. He also coined 1921, Sir , who shared the term ‘cell’. fi rst geosynchronous active (with Ernst Fischer) the Nobel Prize for 1853, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz who communications satellite, was Chemistry in 1973 “for their pioneering shared (with ) the Nobel launched from Cape Canaveral, work, performed independently, on the Prize for Physics in 1902 “for his theory Florida, to relay TV and telephone chemistry of the organometallic, so called of the infl uence of magnetism upon signals between the sandwich compounds”, was born. and Europe. electromagnetic radiation phenomena”, 1965, the Mariner 4 satellite sent a was born. 2006, India’s Geosynchronous Satellite transmission of the fi rst close-up Launch Vehicle (GSLV – Fo2) was photograph of Mars. launched with INSAT – 4C from Satish 2013, the world’s last telegram was sent in 20 July Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC India. It was the last major country to shut 1969, Apollo XI SHAR), Sriharikota. down telegram service. astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin 11 July 15 July “Buzz” Aldrin became 1811, Italian Amedeo Avogadro 1869, Margarine was patented by the fi rst men to published his memoire about the Hippolyte Mege Mouries in France. walk on the moon. 61 SCIENCE REPORTER, JULY 2015 THIS MONTH IN SCIENCE 22 July 26 July Gajdusek) the 1976 Nobel Prize in 1822, Gregor Johann Mendel, who worked 1926, Joseph F. Engelberger Physiology or Medicine “for their with pea plants and known for Mendel’s who (with George Devol) discoveries concerning new mechanisms Laws of Inheritance was born. He laid the developed the fi rst industrial for the origin and dissemination of foundation of modern genetics. robot in the United States, the infectious diseases”, was born. 1887, Gustav Hertz who shared (with Unimate, in the 1950’s was 1996, the skull of prehistoric Kennewick ) the Nobel Prize for Physics born. Engelberger is often Man was found beside the Columbia in 1925 “for the Franck-Hertz experiment, referred to as the “Father of River in Kennewick, Washington. which confi rmed the quantum theory”, Robotics.” was born. 1969, scientists had a fi rst look at the 46 29 July pounds of rocks that Apollo 11 astronauts 1898, , who was awarded 23 July brought back from the moon in SRC’s: the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1944 “for sample return containers. 1886, Walter Schottky who discovered resonance method for recording the the Schottky effect, an irregularity in the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei”, emission of thermions in a 27 July was born. and invented the screen-grid tetrode tube 1881, (German biochemist) 1914, transcontinental telephone service (1915), was born. who was awarded the Nobel Prize for began. It was celebrated with a telephone Chemistry in 1930 “for his researches conversation between Thomas A. Watson in and Alexander Graham 24 July into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his Bell in City repeating their 1844 , Henry Rossiter Worthington synthesis of haemin” was born. historic conversation from 1876. patented the independent single direct- 1921, was isolated at Toronto 1957, The International Atomic Energy acting steam power pump, an invention University by Canadians Sir Frederick Agency was established by UN. which laid the foundation of the entire Banting and Charles Best. It proved an pump industry. effective treatment for diabetes. 1950 31 July , the fi rst successful rocket 1949, the British De 1800, Friedrich Wohler (the German launch from Cape Canaveral Havilland Comet, chemist) who co-discovered , took place. “Bumper” No. the world’s fi rst jet- silicon and silicon nitride was born. He is 8 was a captured German propelled airliner, also known for synthesis of urea. V-2 rocket with the payload made its maiden fl ight replaced by another rocket in . 1858, Richard Dixon Oldham, “who made 700-pound Army-JPL Wac the fi rst clear identifi cation of the separate 1969, Pioneer 10, the fi rst space probe to Corporal rocket on top. arrivals of P-waves, S-waves and surface traverse the Asteriod Belt and the fi rst to 1997 waves on seismograms and the fi rst clear , the same Scottish scientists who fl y by Jupiter, was launched. It became evidence that the Earth has a central produced Dolly the cloned sheep the fi rst man-made object to leave the core”, was born. announced they had cloned a sheep with solar system. human genes. Polly and four other cloned 1918, Paul D. Boyer, who was awarded the lambs marked a milestone in the effort to 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry “for their alter the genetic make-up of animals. 28 July elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism 1851, a total solar eclipse was fi rst underlying the synthesis of adenosine 25 July captured on a daguerreotype photograph triphosphate (ATP)”, was born. by Busch and Berkowski, at the Royal 1964, the American space probe Ranger 1920, Rosalind Elsie Franklin who Observatory in Königsberg, Prussia (now 7 transmitted the fi rst close-up images of discovered the molecular structure Kalinigrad in Russia). the moon’s surface ever taken by a U.S. of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a 1858, The use of fi ngerprint spacecraft, beginning the mapping of the constituent of chromosomes that serves to technique as means off surface in preparation for a future lunar encode genetic information, was born. identifi cation was introduced by landing. 1946, the U.S. detonated the “Baker” William Herschel. 1971, Dave Scott became the fi rst person to atomic bomb during “Operation 1904, Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov drive a vehicle on the Moon - the battery- Crossroads” at Bikini Atoll in the Pacifi c. who was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize powered Lunar Rover (LRV) - as part of This is the fi rst underwater nuclear in Physics for “for the discovery and the the Apollo 15 mission to the mountainous test. interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”, Hadley-Apennine region. 1978, in England, Louise Joy Brown, the was born. He discovered Cherenkov 1990, experiments in gene therapy by the fi rst test tube baby was born in Oldham. radiation (1934). insertion of new genes into body cells She had been conceived through the 1915, Charles Hard Townes, who shared were approved for the fi rst time by the technique of in-vitro fertilization. (with the Soviet Aleksandr M. Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee 1984, Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Prokhorov and Nikolay G. Basov) the 1964 of the National Institutes of Health. These Savitskaya, made her second trip into Nobel Prize for Physics “for fundamental fi rst real gene therapies for humans were space, during which she became the fi rst work in the fi eld of quantum electronics, for adenosine deaminase defi ciency (a woman to walk in space. which has led to the construction of genetic disease that destroys the immune 1997, it was announced that for the oscillators and amplifi ers based on the system) and for a form of cancer. fi rst time human stem cells had maser-laser principle”, was born. been cultured in a laboratory, using Compiled by Vijendra Kumar, Research Intern, 1925, , National Science Library, CSIR-NISCAIR, tissue taken from aborted human who was awarded (with D. Carleton embryos. Email: [email protected] SCIENCE REPORTER, JULY 2015 62