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ISSUES& ANSWERS REL 2007–No. 025

Registering students from At CNA Corporation language backgrounds other than English

U.S. Department of Education ISSUES&ANSWERS REL 2007–No. 025

At CNA Corporation Registering students from language backgrounds other than English

August 2007

Prepared by Nicole Center for Applied Carolyn Temple Adger Center for Igone Arteagoitia Center for Applied Linguistics

U.S. Department of Education WA ME MT ND VT MN OR NH ID SD WI NY MI WY IA PA NE NV OH IL IN UT WV CA CO VA KS MO KY NC TN AZ OK NM AR SC

GA MS AL LA TX AK FL At CNA Corporation

Issues & Answers is ongoing series of reports from short-term Fast Response Projects conducted by the regional educa- tional laboratories on current education issues of importance at local, state, and regional levels. Fast Response Project topics change to reflect new issues, as identified through lab outreach and requests for assistance from policymakers and educa- tors at state and local levels and from communities, businesses, , , and youth. All Issues & Answers reports meet Institute of Education Sciences standards for scientifically valid research.

August 2007

This report was prepared for the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) under Contract ED-06-CO-0021 by Regional Educa- tional Laboratory Appalachia administered by CNA Corporation. The content of the publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of IES or the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade , commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

This report is in the public domain. While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, it should be cited as:

Marcus, N., Adger, C. T., & Arteagoitia, I. (2007). Registering students from language backgrounds other than English (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 025). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.

This report is available on the regional educational laboratory web site athttp://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlab s. iii

Summary

Registering students from language backgrounds other than English

This report seeks to alert administrators, heavily relies on names. Because some students school staff, and database managers to come from cultures with differently structured variations in the naming systems of other names, it is essential to recognize whether two cultures; to help these groups accommo- names are truly different or whether they are date other cultures and identify students predictable variants of the same . A track- consistently in school databases; and to ing system must uniformly record students’ provide knowledge of other cultures’ names so that records linked to those names naming conventions and forms of ad- can be retrieved reliably. dress to assist in interacting with stu- dents and their members. The parts of a name and the in which they appear differ depending on language As a result of the No Left Behind Act, and culture. Many cultures do not follow the education systems are finding it important to typical Anglo-American format: first name, track students across grades and are realizing , last name. Problems arise when the complications in such tracking. Students the student’s name is Juan Carlos Hernandez might move to different schools throughout González rather than . And their academic career, and with multiple vari- it is essential to be able to accommodate these ants of non-Anglo-American names, students’ types of format. When a student’s name does academic history might be easily lost. To not match the expected format of first name, facilitate tracking within and across schools, middle name, last name, the person register- states in the Appalachia Region have created ing the student must decide how to fit the identification (ID) numbers. They have also name into the name field provided. Subse- established procedures for ensuring that two quent recordings must be uniform. students with the same name do not have the same ID number and that a student who The report provides an overview of naming moves does not get a different ID number. conventions and ways to address parents for each of the eight languages other than Eng- But systems that depend on ID numbers are lish that are most common in the Appalachia not infallible. When ID numbers must be vali- Region. dated, the name that accompanies the number must be consulted. So the tracking system still August 2007

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Table of contents Summary iii The importance of getting students’ names right 1 The challenge posed by names: overview of issues and options 2 Variation in the structure and spelling of names 3 Database and registration options 4 Names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 5 names 6 Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian names 9 Japanese names 10 Khmer (Cambodian) names 12 Korean names 13 Spanish names 14 names 16 Vietnamese names 17 Appendix About the sources in this report 19

Tables 1 Frequency of the top five non-English languages spoken by English language learners in the Appalachia Region 6 2 Summary of main characteristics of traditional personal names by language 7 The importance of getting students’ names right 1

The importance of getting This report students’ names right

seeks to alert To meet the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, states and districts are finding it administrators, important to track student progress across grades. If students change schools or districts, it becomes school staff, and necessary to match their records in the new school with those in the previous school. To facili- database managers tate tracking within and across schools, all states in the Appalachia Region have created identifica- to variations in the tion numbers. They have established procedures for ensuring that two students with the same naming systems of name do not have the same ID number and that a student who moves does not get a different ID other cultures; to number.

help these groups Systems that depend on identification numbers are not infallible. In practice, names remain accommodate an important means of identifying and track- ing students in schools, because ID numbers are other cultures and linked to student names. Where ID numbers must be verified, student names are consulted. If names identify students appear to differ when the ID numbers across documents are the same, it is important to be able consistently in to recognize whether the names are truly differ- ent or whether they are predictable, acceptable school databases; variants of the same name. That makes it essential to record student names in a uniform way so that and to provide records linked to those names can be retrieved knowledge of other reliably. Recording the name of a new student who comes cultures’ naming from another culture can be challenging, since different cultures have different patterns for conventions and names. The student’s culture not follow the familiar pattern for names in the — forms of address first name, middle name, last name. On written records presented by the parents and guardians, to assist in the structure of the student’s name may not match the expected format, which means that the person interacting with registering the student has to decide how to fit the name into the name fields provided. Later on, the students and their student’s name will again be recorded, perhaps for an assessment or for enrollment in another school family members. or district. If the name is not recorded in the same way each time, record-keeping systems will treat 2 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

the different entries as representing different resources for each language. Sources used in the students. This can make it difficult to retrieve the report are summarized in an appendix. student’s records even when the ID number is pro- vided. For the student, the family, the school, and the school district this circumstance will create The challenge posed by names: confusion and delay. overview of issues and options

The need for a practical report on cultural con- School forms and databases are structured to trasts in names was first suggested by the III accept the standard American name structure. administrator for Kentucky and later verified by When a student provides his name as John Robert Title III administrators in the other three states. Smith, this name is easily entered in the three All had been asked about how to manage different fields commonly used in the United States: naming conventions by districts and schools serv- ing many students classified as English language John Robert Smith learners. This report responds to their concerns. Given/first name John Middle name Robert Family name/last name/surname Smith To accommodate To accommodate contrasting for- contrasting formats mats of names in other cultures, of names in other administrators must establish When a student named Juan Carlos Hernandez cultures, administrators rules for database users to follow González registers, the situation is not as straight- must establish rules in entering students’ names. The forward. It might seem reasonable to guess that for database users rules should be guided by knowl- Carlos is the middle name (because it follows the to follow in entering edge of how names are structured first name) and that González is the family name students’ names in other cultures and defined in (because it appears last). But this guess would be in- consultation with the database accurate, and it would produce a database entry that manager. The design of the data- would make it difficult to retrieve data. Carlos is base will constrain the way in which names are actually the second part of the two-part entered into the system, so it may be necessary to that is standard for Hispanic names. And most modify the name. Every effort should be made to Hispanic people use two family names: the family ensure that such name changes closely resemble name of the (in this case, Hernandez) fol- the family’s cultural naming patterns. Those who lowed by the family name of the (González): register students can talk to families and students to agree on a name that respects both their cul- Juan Carlos Hernandez González tural patterns and the constraints of the database. Given name Juan Carlos That name should be written out and provided to Family names Hernandez González the families and students in a formal notice writ- ten in the family’s language, indicating that this The two family names are both important, but the is the name that will be used officially at school. first is more important. Spanish speakers might Doing so will help students and families remem- drop the second family name in some situations. So ber to use the modified name in school settings. Juan Carlos might call himself Juan Carlos Hernan- dez, but would never (except for deceit) call him- This report has two sections. The first provides an self Juan Carlos González. If his family name has overview of the issues that staff face in register- been recorded as González, the school might not be ing student names and the options for addressing able to find him when the family calls for Juan Car- them. The second is a technical guide of naming los Hernandez in an emergency situation. Requests conventions for the eight most common non- for his school records could run into trouble. The Anglo languages in Appalachia, including relevant fact that there is not a one-to-one correspondence The challenge posed by names: overview of issues and options 3

between the elements of Hispanic names and the This name would be In the United States likely fields in the registration form or database written as Suzuki Eichi a person’s name is that record-keepers must fill out—with first name, in . typically made up of middle name, last name—increases the possibility the first name, the of error or misinterpretation when student records A further complication middle name, and the are shared across different offices or when data are comes from westernizing last name, in that order. merged from different sources. names. Sometimes fami- Other cultures organize lies who have come from names differently Variation in the structure and spelling of names other countries change their names to match the Structure. The structure of personal names differs structure of names in the United States. When in two ways: school staff members are aware of the traditional naming patterns in various cultures and the fact • The parts of the name. that names might have been westernized, they will ask families to identify the given name and the • The order in which the parts appear. family name when they register students.

In the United States a person’s name is typically Spelling. Another challenge for recording names made up of the first or given name, the middle in schools is spelling. Parents and guardians often name, and the last or family name, in that order. present documents written in English when they Other cultures organize names differently. In register their children. If the documents list the many of them the systems for naming people do children’s names consistently, school staff will not not include middle names. In some cultures the have to figure out how to spell them. But ques- given name includes more than one name; in tions may arise about spelling if different docu- some the family name includes more than one ments show different spellings of the same name: name. In this report the term family name is used For example, Mohammed, Mohamed, Muhamed, instead of last name because family name is more , and Imhemed are different spell- generally appropriate. The term surname—the ings of the same name written one way in Arabic. name inherited, not given—is used interchange- Schools are familiar with spelling differences for ably here with family name, following common Anglo names that sound the same (Marion, Mar- practice. Technically, the term surname refers to a ian, Marianne; John, Jon; Tompson, Thompson), broader category that includes family names and but the notion that the same name may be spelled , a name that derives from the father’s in different ways may be unfamiliar. At school it is name. For example, in Saudi Arabian names such important that a student’s name always be spelled as Abdul Rahman bin Tariq bin Khalid Al-Alawi, the same way so that it can be retrieved reliably. where bin means of, bin Tariq is a . Thus, registrars may need to talk with the family to reach a shared understanding of how to spell The order of writing the different parts of the the student’s name. name varies too. For example, in Japan the family name is written first and the given name is writ- There are several explanations for variability in ten last. Thus, a Japanese person might have the spelling international names. Every language has follow­ing name: its own sound system, which may contrast with the sound systems of other languages. Writing Suzuki Eichi systems provide a way to represent the sounds in a Family name Suzuki language. Several languages spoken in the Appala- Middle name — Region (Arabic, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, and Given name Eichi Urdu) use traditional alphabets that differ from 4 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

the Roman alphabet that English uses. Some of the 1. The strongest option is to modify the database sounds in other languages do not occur in English, so that student names can be entered in the so decisions about how those sounds should be form supplied by the family, the form that written in the Roman (English) conforms to the native format. The resulting are often inconsistent. The inconsistency can arise variation in the formats and spelling per- because different people make different decisions mitted in the database will require culture- about how to represent a sound that does not occur sensitive search capabilities to address the at all in English or because English has different expanded values and variation in spelling. ways of writing a single sound (such as the f sound in rough and in cuff). Thus, there can be more than 2. A less robust change would require addi- one way of representing the same name. This helps tional information about the student (culture, to explain the different spellings of Mohammed. gender, and date of birth) and establish search techniques that look for such personal infor- Some languages whose writing systems use the mation. The scope of the information that can Roman alphabet have characters not found in be requested is limited, of course, by the Fam- English (such as ñ in Spanish). These characters ily Educational Rights and Privacy Act. In this are often represented by the English symbol that case, information about the student’s culture seems most similar (such as n for ñ). This practice informs the search engine. is used for convenience even though it does not faithfully capture the sound in the other language 3. The least desirable option, but one that is and has the potential to collapse two names that easier to implement, is to force the name are in fact different. into the fields of the existing database—for example, by dropping the second family name Database and registration options for Hispanics. The student’s full name could be entered in the comment field, so that no School districts can take steps to increase the like- information about the student is lost. Data- lihood that each student’s name will be registered, base searches would return the comment so accessed, and used in a consistent form. They can that data would be available for differentiating convene a task force that includes the database people with the same name. manager and staff members who School districts can have experience in working with Registration decisions. Once decisions have been take steps to increase families and students from other made about the database, directions will need the likelihood that each cultures. Taking into account the to be developed for those who register students student’s name will be general characteristics of names from other cultures so that name data are entered registered, accessed, and in various cultures, such as those consistently according to the database rules. In de- used in a consistent form presented below, schools can de- veloping these directions and the related training, cide how to handle differences. registrars should be part of the task force, which will need to answer such questions as: Database decisions. Issues of accommodating name differences must be addressed and resolved in • What questions can be asked of parents and consultation with database managers. Generally, guardians at registration to determine a new the database permits only the traditional American student’s given name and family name? To get format. But depending on the district’s sensitivity to at this information, school staff can ask such culture and the system’s search strategies, flexibility questions as: can be tolerated in the entry of names. If there is desire to accommodate diversity in naming conven- • What is your child’s given name? Or what tions, the following options can be considered: name or names was your child given at names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 5

birth? Or what name or names does your languages other than English are spoken. The top child use? Does he or use a ? five languages other than English spoken in the Appalachian Region are, in descending order of • Does your family have a family name? Or the number of speakers, Spanish, Vietnamese, is there one single name that your family Arabic, Korean, and Urdu (table 1). Data come uses to identify everybody in the family? from the web site of the National Clearinghouse If not, what is the set of names that follow for English . The figures the given names of family members? represent the language situation in 2002, the latest Have selected one of those names to year with comparable data (http://www.ncela.gwu. use as your family name in the United edu/policy/states/reports/statedata/2001, retrieved States? 15, 2006).

• If parents and guardians are not proficient in Across the region, Spanish is the first language of English, whom can the school call on to help 59 percent of English language learners, followed with registering students from other cultures? by Vietnamese (5 percent), Arabic (4 percent), Korean (4 percent), Urdu (3 percent), Bosnian/ • What documents listing the student’s name in Serbian/Croatian (1 percent), and Khmer the Roman alphabet are required or requested (0.2 percent). for registration (such as passport, refugee doc- uments, birth certificate, medical records)? The information here Teachers and other comes from a review of staff members will • What questions can be asked of parents and the research on names need to understand the guardians to verify that the form and spell- associated with these importance of using the ing of the student’s name as written in these languages, which is very name entered in the documents is considered appropriate for use limited. Linguists with district database for by the school? expertise in the structure reporting purposes of these languages have • If the student’s name is written in different been consulted—and ways on documents, how can the difference be native speakers of the languages, with personal resolved? Which form will be used at school? knowledge about naming, have been interviewed (see the appendix for a further description of the • If users of the record-keeping system discover sources and method). In some cases there was inconsistencies involving a student’s name, disagreement among information sources and how can the system be corrected? experts concerning names. It can be explained by the facts that styles of naming change with time Staff training. Teachers and other staff members and that naming conventions vary regionally. will need to understand the importance of using the name entered in the district database for Thus, there is always some variability in the reporting purposes. system of names. In some cultures there is vari- ability in what people consider their names to be. This happens in the United States to some extent Names in the Appalachia Region: a in completing a form requesting a middle name guide for the eight most common (for example, some women enter a middle name non-Anglo languages and some enter a maiden name). But something similar occurs on a larger scale in other cultures. Schools in the Appalachia Region serve stu- Furthermore, families may change their names dents from many cultural backgrounds in which when they come to the United States. Print and 6 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

Table 1 Frequency of the top five non-English languages spoken by English language learners in the Appalachia Region Kentucky Tennessee Virginia West Virginia Share of Share of Share of Share of English English English English language language language language learner learner learner learner population population population population Language (percent) Language (percent) Language (percent) Language (percent) First most common language Spanish 47 Spanish 62 Spanish 61 Spanish 26 Bosnian/ Second most Serbian/ common language Croatian 13 Vietnamese 5 Korean 5 Arabic 9 Third most common language Vietnamese 6 Arabic 4 Vietnamese 5 Khmer 9 Fourth most common language Japanese 5 Korean 2 Urdu 4 Japanese 4 Fifth most common language Arabic 4 Japanese 2 Arabic 4 Korean 3 Number of English language learners 5,119 12,350 35,298 1,139

Source: Retrieved June 15, 2006, from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/policy/states/reports/statedata/2001.

web resources for further information on names great deal of variability in Arab names. In general, are listed below for each language. Popular web they consist of a given name, sometimes with sources may be less reliable, so users will want to more than one part, followed by up to six names consult several sources to identify patterns. that reflect the person’s paternal ancestry. In some parts of the the government requires The descriptions of naming in the various cul- use of a family name. The given name is normally tures, discussed here in , include written first, and the surname may be preceded by basic information on the patterns that names an article. For example: generally follow (table 2). Choices about what information to include were based on judgments Abdul Rahman Al-Alawi of what would be most useful to schools. The re- Given name Abdul Rahman [meaning Servant of the Merciful One] sources can be consulted to understand exceptions to the basic forms described here. Middle name — Family name Al-Alawi The information provided here will not answer all the questions that arise in schools and districts re- When the student’s name includes the father’s and garding name differences, but it should help make grandfather’s name, it may be preceded by bin/ibn educators aware of the scope of the challenge and (son of) or bint ( of). The use of bin is assist them in making basic decisions. typical of Peninsular names, especially those in . Arabic names Abdul Rahman bin Tariq bin Khalid Al-Alawi Name elements and their ordering. Naming prac- [literal meaning: Abdul Rahman, son of Tariq, son of Khalid, of the family Al-Alawi] tices differ across the Arab world, and there is a names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 7

Table 2 Summary of main characteristics of traditional personal names by language Use of English Number of Number of Women’s Roman spelling How to address Language Order given names family names family name alphabet variability parents Arabic Given More than Several parts Women No High Mr. [given name] name, set of one part (for example, keep their or [family name] patronymicsa son of + father’s own name Mrs. [given name] given or at or [’s given family name) name] or [family name] Bosnian/ Given name, One One (father’s) Women adopt Yes Medium Mr. [family name] Serbian/ family name husband’s Mrs. [family name] Japanese Family name, One or two One (father’s) Women adopt No Medium Mr. [family name] given name husband’s Mrs. [family name] name Khmer Family name, More than One (father’s) Women No High Mr. [family name + given name one possible keep their given name] own name Mrs. [family name] Korean Family name, Two part One single- Women No High Mr. [family name] given name syllable keep their Mrs. [husband’s (father’s) own name family name] Spanish Given name, Two Generally two Women keep Yes Low Mr. [paternal family name (father’s and their paternal family name] mother’s in name; add Mrs. [her paternal that order) husband’s family name] or Mrs. paternal [de + husband’s name paternal family name] Urdu Given name, More than One (father’s Women adopt No High Mr. and Mrs. [name family name one given name husband’s selected as family or father’s name name in United States] family name) Vietnamese Family name, One or two Generally one Women Yes High Mr. [given name] middle name, (father’s) keep their Mrs. [given name] given name own name or Mrs. [husband’s given name] a. A name that derives from the father’s name. Source: Authors’ analysis based on data described in text.

Bin is less common in some parts of the Arab In the United States Arabs may adopt American world (such as Egypt and ), so this name may naming conventions because of the length and also be written as inherent variability of Arab names. In that case, they might reduce their full name to a given name Abdul Rahman Tariq Khalid Al-Alawi and a family name shared by other members of the family: As the examples suggest, the given name is the most stable, invariable part of an Arab name. Abdul Rahman Al-Alawi What follows differs in different parts of the Arab world and can even differ for an individual, de- Parents’ names, child’s name. Women normally pending on the situation. retain their own name—a given name followed by 8 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

the father’s name—when they marry. Thus, a stu- Schimmel, A. (1989). Islamic names. Edinburgh: Edin- dent’s name may differ from the mother’s name. burgh University Press.

Spelling. Arabic is generally written in the Arabic Popular web sites alphabet. When Arabic names are written in the Roman alphabet, alternative spellings are pos- • General Information on Arabic names sible because of differences between the sound system of Arabic and English and because of • on Wikipedia web differences in pronunciation across the Arab site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ world. Muhammad, Muhamed, and Imhemed Arabic_name are different spellings of the same name, as are Khaddafiand Qadafi, and Abdul Rahman and • Arab Names in What’s in a Name? Abderraman. on Darlington’s Homepage: http://s170032534.websitehome.co.uk/ Addressing parents. Parents can be addressed as useofnames.html Mr. and Mrs., followed by the family name that they have selected for use in the United States. A • Period Arabic Names And Naming married woman may also be addressed as Mrs., Practices on About.com web site: http:// followed by her name. Her husband can be ad- .about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite. dressed as Mr., followed by his name. htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=genealogy&cdn= parenting&tm=5&gps=68_11_1276_779 Parents are often referred to as “the father/mother &f=00&=p284.8.150.ip_&tt=14&bt=1& of” plus the name of their first son plus the per- bts=1&zu=http%3A//www.s-gabriel.org/ son’s given name: names/daud/arabic-naming/

Abu Hasan • Common male Arabic given names [the father of , Hasan] • Male Arabian Names, Arabic Names on Umm Ja’far Aminah 20,000 Names from Around the World [the mother of Ja’far, Aminah] web site: http://www.20000-names.com/ male_arabian_names.htm Database recommendation. If the family presents documents with a variety of , the regis- • Common female Arabic given names trar should ask what surname they have selected for use in the United States and enter that name. • Female Arabian Names, Arabic Names on If a surname has not been selected, the registrar 20,000 Names from Around the World: should advise the family to select one. Other sur- http://www.20000-names.com/female_ names can be captured in the comments field in arabian_names.htm the order in which they occur in the native name. • Arabic baby names Resources • Arabic Baby Names on Baby Name Guide Print web site: http://www.babynameguide. com/categoryarabic.asp?strCat=Arabic Nydell, M. K. (2006). Understanding Arabs: A guide for modern times (4th ed.). Yarmouth, ME: Intercul- • Islamic/Muslim Baby Names on The Milli tural Press. Gazette web site: http://www.milligazette. names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 9

com/misl/muslim_islam_islamic_baby_ -ić may be written with -itch or -ich in the United names_girl_boy_name.htm States to indicate pronunciation; or they may be written as ic and pronounced as “ik” (as in music). • Romanized writing systems for Arabic Parents’ names, child’s name. Women adopt their • of Arabic on Wikipedia husband’s family name at marriage, and the student web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ will have the same family name as the parents. Arabic_transliteration Spelling. Bosnian and Serbian use the Roman and • Questions and answers about Arab Americans the Cyrillic alphabets, while Croatian uses only the Roman alphabet. Spellings in the two alpha- • 100 Questions and Answers about Arab bets generally show a one-to-one correspondence. Americans: A Journalist’s Guide on De- Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian names written in the troit Free Press web site: http://www.freep. Roman alphabet may include letters with diacritics com/legacy/jobspage/arabs/arab3.html (č, ć, đ, š, and ž). Even though the practice of using the closest English symbol (such as č and ć written Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian names as c) could result in two different names being written the same, that practice is often followed in Name elements and their ordering. The term the United States. Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian was created as an alternative to Serbo-Croatian, which was used to Addressing parents. Parents of Bosnian, Croatian, refer to one of the official languages of the former and Serbian students should be addressed as Mr. Yugoslavia but is offensive to many native speak- and Mrs., followed by their family name. It is also ers today. This document uses the termBosnian/ acceptable to address them as Mr. or Mrs., followed Croatian/Serbian names to refer to personal names by their given names. of Bosnians, Croats, and Serbs. Whether Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian are different varieties of Database recommendation. If the spelling of the the same language or three separate languages is family name varies on different documents, the controversial. All three are mutually intelligible— registrar should ascertain which spelling the fam- meaning that speakers of any one can understand ily prefers. speakers of the other two. Resources Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian names consist of a given name and a family name, in that order: Print

Božidar Filipović Hawkesworth, C., & Jović, I. (2006). Colloquial Croa- Given name Božidar . New York, NY: Routledge. Middle name — Family name Filipović Magner, T. F. (1972). Introduction to the Croatian and Serbian language. State College, PA: Singidunum Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian names do not normally Press. include a middle name. Maners, L. (1995, December). The Bosnians: An Many family names end in -ić (pronounced like introduction to their history and culture. In CAL the English word each). Many women’s given Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 8 (rev. ed.). Washing- names end in -a (pronounced like the a in father) ton, DC: The Refugee Service Center, Center for or -ica (pronounced “EET-sa”). Names ending in Applied Linguistics. 10 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

Popular web sites Sometimes the family name will be written in all capital letters (SUZUKI Eichi or Eichi SUZUKI) to • Common Croatian and Serbian names differentiate it from the given name.

• Serbian and Croatian Names on Be- Male given names often have the following endings: hind the Name web site: http://www. behindthename.com/nmc/ser.php -ro -ta • General information on the Bosnian language -ichi

• Bosnian Language on Wikipedia web Female given names often have the following site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ endings: Bosnian_language -ko • General information on the Croatian language -mi -ka • Croatian Language on Wikipedia web -na site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Croatian_language Parents’ names, child’s name. At marriage, a woman typically takes the husband’s family name. • General information on the Serbian language Spelling. The traditional • Serbian Language on Wikipedia web does not use the Roman alphabet, but systems site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ have been developed for writing Japanese using the Serbian_language Roman alphabet. The most widely used, especially in the English-speaking world, is the Revised Hep- • General information on Serbo-Croatian burn Romanization system. This system requires the use of a few special characters, such as a macron • Serbo-Croatian Language on Wikipedia to indicate some vowels (such as ā for the long web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ a vowel), and an apostrophe to note the separation Serbo-croatian of certain sounds. For example, the written with the characters for ju-n-i-chi-ro-u is Japanese names Romanized in Revised Hepburn as Jun’ichirō.

Name elements and their ordering. In Japan the When Japanese words are written in English, family name precedes the given name or names, spelling can be quite variable. Thus the same name and there are no middle names. Sometimes there may be spelled differently in different documents are two given names. For example: that families present. Some common alternate spellings for Japanese sounds that do not occur in Suzuki Eichi English are listed below: Family name Suzuki Middle name — • a/ah/aa/ā Given name Eichi • di/zi//dzu/zu Japanese families in the United States may adopt • dy/zy/j the American naming order and place the given • sy/sh name before the family name (Eichi Suzuki). • si/ names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 11

• ti/chi Popular web sites • tu/tsu • ty/ch • General information on Japanese names • gw/g • / • Japanese Name on Wikipedia web • wi/i site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ • wo/o Japanese_name • /e • kw/k • How Do Japanese Names Work? in Sci. • mb/nb Lang.Japan Frequently Asked Questions on • mm/nm Sci.Lang.Japan Newsgroup web site: http:// www.sljfaq.org/afaq/japanesenames.html Addressing parents. Parents should be addressed as Mr. and Mrs., followed by the family name (Yama- • Japanese Names in What’s in a Name? moto Kenji should be addressed as Mr. Yamamoto on Roger Darlington’s Homepage: and his as Mrs. Yamamoto). http://s170032534.websitehome.co.uk/ useofnames.html#Japanese Database recommendation. The registrar should ask which of the names is the surname and which • Common male Japanese given names is the given name in case there has been western- ization of the name. • How Do Japanese Names Work? in Sci. Lang.Japan Frequently Asked Ques- Resources tions on Sci.Lang.Japan Newsgroup web site: http://www.sljfaq.org/afaq/ Print japanesenames.html

Asian Pacific American Handbook. (1998). Names: • Common female Japanese given names Getting them right. In Harmony in diversity: Recommendations for effective library service to • How Do Japanese Names Work? in Sci. Asian language speakers, 131–133. California State Lang.Japan Frequently Asked Ques- Library. Retrieved August 7, 2007 from http:// tions on Sci.Lang.Japan Newsgroup www.library.ca.gov/services/docs/names.pdf web site: http://www.sljfaq.org/afaq/ japanesenames.html Backhouse, A.E. (1993). The : An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Japanese given names

O’Neill, P.G. (1972). Japanese names. New York: • Japanese Names on About Names: Mean- Weatherhill. ing and Origin of Given Names web site: http://www.aboutnames.ch/japanese.htm Scholarly web sites • Japanese family names • Pronunciation of Japanese names • Most Popular 500 Japanese Surnames • Japanese Names in Cal Poly Pomona Asian on Japanese Name Translation web site: Name Pronunciation Guide on Cal Poly http://www.japanese-name-translation. Pomona web site: http://www.csupomona. com/site/top500_Japanese_family_ edu/~pronunciation/japanese.html names.xls 12 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

• Japanese baby names appropriate to address them using the husband’s given name. • Japanese Baby Names on Pick Baby Names web site: http://www. Database recommendation. The registrar should pickbabynames.com/_country/Japanese. ask which of the names is the surname and which html the given name in case there has been westerniza- tion of the name. • Romanized writing system for Japanese Resources • Romanization of Japanese on Reference. com web site: http://www.reference.com/ Print browse/wiki/Romaji Asian Pacific American Handbook. (1998). Names: Khmer (Cambodian) names Getting them right. In Harmony in diversity: Recommendations for effective library service to Name elements and their ordering. In Khmer Asian language speakers, 131-133. California State (pronounced “khmai”) the family name precedes Library. Retreived August 7, 2007 from http:// the given name, and middle names are very rare. www.library.ca.gov/services/docs/names.pdf Given names can consist of more than one name. For example: Center for Applied Linguistics. (1981). The peoples and cultures of , , and . Wash- Sok Sam Bo ington, DC: Author. Family name Sok Middle name — Morrow, R.D. (1989). “What’s in a name? In particular, Given name Sam Bo a Asian name?” Young Children, 44 (6), 20–23. Parents’ names, child’s name. Women retain their family name when they marry. A student will have National Indochinese Clearinghouse, Center for Ap- the same family name as the father but a different plied Linguistics. (1978, November). Teaching family name from the mother. English to Cambodian students. In Indochinese Refugee Education Guides (General Information Spelling. Khmer does not use the Roman alpha- Series No. 18). Arlington, VA: Author. bet, but there are several Romanization systems for Khmer. As with other languages, Romaniz- Tebeau, Sue. (1977). Cultural factors: A guide to under- ing Khmer names results in variable spelling in standing Asian ESL students. Bilingual Education English because Khmer has sounds that do not Resource Series, Olympia, WA: Washington Office occur in English. Khmer has a very rich sound of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. system with 25–27 vowel sounds, depending on the dialect, and 17–21 consonant sounds. As with Scholarly web sites Japanese and Arabic, Khmer Romanization uses special characters (as in kâoh). • Pronunciation of Cambodian names

Addressing parents. It is generally appropri- • Cambodian Names in Cal Poly Pomona ate to address parents using both the family Asian Name Pronunciation Guide name and the given name. Thus, Keo Saroeun on Cal Poly Pomona web site: http:// would be called Mr. Keo Saroeun. Even though www.csupomona.edu/~pronunciation/ married women retain their family name, it is cambodian.html names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 13

• Pronunciation of Khmer Many Korean Americans switch the order of their names so that their family name is last, as in You- • Vowels on Northern Illinois University, Kyong Kim. Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Cambodia SEAsite web site: http://www. Kim, Park, and Lee are the most common Korean seasite..edu/khmer/writingsystem/ family names. There are approximately 250 Korean vowhtm/vowelsmain.htm family names, but more than half of the Korean population uses these three. So the given name has • Consonants on Northern Illinois Univer- great significance in distinguishing individuals. sity, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Cambodia SEAsite web site: http://www. Parents’ names, child’s name. In women seasite.niu.edu/khmer/writingsystem/ retain their own family name at marriage, so a consonant/conmain.htm student will have the same family name as the fa- ther but a different family name from the mother. • Khmer language However, there is a current trend toward dual fam- ily names consisting of the father’s family name • Khmer on Languages of the World web and the mother’s family name. Korean-American site: http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/ women usually follow the American model and /khmer.html adopt their husband’s family name.

Popular web sites Spelling. Traditionally, Korean does not use the Roman alphabet, but Romanized spelling systems • Romanized writing system for Khmer have been developed for Korean. The McCune- Reischauer system is common in North Korea. The • Romanization of Khmer on Wikipedia Revised Romanized system became the official web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ writing system in South Korea in 2000. This Romanization_of_Khmer system uses the Roman alphabet without special characters. But some names have been written in • Khmer writing system ways that ignore those two Romanization systems. As a result, there is a great deal of variability in • Khmer Alphabet on Omniglot web site: the way that Korean names are written in English. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ Some of the possible spellings for the three most khmer.htm common family names follow:

Korean names • Kim, Gim, Ghim • Lee, Rhee, Ri, , I Name elements and their ordering. In Korean the family name precedes the given name, and middle • Park, Pak, Bak, Bag names are not used. Most Korean names consist of a family name followed by two given names. When Addressing parents. Parents should be addressed they are written in the Roman alphabet, they are as Mr. and Mrs. followed by the family name (for sometimes hyphenated. For example: example, Rho Tae-Woo should be addressed as Mr. Rho, and his wife as Mrs. Rho). Kim You-Kyong Family name Kim Database recommendation. The registrar should Middle name — ask which of the names is the surname and which Given name You-Kyong is the given name in case the name has been 14 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

westernized. If the spelling of the family name • Korean Romanization Chart: http://www. varies on different documents, the registrar should glossika.com/en/dict/Korpin.pdf ask which spelling the family prefers. • Korean Go Terms Discussion on Sensei’s Resources Library web site: http://senseis.xmp.net/? KoreanGoTerms%2FDiscussion Print Spanish names Kim, I. (1996). Colloquial Korean. London: Routledge. Name elements and their ordering. Naming practices Lee, I., & Ramsey, R. S. (2000). The Korean language. differ in different parts of the Spanish-­speaking Albany, NY: State University of New York. world, but Spanish names generally consist of two given names and two family names. The given names Tebeau, S. (1977). Cultural factors: A guide to under- are written before the family names. For example: standing Asian ESL students (Bilingual Education Resource Series). Olympia, WA: Washington Office María Teresa García López of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Given name María Teresa Middle name — Scholarly web site Family name García López

• Pronunciation of Korean names The family name (García López) consists of two names: the father’s family name (García), which • Korean Names in Cal Poly Pomona Asian occurs first, followed by the mother’s family name Name Pronunciation Guide on Cal Poly (López). Pomona web site: http://www.csupomona. edu/~pronunciation/korean.html The use of two family names in official documents is very widespread in most Spanish-speaking Popular web sites countries, but in only the paternal fam- ily name is used. Thus, if María Teresa had been • General information on Korean names born in Argentina, her birth certificate would have only her paternal family name: • on Wikipedia web site: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_name María Teresa García

• Common Korean family names As for given names, traditionally it has been very common for Hispanic parents to pass on their own • List of Korean Family Names on Wiki­ personal names to their children, especially to the pedia web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/ eldest son. wiki/List_of_Korean_family_names in Spanish-speaking countries are often • Romanized writing system for Korean named María, after the Virgin Mary, followed by a second name, as in María Teresa or María Luz. • The Romanization of Korean on Because María occurs so frequently, girls are often Tour2Korea web site: http://english.tour2korea called by the second given name or some form of it. .com/02Culture/KoreanLanguage/roman_ korean_language.asp?kosm=m2_9& Parents’ names, child’s name. In American konum=subm4_1 countries a woman takes her husband’s name by names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 15

adding his paternal family name preceded by the Scholarly web sites preposition de (meaning of). Because names can become quite long, people often drop the maternal • General information on Spanish names name at marriage. Thus, if María Pilar Gómez Sánchez married José Ruiz Alvarado, she • Cellini, D. E. (1997). En un nombre, que might choose to become hay? An introduction to Spanish personal names. Adrian, MI: Teacher Education María Pilar Gómez de Ruiz Department, Adrian College. Retrieved August 7, 2007 from http://www.eric. María Teresa and José Antonio’s children would ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/ take their father’s first family name and their content_storage_01/0000019b/80/15/0e/ mother’s first family name in that order. So if they aa.pdf. named their daughter Isabel Luz, she would be Popular web sites Isabel Luz Ruiz Gómez • General information on Spanish names Spelling. Spanish uses the Roman alphabet. Char- acters with diacritics are usually rendered with- • Spanish Naming Customs on Wikipedia out the diacritic marks in the United States (for web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ example, García is often written Garcia). Spanish_names

Addressing parents. Parents are addressed as Mr. • Iberian naming customs and Mrs. followed by the paternal family names. So María Teresa Pilar Gómez de Ruiz would be • Iberian Naming Customs on Wikipedia Mrs. Gómez, and José Antonio Ruiz Alvarado web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ would be Mr. Ruiz. Spanish_and_Portuguese_names

Database recommendation. If the database can- • Spanish not handle a multipart surname, the first family name should be entered and the second surname • Spanish Orthography on Wikipedia captured in the comment field. web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Writing_system_of_Spanish Resources • Spanish pronunciation guides Print • Spanish Pronunciation Guide on Lingolex Gosnell, C. F. (1938). Spanish personal names: Princi- Learn Spanish web site: http://www. ples governing their formation and use which may lingolex.com/pronounce/index.htm be presented as a help for catalogers and bibliogra- phers. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company. • Spanish Pronunciation Key on The Pacific Coast of web site: http://www. Ruiz-Pérez, R., López-Cózar, D. & Jiménez-Contreras, tomzap.com/sp_key.html E. (2002). Spanish variations in national and international biomedical databases: • Spanish Pronunciation Tutorial on Implications for information retrieval and bib- StudySpanish.com: http://www. liometric studies. Journal of the Medical Library studyspanish.com/pronunciation/index. Association, 90(4), 411-430. htm 16 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

Urdu names Database recommendation. Because both the structure and the spelling of Urdu names are quite Name elements and their ordering. The structure of variable, the registrar should check carefully for Urdu names is variable. Generally names consist variability in documents that the family presents of a given name and family name in that order. For and ask which version the family has selected example: for use in the United States. That name can be entered, with other varieties captured in the com- Mohammed Arif Akram ments field. Given name Mohammed Arif Middle name — Resources Family name Akram Print The entire name may be written together or separated into given name and family name. The Alli, W. E. (1975). Basic Urdu and English wordbook. given name may include a personal name (Arif) Author. and a (Mohammed). A woman’s name may include a personal name and a female Scholarly web site title (such as Bano, Begum, , Bibi) or another personal name. An individual may be addressed • Urdu names by the full name or by one of its parts. • Urdu Names in Urdu on BBC web Children usually take their father’s personal name site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/ as a family name, but they may also take the fa- multilingual/urdu_writing_system.shtml ther’s family name. So Yusuf Ali Akram’s daugh- ter’s name will be: Popular web sites

Khalida Parween Yusuf • Urdu names Given name Khalida Parween Middle name — • Urdu-Arabic Names: http://www. Family name Yusuf or Akram geocities.com/~abdulwahid/ muslimarticles/names_paki.html Parents’ name, child’s name. When women marry, they often change their names. They may take • Urdu family names and given names for their husband’s personal name as their family males and females name or their husband’s entire name or just his family name. • Urdu-Arabic Names: http://www. geocities.com/~abdulwahid/ Spelling. Urdu uses a modified form of the Arabic muslimarticles/names_paki.html script. There is no standard way of represent- ing the sounds of Urdu in the Roman script. For • Urdu on Wikipedia web site: http:// instance, the letter t is used to represent three dif- en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urdu ferent sounds of Urdu (all of which may sound the same to an English speaker). • Romanized writing system for Urdu

Addressing parents. Parents may be addressed as • Roman Urdu on Wikipedia web Mr. and Mrs. plus the family name that they have site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ selected for use in the United States. Roman_Urdu names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 17

Vietnamese names (such as đ, ă, â, ê, ơ, ô, ư). Spelling variation in English is to be expected. Name elements and their ordering. In Vietnam, Vietnamese names consist of a family name, a Addressing parents. are ad- middle name, and a given name, in that order. For dressed primarily by their given names. In formal example: situations Mr., Miss, or Mrs. precedes the given name (for example, Mr. Khai). Nguyen Khai Family name Nguyen Database recommendation. The registrar should Middle name Van ask which of the names is the surname and which Given name Khai is the given name in case there has been western- ization of the name. If the spelling of the family In the United States Vietnamese students may name varies on different documents, the registrar adopt the American naming order (Khai Van should ask which spelling the family prefers. This Nguyen). spelling should be entered, with other spellings captured in the comments field. There are only about 100 family names, and more than 40 percent of the Vietnamese population has Resources Nguyen as the family name. Print Vietnamese given names may consist of one or two names. Middle names may have the following Asian Pacific American Handbook. (1998). Names: functions in Vietnamese: Getting them right. In Harmony in diversity: Recommendations for effective library service to • To indicate a person’s generation Asian Language speakers, 131–133. California State Library. Retrieved August 7, 2007 from http:// • To indicate separate branches of a large family www.library.ca.gov/services/docs/names.pdf.

• To indicate an individual’s birth order in the Center for Applied Linguistics. (1981). The peoples and family cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Wash- ington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics. • To indicate a person’s gender. Do, H. D. (1999). The Vietnamese Americans. Westport, Parents’ names, child’s name. Usually Vietnamese CT: Greenwood Press. women retain their own family name at marriage, so a student will have the same family name as the Luong, H. V. (1990). Discursive practices and linguistic father but a different name from the mother. meanings: The Vietnamese system of personal refer- ence. Amsterdam: John . But some Vietnamese families have a dual family name consisting of the father’s family name fol- Morrow, R. D. (1989). What’s in a name? In particular, lowed by the mother’s family name (for example, a Southeast Asian name? Young Children, 44(6), Nguyen Le Van Khai, where Nguyen Le is the two- 20–23. part family name). National Indochinese Clearinghouse, Center for Ap- Spelling. Vietnamese uses the Roman alphabet, plied Linguistics. (1976). Indochinese Refugee but it has characters with diacritics, usually to rep- Education Guides. General Information Series resent vowel sounds that do not occur in English No. 6. Arlington, VA. 18 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

Nguyen, A. (1998). Vietnamese in the United States. Popular web sites In Harmony in diversity: Recommendations for ef- fective library service to Asian Language speakers, • General information on Vietnamese names 81–106. California State Library. Retrieved August 7, 2007 from http://www.library.ca.gov/services/ • on Wikipedia web docs/vietnamese.pdf. site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Vietnamese_name#_ref-0 Nguyen, D. (1997). Vietnamese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. • Vietnamese Names on Tu Dinh Nguy- en’s Homepage: http://www.saigon. Rutledge, P. J. (1992). The Vietnamese experience in com/~nguyent/hoa_03.html America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. • Vietnamese Names in What’s in a Name? on Roger Darlington’s Homepage Tebeau, S. (1977). Cultural factors: A guide to under- http://s170032534.websitehome.co.uk/ standing Asian ESL students (Bilingual Education useofnames.html#Vietnamese Resource Series). Olympia, WA: Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. • Common Vietnamese names

Thompson, L. C. (1965).A Vietnamese grammar. Se- • Family Name in Vietnamese Name on attle, WA: University of Washington Press. Wikipedia web site: http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Vietnamese_name#_ref-0 Tri, B., Logan, L., & , F. N. (1976). hanh duoc gap (Happy to meet you). Harrisburg, PA: • Vietnamese Names on Adopt Vietnam Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of web site: http://www.adoptvietnam.org/ Curriculum Services. vietnamese/names.htm

Scholarly web site • Vietnamese Names on Behind the Name web site: http://www.behindthename. • Pronunciation com/nmc/vie.php

• Vietnamese Names in Cal Poly Pomona • Vietnamese baby names Asian Name Pronunciation Guide on Cal Poly Pomona web site: http:// • Vietnamese Baby Names on Baby Name www.csupomona.edu/~pronunciation/ Box web site: http://www.babynamebox. vietnamese.html com/vietnamese-baby-names.html names in the Appalachia Region: a guide for the eight most common non-Anglo languages 19

Appendix • Heather McCallum-Bayliss, Office of Disrup- About the sources in this report tive Technology, U.S. Government

Contrasting conventions for naming across • Huy Nguyen, Center for Applied Linguistics cultures present challenges in education and in other domains of public life, such as health, • Margaret Nydell, Georgetown University intelligence, security, law enforcement, and social services. The challenges differ somewhat across • America Pinal, Center for Applied Linguistics these domains—deceit may be a greater issue in intelligence than in education. The need for detail • Steven M. Poulos, University of Chicago also differs. In every case decisions about what information on naming conventions is likely to be • Ran Ryu, Center for Applied Linguistics useful must take the users’ context into account. Although certain facts have broad relevance, such • Leonard Schaefer, Language Analysis Systems as the basic structure of Hispanic names, other information may be less useful (how to address • Lupe Hernandez , Center for Applied parents may be less valuable in the intelligence Linguistics arena than it is in school). • Dan , Center for Applied Linguistics To assess the need for information for schools on naming conventions in other cultures, we con- • Sanja Todoric-Bebic, Center for Applied ducted a review of print and web resources. Most Linguistics. of those located were deemed inadequate, based on errors of fact and oversimplification of the Primary print sources were identified by consult- complexities associated with structural and, espe- ing the Education Resources Information Center, cially, spelling differences. Others did not pertain Modern Language Association, and Language directly to schools. So we conducted a review of Behavior Abstracts databases, and every effort was naming conventions for the languages other than made to access these sources through the George- English that are spoken most frequently in Ken- town University library, which houses a large tucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. collection of linguistics volumes. All available sources were reviewed. The Resources sections of We identified sources of expertise by conferring the report list those consulted in detail. with our network of linguists and other language scholars. We also conducted a review of the litera- Information obtained from popular web sites ture. The following resources were consulted: pri- where the source of the information was not mary sources reporting scholarly research, reliable clearly scholarly was verified where possible Internet sites reporting scholarly research, popular through comparison with scholarly sources. Dis- Internet sites such as Wikipedia, native speakers crepancies were resolved by consulting a further of the languages, and linguists and other language scholarly source and then reviewing the findings scholars with expertise on the structure and use of with linguists who have expert knowledge of the languages. The following scholars and native naming conventions in the languages and native speakers contributed to this effort: speakers of the language, who have expert though limited knowledge. • Dora , Center for Applied Linguistics In lieu of a reference list, the references are pre- • Mohammed Louguit, Center for Applied sented in the Resources list for each language. The Linguistics list includes popular web sites, even though not all 20 registering students from language backgrounds other than English

of the information has been verified by consulting appear here because it will probably be opaque to other sources, because these sites may be generally nonspecialists, even though such differences affect helpful to educators wanting to learn more about the spelling of students’ names in English. Three the languages and their use. district-level administrators reviewed drafts for the utility of the information provided and offered Identifying structural features of names was quite suggestions for revision, to which subsequent challenging because the literature on naming is drafts responded. sparse, because naming conventions for a - guage vary geographically, and because there are This study focuses on contrasts in naming conven- many exceptions to general patterns. We decided tions and on ways in which practitioners might to report the general patterns that schools would use the information. Further work is needed on be likely to encounter. Characterizing spelling was database considerations. For example, attention more complicated. The phonological systems of to the approaches to record-linking used in areas all of the languages contrast with that of English, outside of education could be helpful to the extent and there are also alphabetic differences. Research that they systematically take cultural differences entailed examining accounts of the sound system into account. Work on accommodating nam- and writing system of each language and then ing differences being conducted in other areas is judging how much of this information might relevant to continuing to address the challenges in be useful to schools. For languages that use the education. Because much of the work is not pub- Roman alphabet, some of the symbols not found lished, it is difficult to access. Partnerships across in English are included in the examples to dem- government agencies in which there is concern onstrate the kinds of differences that schools may about names could be of use to schools. encounter. For languages using a non-Roman writing system, such as Korean, research focused In addition, information on naming conventions on the Romanized version of the writing system. across cultures is broadly relevant to school staff members who work with children and families Decisions about what information to include in from other cultures. It will help them address this document and how to express it were guided and refer to students in ways that respect their by the need to make the document useful to heritage. Doing so conveys concern for children’s nonlinguists who encounter unfamiliar names. welfare and attitudes of appreciation for the broad For that reason, citations do not appear in the text. range of ways in which social identity contrasts. As an example of the kind of information that The information on naming presented here could was not included, detailed information about the be reformatted for use in teacher professional phonological systems of the languages does not development.