Iran. J. Ichthyol. (March 2016), 3(1): 25–30 Received: November 24, 2015 © 2015 Iranian Society of Ichthyology Accepted: February 21, 2016 P-ISSN: 2383-1561; E-ISSN: 2383-0964 doi: 10.7508/iji.2016.01.003

First record of the convict , nigrofasciata (Günther, 1867) (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Namak Lake basin, Iran


1Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, P.O. Box: 1144, Guilan, Iran. 2Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. * Email: [email protected]

Abstract: The , Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther, 1867) is recorded for the first time from Soleymaniyeh spring, Namak Lake basin in central Iran, the second record of this species from the country. Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been probably released into the spring, as an aquarium fish by local people, but has been now possibly established in this water body. The monitoring of this exotic fish is highly recommended.

Keywords: Soleymaniyeh Spring, Aquarium, Exotic fish, Monitoring.

Introduction nigrofasciatum (Günther, 1867) and Similar to trends observed in other countries, the nigrofasciatus (Günther, 1867) is an number of non-native fish species introduced in Iran alien fish species which was reported from the has increased considerably over recent decades Middle East about 20 years ago (see Esmaeili et al. reaching twenty-seven confirmed species in 9 2013). It is native to the Pacific slope of Central families (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015). America, found from Río Sucio, El Salvador, to Río Introductions of fish species into Iranian water bodies Suchiate, Guatemala, and occurring on the Atlantic dates back a long time but were most prominent in slope from Río Patuca, Honduras, to Río Jutiapa, the 1920s, when the mosquitofish, Gambusia Guatemala (Komar 2009; Matamoros et al. 2009; holbrooki (Poeciliidae) was introduced as an anti- Ishikawa & Tachihara 2010). Since 1920, this species malarial Agent (Esmaeili et al. 2010a). Among the has been widely introduced, probably all via the exotic fish species of Iran, the family Cyprinidae with ornamental fish trade (Lever 1996; Fuller et al. 1999; 11 species (40.74% of exotic species) is ranked first Roll et al. 2007; Baptiste et al. 2010; Cossíos 2010; followed by Salmonidae (5 species, 18.52%), Ishikawa & Tachihara 2010; Piazzini et al. 2010; Poeciliidae with 3 species (11.11%), Mugilidae and Pino-Del-Carpio et al. 2010; Scoppettone et al. 2011; Cichlidae both with 2 species (7.41% each) and 3 Fishbase 2015). families each with only one species (3.70% each) In Iran, Amatitlania nigrofasciata is recently (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015). Aquaculture, sport reported from Kol River drainage, Hormuz basin, fishing, control of malaria, research and accidental southern Iran (Esmaeili et al. 2013, 2014). Here we introductions have been the main reasons for these report this exotic fish for the first time from a small introductions in Iran, and only three species have spring in the Namak Lake basin, central Iran, been established from ornamental sources: Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and Material and Methods Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Esmaeili et al. 2010b, The Amatitlania nigrofasciata specimens were 2013; Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi, 2014). collected by electrofishing in two fieldworks during Amatitlania nigrofasciata, formerly known as 2014-2015, in the Namak Lake basin, central Iran


Iran. J. Ichthyol. (March 2016), 3(1): 25-30

Fig.1. Site of introduced convict cichlid, Amatitlania nigrofasciata in Iran (Kashan, Namak Lake basin, in central Iran).

(Fig. 1). The habitat is Soleymaniyeh spring in basin, in central Iran (Soleymaniyeh spring), and the Kashan city (33°56'44''N, 51°22'23''E 1041m), second record from the country. However, as the first Isfahan Province, Iran. The specimens were record is related to the leucistic strain (Esmaeili et al. preserved in 10% formaldehyde after anesthetizing 2013), the new record is the only reported wild type with 1% clove extract solution and transferred to of this species in Iran. Soleymaniyeh spring (Fig. 2) laboratory for further studies. Capoeta aculeata is a high water temperature (25°C) spring in Kashan (Valenciennes, 1844), Poecilia reticulata Peters, City. Kashan City is the largest center of ornamental 1859 and Xiphophorus hellerii (Heckel, 1848) were fish production in Iran with more than 1500 farms also collected from the same locality during the that produce more than 40% of ornamental fishes in sampling. All the six collected specimens of Iran. In the Soleymaniyeh spring, there are traditional A. nigrofasciata were deposited in the collection of bridges and channels in the water flow, where are the Ichthyology Museum (GUIC), Department of appropriate sites for hiding, nesting and breeding for Fisheries Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, A. nigrofasciata (Fig. 2c). University of Guilan, Guilan Province, Iran. In total, six A. nigrofasciata specimens in different sizes (38-99.3mm), includes mature, Results and Discussion immature and a spawning pair were collected. This is the first record of this non-native cichlid fish However, there were more small specimens, but they from a natural freshwater body of the Namak Lake could escape as the fish is an active swimmer. The 26 Mousavi-Sabet and Eagderi-A new locality record for Amatitlania nigrofasciata from Iranian inland water

Fig.3. Spawning female Amatitlania nigrofasciata collected from Soleymaniyeh spring, Namak Lake basin, Iran. blotches along flanks (Fig. 3). According to Esmaeili et al. (2013), as part of Iranian tradition, people release wild creatures, particularly fish, into the wild during certain festivals (New Year ceremony). In the case of fish, many of them are released into freshwater habitats such as rivers, ponds and reservoirs and can thus result in the establishment of non-native fishes in new environments. Therefore, it seems A. nigrofasciata was introduced as an aquarium fish, but is now established in at least two natural habitats in Iran. Although A. nigrofasciata from sampling station showed a restricted distribution and cannot be widely distributed but it might have negative impacts on native fish populations such as C. aculeata through competition, habitat changes, and introduction of parasites and diseases (Esmaeili et al. 2010b; 2014; Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2014). As conclusion, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, like other introduced species, may cause harm to native fishes as this is an aggressive and territorial species Fig.2. Soleymaniyeh spring, Namak Lake basin, Iran; (a) catching site of Amatitlania nigrofasciata, (b) a which is well-known for its ability to colonize rapidly traditional bridge as a proper place to hide for and it also often carries alien parasites (Wisenden A. nigrofasciata, (c) arrows indicate the nesting sites 1994; Bassleer 1997; Martinez et al. 2002). As for breeding by A. nigrofasciata. Esmaeili et al. (2010b) and Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi collected specimens characterized by 8-9 black (2014) suggested for X. hellerii and P. reticulata, vertical bars on a blue grey body, along with a dark eradication programs can be successful in the case of blotch on the operculum (Fig. 3). Sexual dimorphism A. nigrofasciata. There is a possible chance of is clear in adult specimens as males are bigger than success because of the yet very limited distribution. the females, also females marked by golden small However, such programs have to be accompanied by 27 Iran. J. Ichthyol. (March 2016), 3(1): 25-30

a public awareness campaign to ensure that the Fuller, P.L.; Nico L.G. & Williams, J.D. 1999. aquarium trade and hobbyists do not release these Nonindigenous fishes introduced to inland waters ornamental fishes into the natural habitats. of the United States American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Acknowledgments Ishikawa, T. & Tachihara, K. 2010. Life history of the nonnative convict cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata We would like to thank University of Guilan and in the Haebaru Reservoir on Okinawa-jima Island, University of Tehran for financial support. Japan. Environmental Biology of Fishes 88: 283- 292. References Jouladeh-Roudbar, A.; Vatandoust, S.; Eagderi, S.; Jafari- Baptiste, M.P.; Castaño, N.; López, D.C.; Gutiérrez, F.P.; Kenari, S. & Mousavi-Sabet, H. 2015 Freshwater Gil, D.L. & Lasso, C.A. 2010. Análisis de riesgo y fishes of Iran; an updated checklist. AACL Bioflux propuesta de categorización de especies 8(6): 855-909 introducidas para Colombia. Instituto de Komar, O. 2009. Comprehensive Inventories of Selected Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander Biological Resources within Targeted Watersheds von Humboldt. Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. and Ecological Corridors of Southwestern El Bassleer, G. 1997. Color guide of tropical fish diseases: Salvador. USAID El Salvador, Improved on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Management and Conservation of Critical Westmeerbeek, Belgium. Watersheds Project. Cossíos, E.D. 2010. Naturalised vertebrates in Peru: Lever, C. 1996. Naturalized Fishes of the World. history and state of knowledge. Revista Peruana De Academic Press, London. biologia 17 (2): 179-189. Martinez, V.M.V.; Macedo, M.L.A.; Scholz, T., Solis, Esmaeili, H.R.; Coad, B.W.; Gholamifard, A.; Nazari, N. D.G. & Franco, E.F.M. 2002. Atlas de los & Teimory, A. 2010a. Annotated checklist of the helmintos parásitos de cíclidos de México. Instituto freshwater fishes of Iran. Zoosystematica Rossica Politécnico Nacional, Dirección de Publicaciones 19: 361-386. Tresguerras 27, 06040, México, D. F. Esmaeili, H.R.; Gholamifard, A.; Teimori, A.; Baghbani, Matamoros, W.A.; Schaefer, J.F. & Kreiser, B.R. 2009. S. & Coad, B.W. 2010b. Xiphophorus hellerii Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Heckel, 1848 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae), a continental and insular Honduras. Zootaxa 2307: 1- newly introduced fish recorded from natural 38. freshwaters of Iran. Journal of Applied Ichthyology Mousavi-Sabet, H. & Eagderi, S. 2014 First record of 26: 937-938. Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 Esmaeili, H.R.; Gholamifard, A.; Sayyadzadeh, G.; Parsi, (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae) from natural B.; Mirghiasi, S. & Ghasemian, S. 2013. New freshwaters of Iran. Poecilid Research 4(1): 19-23. record of the convict cichlid, Amatitlania Piazzini, S.; Lori, E.; Favilli, L.; Cianfanelli, S.; Vanni, S. nigrofasciata (Günther, 1867), from the Middle & Manganelli, G. 2010. A tropical fish community East (: Cichlidae). Aqua, in thermal waters of southern Tuscany. Biological International Journal of Ichthyology 19(4): 225- Invasions 12: 2959-2965. 229. Pino-del-carpio, A.; Miranda, R. & Puig, J. 2010. Non- Esmaeili, H.R.; Teimori, A.; Owfi, F.; Abbasi, K.; Coad, native freshwater fish management in biosphere B.W. 2014. Alien and invasive freshwater fish reserves. Management of Biological Invasions 1: species in Iran: Diversity, environmental impacts 13-33. and management. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology Roll, U.; Dayan, T.; Simberloff, D. & Goren, M. 2007. 1(2): 61-72. Characteristics of the introduced fish fauna of Fishbase. 2015. Fishbase. A global information system on Israel. Biological Invasions 9: 813-824. fishes. Available via Scoppettone, G.G.; Rissler, P.; Johnson, D. & Hereford, home.htm. Accessed 28 October 2015. M. 2011. Relative abundance and distribution of 28 Mousavi-Sabet and Eagderi-A new locality record for Amatitlania nigrofasciata from Iranian inland water

fishes and crayfish at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Nye County, Nevada, U.S. Department of the Interior. Wisenden, B.D. 1994. Factors affecting mate desertion by males in free-ranging convict (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum). Behavioral Ecology 5(4): 439- 447.

29 Iran. J. Ichthyol. (March 2016), 3(1): 25–30 © 2015 Iranian Society of Ichthyology P-ISSN: 2383-1561; E-ISSN: 2383-0964 doi:

نخستین گزارش ماهی سیچالید گورخری، ,Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther (1867 )ماهیان استخوانی عالی ، سیچالیدماهیان( از حوضه دریاچه نمک ایران

سید حامد موسوی ثابت*1، سهیل ایگدری2

1گروه شيالت، دانشکده منابع طبيعي، دانشگاه گيالن، صومعهسرا، ایران. 2گروه شيالت، دانشکده منابع طبيعي، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

چکیده: ماهي سيچالید گورخری، Günther, 1867) Amatitlania nigrofasciata) برای نخستين بار از چشمه سليمانيه حوضه دریاچه نمک در مرکز ایران و به عنوان دومين گزارش از ایران ثبت گردید. Amatitlania nigrofasciata احتماالً بهعنوان یک ماهي زینتي به وسيله مردم محلي به این چشمه معرفي شده است و اکنون احتماالً در این منبع آبي جمعيت پایداری را تشکيل داده است. پایش این گونه غيربومي به شدت توصيه ميگردد. کلماتکلیدی: چشمه سليمانيه، آکواریوم، ماهي غيربومي، پایش.