Who Are New ’s Immigrants by Mamie Marcuss with Ricardo Borgos of

When asked, “What areas of the do you associate with immi- grants?” most would respond with a litany of southern and states—, , . East like New and DC might get a mention, but few people’s first response would be “.” Given the relative size of the ’s immigrant population, it is an under- standable omission—less than 5 percent of the 31 million foreign- born persons in the live in the six . But for New Englanders, these 1.4 million immigrants make up nearly 10 percent ?of the population, and they significantly shape the region’s economy, culture, and character. In fact, the region is becoming increasingly dependent on these individu- als. Between 1990 and 2000, growth in the foreign-born population responsible for almost half of New England’s total . In , , and , immigrants accounted for even larger shares of these states’ growth—as much as 76 percent ?in Connecticut. Overall, the region’s population grew only 5.4 percent over the decade, but without foreign , it would have been virtually stagnant. Who are the region’s immigrants? To better understand the demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of New England’s foreign-born population, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston is undertaking an analysis of the region’s immigrants. Where do they emigrate from? Where in the region do they live? How do their income, homeownership, and opportuni- ties compare with those of the native population? The research, based on data from the U.S. Census, has revealed several attributes that set New England’s immigrants apart? from the rest of the nation. ??

A of Diverse Dominican , , the United 1980. With the exception of some Kingdom, , , , and recent immigration from Eastern New England’s foreign-born popu- each make up another 3 to 5 , this timing is characteristic of lation embodies many nationalities, percent apiece, and together, these ten the bulk of the region’s European pop- and unlike the United States, no single nationalities represent about half of the ulation. Undoubtedly, the large pres- group constitutes an overwhelming region’s immigrants. ence of these older European immi- majority. In particular, there is a strik- grants contributes to the region’s ing lack of Mexican immigrants in the relatively high percentage of older, region. In 2000, 9.2 million The significant absence of more established immigrants. Overall, were recorded in the U.S. Census, by Mexican immigration to the region has nearly a quarter of New England’s for- far the largest single group of immi- not lessened the presence of eign-born population has been in the grants in the country. However, while immigrants in New England. country for more than 30 , com- they account for over 30 percent of all Thirty percent of the region’s foreign- pared with only 15 percent of immi- U.S. immigrants, only 26,000 Mexican born persons are from . grants nationwide. immigrants reside in New England, But, unlike the rest of the United making up less than 2 percent of the States, the bulk of New England’s Fastest Growing Groups region’s foreign-born population. population traces its to Despite the region’s large fraction In general, the composition of the in the and in of older immigrants, 39 percent of New region’s immigrant population differs . England’s foreign-born population greatly from that of the United States. Among the regions of the world, arrived after 1990. In this of The nation’s five largest foreign-born however, Europe accounts for the new arrivals, European immigrants countries of origin—, , largest fraction of New England’s for- have largely been replaced by Latin the , India, and — eign-born population. Thirty-four per- Americans and Asians. In terms of contribute only 15 percent of the cent of the region’s immigrants are numbers, Latin American immigrants region’s immigrants, and only two European, more than double the were the fastest growing foreign-born are among the sources of national fraction of 16 percent. population, doubling their size over the New England immigration. Instead, Importantly, most of the region’s decade. This growth was led by immi- Portuguese immigrants are the region’s Europeans immigrated to the United grants from the , largest immigrant group, while thanks States before the . For instance, whose population nearly quadrupled, to the region’s northern neighbor, three-quarters of the region’s and by the 33,000 who are the second largest. Portuguese population arrived in this moved to the region. However, a large Immigrants from China (includ- country more than two ago, of Mexicans, , ing and ), the and 89 percent of arrived before , , , and

Immigrant Population by Region of Origin, 2000

United States’ New England’s Foreign-Born Population Foreign-Born Population

Oceania 1% America 3% 3%

South Europe 34% America 12% Europe 34% South Europe 16% America 32% Caribbean 18%

Latin America 52% Latin America 30% Caribbean 45% 70% 26% Africa 5% Central America 23% North Asia 23% America 7%

Source: U.S. Census, 2000.

Communities&Banking 11 also came to New England play out in New England’s communities? four percent of all immigrants, but only in the 1990s. Most of the region’s 22 percent of all New Englanders, live Large of immigrants from live in the cities of southern New in the region’s 25 largest cities and Asia also characterized the decade. Over England. In fact, while New . In total, 55 percent of New 33,000 Chinese immigrants settled in Hampshire, , and house England’s foreign-born population lives New England in the 1990s, as well as one-quarter of the region’s total popula- in cities, defined as areas with a popula- large numbers of Indian and tion, less than 9 percent of the region’s tion of at least 50,000 people. The Vietnamese immigrants. All three immigrants live in these three northern region’s more recent immigrants are groups have doubled their populations states (a full third of these immigrants even more likely to live in urban cen- from a decade ago. Of note, the for- are from ). Farther south, on ters, and 63 percent of immigrants who eign-born population from Africa the other hand, Massachusetts is home arrived in this country after 1990 live in increased 198 percent between 1990 to 56.2 percent of New England’s the region’s 25 largest cities and towns. and 2000, the largest percentage immigrants. Another 26.9 percent live Boston and Providence, not sur- increase for any world region. In 2000, in Connecticut, and the remaining 8.7 prisingly, are the top two for over 47,000 African immigrants lived percent are Rhode Islanders. New immigrants. Foreign-born residents in New England. England’s five largest cities are in these make up one-quarter of each ’s pop- states, causing much of this dispropor- ulation. The communities neighboring City Dwellers tional balance. Boston, , and these and other large cities also have While nationalities differ, New Worcester, Massachusetts, Providence, substantial immigrant populations. England’s immigrants are much like Rhode Island, and Bridgeport, Conn- Central Falls, Rhode Island, just out- their U.S. counterparts in their settle- ecticut, house one-fifth of the region’s side of Providence, has the highest ratio ment patterns. Across the nation, most foreign-born population within their of immigrants to natives in the , immigrants live in urban areas, and , with many more living in with ’s foreign born making up many live in concentrated ethnic com- the surrounding metro areas. 35 percent of the population. In nearby munities, choosing to settle near those While many native New Englanders Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 23 percent of who share their , culture, and live in cities, the region’s foreign born are residents are immigrants. Close to New . How do these geographic choices more likely to be city dwellers. Forty- York City, Stamford, Connecticut’s

Ten Largest Immigrant Groups in 2000

United States New England

Percent of Total Percent of Total New England Country U.S. Foreign- Country Foreign-Born of Origin Population Born Population of Origin Population Population

Total Foreign Born 31,107,889 Total Foreign Born 1,376,317 in United States in New England

1. Mexico 9,177,487 29.5 1. 101,980 7.4 2. China 1,518,652 4.9 2. Canada 98,853 7.2 3. Philippines 1,369,070 4.4 3. China 74,774 5.4 4. India 1,022,552 3.3 4. Dominican Republic72,920 5.3 5. Vietnam 988,174 3.2 5. Italy 60,391 4.4 6. 872,716 2.8 6. United Kingdom53,914 3.9 7. 864,125 2.8 7. Brazil 49,246 3.6 8. Canada 820,771 2.6 8. India 48,322 3.5 9. 817,336 2.6 9. Haiti 43,819 3.2 10. 706,704 2.3 10. Poland 42,257 3.1

Source: U.S. Census, 2000.

12 Fall 2004

New England's Changing Immigrant Groups

New England's Fastest Growing Immigrant Groups Ranked by Population Increase between 1990 and 2000

Country of Origin Population in 1990 Population in 2000 Difference Percent Change

Dominican Republic 27,689 71,262 43,573 157 China 41,283 74,944 33,661 82 Brazil 14,778 48,147 33,369 226 India 20,366 48,388 28,022 138 Vietnam 16,742 38,166 21,424 128 Mexico 7,993 27,874 19,881 249 9,597 28,129 18,532 193 Haiti 23,068 41,389 18,321 79 17,431 33,876 16,445 94 25,095 38,740 13,645 54

New England's Fastest Shrinking Immigrant Groups Ranked by Decline in Population between 1990 and 2000

Country of Origin Population in 1990 Population in 2000 Difference Percent Change

Italy 78,144 58,169 -19,975 -26 Canada 113,151 96,399 -16,752 -15 Portugal 109,908 98,266 -11,642 -11 27,240 23,860 -3,380 -12 10,277 7,158 -3,119 -30

Note: Population numbers here differ from those in the table on page 12 because this table uses Public Use Microdata in to make comparisons between 1990 and 2000. Source: 1990 and 2000 Public Use Microdata, U.S. Census Bureau.

population is 30 percent foreign born, 22 percent of Randolph, Massachusetts’ southern Massachusetts and Rhode neighboring Danbury’s is 27 percent, population was foreign born in 2000, Island, where this group has lived for and Bridgeport’s and Norwalk’s popula- climbing from 12 percent a decade over a (see sidebar, page 15). tions are both 20 percent foreign born. before. In Chelsea, Massachusetts, 36 Fall River and New Bedford, These four cities have the highest con- percent of residents are foreign born, Massachusetts, account for 26.8 per- centrations of foreign-born residents in with two-thirds having immigrated cent of New England’s Portuguese Connecticut. In the Bay State, 16 since 1990. population, with an additional 20 per- Massachusetts cities and towns have at cent living in neighboring cities and least one immigrant for every six resi- Concentrated towns, including communities in dents living in them. All sixteen are in Neighborhoods Rhode Island. the metropolitan . In many cases, new immigrant The Portuguese are one of the few Several of New England’s smaller communities are composed largely of older immigrant groups that remain cities have seen dramatic increases in one . ties and other highly concentrated. Typically, it is the their foreign-born population as new networks patterns of settlement region’s more recent immigrants who immigrant communities pop up that build communities of shared back- live in highly concentrated communi- throughout the region. In Lawrence grounds, language, and traditions, in ties. For example, 60 percent of New and Somerville, Massachusetts, nearly turn attracting more individuals of the England’s Dominicans live in three one in three residents is foreign born, same nationality. For example, the cities—Lawrence, Massachusetts (21 up from one in five in 1990. Similarly, Portuguese have strong communities in percent), Providence, Rhode Island (19

Communities&Banking 13 Percent of Total Population that is Foreign Born in New England Cities and Towns, 2000


less than 5% 5 - 10% 10 - 15% 15 - 20% greater than 20%

Source: U.S. Census, 2000.

14 Fall 2004

United by a Language

New England is a hub for Portuguese-speaking people—be tatorship that was stifling freedom in their home country. It was they from Portugal, Brazil, or Verde. Portuguese immigrants not until 1976, when Portugal’s longstanding regime fell and are the region’s largest foreign-born group. Brazilians constitute economic opportunities improved dramatically, that the stream of one of the leading groups of recent immigrants, and more Cape Portuguese immigrants slowed to what today is a mere trickle. Verdeans live here than anywhere else in the United States. The However, the remaining cultural and linguistic networks became a Portuguese language has drawn these three groups to New critical draw for the major wave of Portuguese-speaking England, but today it is one of the few things to unite them. immigrants to New England—Brazilians. New England’s lusophone immigration traces its roots back According to the U.S. Census, 23.2 percent of the more than to the and the days of Moby Dick. In the , whal- 200,000 Brazilians living in the United States in 2000 made their ing drew thousands of Portuguese immigrants to southern home in New England. However,these figures likely underestimate Massachusetts. Providing a vital source of fuel, was a the region’s Brazilian population. According to Lois Josimovich of booming industry and New Bedford, Massachusetts, was at its cen- the Massachusetts for Portuguese Speakers (MAPS),“The ter. Boats leaving from Buzzards Bay in search of sperm whales in Census figures are inaccurate due to serious undercounting. Many the eastern would often in the Azores, , Brazilians are undocumented, and many others do not access the and to restock their with , water, and other Census for a variety of reasons.” The Brazilian Consulate in supplies. These were all Portuguese , and as captains Boston estimates that there are at least 200,000 Brazilians living in returned home with their , they brought hundreds of Massachusetts alone. Portuguese sailors with them. This new wave of Portuguese speakers has settled primarily Soon, Portuguese communities were flourishing in New in Boston, Framingham, and Somerville, Massachusetts, and in Bedford, Fall River, and other nearby areas, and even after the Danbury, Connecticut.“Brazilians are coming to the United States whaling industry collapsed, thousands of new immigrants from the primarily for employment opportunities,” says Elsa Gomes, devel- Portuguese and the mainland flocked to the area. For opment and communications assistant at MAPS.“Many are choos- decades, new Portuguese immigrated to southern New England, ing to settle in New England because they hear about the region’s seeking better economic opportunities and escape from the dic- strong concentration of Portuguese language and culture.” Despite being drawn by the region’s existing Portuguese and Cape Verdean networks, Brazilians have not smoothly integrated with these groups. For exam- ple, separate Cape Verdean, Brazilian, and Portuguese organizations provide and advocate for the services their popula- tions need, and these groups have yet to embrace one another.“MAPS is currently the only organization in New England that brings all Portuguese-speaking people together,” says Gomes. “Building relationships among the groups takes a certain amount of adjust- ment on everyone’s part,” says Gomes. “Many of the older generation have for- gotten what it was like to be new to this country, and life was different when they arrived. Today’s immigrants face a new array of challenges that older immigrants can’t relate to. Regardless of differences, we have this language in common. It can bring us together and help us to the needs of New England’s entire Portuguese-speaking community.”

One of the many bilingual businesses in Framingham, Massachusetts.

Immigrant Settlement Patterns in Southern New England, 2000


Lawrence Portugese Lowell Dominican Italian Chinese Brazilian Lynn Worcester Boston 1 dot = 100 people Springfield Framingham Brockton Providence


Danbury Hartford

Fall River New Bedford New Haven


Stamford Source: U.S. Census, 2000.

percent), and Boston, Massachusetts with significant populations of account for 6.6 percent. Polish immi- (17 percent). The majority of Jamaican Dominicans, Jamaicans, Trinidadians, grants make up 8.8 percent of New immigrants (66 percent) live in and others nestled there. On the other Britain, Connecticut’s population, and Connecticut, with particularly large side of , in the neighborhoods of Dominicans are 21.4 percent of the res- populations in Hartford (18 percent) and /Brighton, idents in Lawrence, Massachusetts. and Bridgeport (12 percent). Moreover, many of New England’s Central and Whether it is the Salvadorans in 23 percent of Guatemalans live in South American populations have made Chelsea, Massachusetts, the Canadians Providence; 27 percent of the region’s homes. For examples, 56 percent of in Madawaska, Maine, or the Jamaicans Cambodian population lives in Lowell Salvadorans live in East Boston and the in , Connecticut, immi- (see sidebar, page 17); and 23 percent of surrounding communities. These grants settle in communities that they Vietnamese live in Boston. neighborhoods also support large popu- hope will support them as they establish Even within the 48 square miles of lations of Colombians, Brazilians, themselves in this country. Boston, recently immigrated groups Guatemalans, and Mexicans. How well are New England’s tend to reside in specific pockets of the For some New England towns, one immigrants doing on the road to suc- city. Over half of the city’s Chinese of these concentrated clusters can make cess? The Federal Reserve Bank of immigrants live in the up a significant percentage of the com- Boston’s research is finding that by neighborhood of central Boston or in munity’s population. For instance, some indicators, the region’s immi- the Allston/Brighton area. Haitians are Chinese immigrants make up 5 percent grants are better off than most U.S. mainly clustered in the neighborhoods of the population in Quincy, immigrants. They are set apart by their of , Hyde , South Massachusetts. In Central Falls, Rhode high levels of educational attainment, Dorchester, and Roxbury. These same Island, Colombians constitute 11.4 per- income, and occupational status. four neighborhoods are home to many cent of the total population, while in However, while the region’s immigrant other Caribbean immigrant groups, Framingham, Massachusetts, Brazilians population is doing better than average,

16 Fall 2004 Welcome to Lowell

Over the past two decades, Lowell, Massachusetts, has expe- numbers are to come by for this -wary group.) rienced a large influx of Cambodian refugees. In 1975, Many are employed as city employees, and the first Cambodian broke out in .The next 16 years were filled with geno- elected to office in the United States sits on the Lowell City cide, violence, and poverty as the brutal regime Council. struggled to control the country. Thousands of Cambodians fled It has not been all roses, however. Lowell’s Cambodians have their nation and sought refuge in the United States, Canada, and been victims of racial prejudice and , while many suffer from other countries. traumas they endured in In the early 1980s, moved by the plight of these Cambodia. Finding quali- Cambodians, a number of Lowell agencies and church- ty affordable housing in es sponsored several hundred Cambodians refugees the city is a problem, and and helped them set up new lives in Massachusetts.The language barriers some- city’s Cambodian population began to rapidly expand in times reduce access to the second half of the decade as refugees across the opportunities. Several nation decided to resettle in Lowell. Solid economic Cambodian community opportunities, such as jobs at Wang groups are working Laboratories, initially drew these resettled specifically to address Cambodians. With the of the these and other issues Trairatanaram Buddhist and the proliferation of faced by Lowell’s refugee Cambodian culture in the city, Lowell became a mecca population. At the same for Cambodian immigrants. time, Cambodians as a Their population skyrocketed. In 1991, the Boston whole are working for Globe reported that Lowell schools were practically the revitalization of adding a classroom a week to keep up with the flow of Lowell’s economy. The Cambodian children to the area. In no time, there were refugees have brought a base of new consumers and workers to the city and have contributed committed leadership, helping to drive reinvest- ment and development in Lowell.

Shopping in one of Lowell’s Cambodian neighborhoods.

two , a Cambodian cable T.V. show, a program, and a month- ly newspaper. Cambodian-owned businesses lined Middlesex and filled Pailin Shopping Plaza. Lowell had the second-largest Cambodian population in the United States; only Long , California, housed more Cambodians. Today, Cambodians make up at least 5 per- cent of the city’s population.(Definite Immigrant Settlement Patterns in the City of Boston and Suffolk , 2000


Haitian Dominican Chinese Vietnamese Salvadoran Revere Jamaican Colombian Brazilian Chelsea 1 dot = 100 people



Central Allston/Brighton Boston Back Bay/ Beacon Hill

East Boston Fenway/ Kenmore

Jamaica South End

Roslindale Roxbury Dorchester

Roxbury Mattapan Hyde Park

Source: U.S. Census, 2000.

18 Fall 2004

they remain several behind New England natives. Occupational Status

Educational Attainment United States New England The region’s foreign-born popula- tion exhibits a bimodal pattern of edu- Native Foreign Native Foreign cational attainment—they are less like- Born Born ly than natives to have completed high school yet more likely to have an Percent of the Total Population in Each Occupation advanced degree. While 87 percent of natives have a high school degree, only Management 12.8 9.5 14.5 11.1 69 percent of immigrants have reached Professional 19.4 16.7 22.6 21.4 this of educational attainment. 15.3 20.9 14.7 19.9 However, some 14.2 percent of the Sales and Office 28.0 20.7 27.4 19.0 region’s foreign-born hold an advanced Farming, Fishing, and Forestry 0.6 2.4 0.5 0.4 degree, compared with only 12.3 Construction, Extraction, percent of natives. This high percentage and Maintenance 9.4 10.7 8.3 7.3 of advanced degrees also drives the Production and Transportation 14.4 20.3 12.1 20.7 slightly greater levels of educational Percent of the attainment for immigrants in the Educated Population region versus the rest of the country. in Each Occupation While high school and college comple- tion rates are comparable for New Management 25.9 22.0 26.2 21.9 England and U.S. immigrants, only Professional 49.8 51.0 46.7 52.1 11.9 percent of all U.S. immigrants Service 4.9 6.8 4.8 6.2 have an advanced degree. Sales and Office 18.9 18.3 18.0 13.5 The educational attainment rates Farming, Fishing, and Forestry 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 Construction, Extraction, 1.9 2.6 1.7 1.7 of the region’s immigrants who came to and Maintenance the United States after 1990 show an Production and Transportation 3.0 5.6 2.4 4.3 even more accentuated bimodal pat- tern. On the one hand, only 73.7 per- Note: Statistics are for the population age 16 and over. cent have completed high school. Source: U.S. Census, 2000. However, 38.3 percent have graduated from college, and 19.2 percent have advanced degrees—significantly higher 13 percent higher than that of New trail native-born house- rates than population as England’s foreign-born households. holds by less than 3 percent. a whole, and surpassing those of the Moreover, 31 percent of New England’s Perhaps the income differences are native population. foreign-born households fall in the low- driven by the native population’s higher est income quartile of all New England rates of educational attainment. Income households. Nationally, only 29 percent However, controlling for educational New England immigrants have of immigrant households are in the differences reveals even larger dispari- higher household income levels than lowest quartile. ties. Among college graduates, rest of the U.S. immigrant popula- The region’s oldest immigrant of an immigrant house- tion. In 2000, the median household households lag especially behind. hold was $68,000, nearly 11 percent income for all U.S. foreign-born house- Twenty-nine percent of the region’s lower than the median for college-edu- holds2 was $39,200, while New households that are headed by an cated native-born households. Recently England’s median immigrant house- immigrant who has been in the country immigrated college graduates have hold income was $42,900. for more than 20 years are in the lowest particularly low household incomes New England’s immigrants, how- income quartile, compared with only compared with natives, likely driving ever, are more likely to lag behind their 26 percent nationwide. Additionally, much of this disparity. Controlling for native counterparts than other immi- the median household income in the college graduation does improve the grants. The median household income region for these immigrants is financial picture of the region’s estab- of the region’s native-born population is $45,120—7.5 percent lower than for lished immigrants. The median income 2 Defined as households in which the of the New England’s native-born households. for households headed by foreign-born household is foreign born. Nationwide, established immigrant college graduates who immigrated

Communities&Banking 19

more than 20 years ago is $79,800, higher than the $75,750 earned by native college-graduate households. Educational Attainment, 2000

Occupational Status Percent 100 Much of an individual’s economic well-being is determined by employ- 90 Completed High School Completed College ment opportunities. With higher levels 80 Completed Advanced Degree of educational attainment and higher 70 household income, New England’s for- eign born have a greater presence in 60

high-skill occupations than U.S. immi- 50 grants as a whole. While only 26 per- cent of all U.S. immigrants are in man- 40 agement or professional occupations, 30 32 percent of the region’s immigrants 20 are in these types of high-skill jobs. Most of New England’s highly 10 skilled immigrant workers are employed 0 in professional occupations, such as U.S. Immigrants New England New England New England doctors, , , and engi- Immigrants Recent Immigrants Natives neers. Though they are less likely than Source: U.S. Census, 2000. natives to fill management roles, they have equal rates of employment in these professional trades. Among college edu- cated New Englanders, immigrants are actually more likely than natives to be in professional occupations—52.1 per- cent versus 46.7 percent. The region’s immigrants have particularly high par- Median Household Income, 2000 ticipation rates in the hard — computers, , architecture,

engineering, and life and physical U.S. Immigrants sciences—and they hold 16.5 percent of all -related occupations in the region. New England The remaining occupational - Immigrants down of the region’s immigrants mirrors that of the nation’s immigrants. New England However, it differs from that of New Immigrants who immigrated after 1980 England’s native population, contribut- ing to the socioeconomic gap between New England these two groups. The region’s foreign Immigrants who born are less likely to be employed in immigrated before 1980 traditionally higher paying sales and office support jobs and more likely to be New England Natives employed as production or service workers. In fact, immigrants constitute 0 10 20 30 40 50 20 percent of all production workers and 15 percent of service workers in the Thousands of Source: U.S. Census, 2000.

20 Fall 2004 region. Moreover, while the bulk of the region’s college-educated persons are Homeownership in New England, 2000 employed in high-skill occupations, a higher percentage of college-educated Percent 100 immigrants are employed in tradition- ally lower paying occupations. For 90 example, 6.2 percent of college-educat- ed immigrants are employed in service 80 Own occupations, compared with 4.8 per- 70 cent of native college graduates. Likewise, 3.3 percent of these immi- 60 grants have production jobs versus only

50 1.4 percent of natives.

40 Homeownership New England immigrants are just 30 as likely to be homeowners as immi- 20 grants throughout the United States. About half of all foreign-born house- 10 holds own their homes, lower than the 0 native born homeownership rate, Natives Immigrants Immigrated Immigrated which nationally is close to 70 percent. after 1990 before 1980 Among more established immigrants, Source: U.S. Census, 2000. New Englanders are more likely to be homeowners than the rest of the U.S. foreign-born population; however, the reverse is true for more recent immi- grants. Seeming to face higher barriers to homeownership than immigrants in the rest of the country, only 21 percent of the region’s recent immigrants are Low-Income Households, 2000 homeowners, compared with 25 per- Percent cent of all recent immigrants in the 40 United States. U.S. Population's 35 25th Percentile for United States Household Income New England Small, but Significant 30 Understanding the unique attrib- utes of New England’s foreign-born 25 population is important since New England is increasingly reliant on for- 20 eign immigration to sustain its popula- tion, productivity, and economic 15 growth. The region’s immigrants are

10 not the same as California’s immi- grants. They are unlike Florida’s and 5 Texas’. From their countries of origin to their length of residence, the region’s 0 foreign-born population is distinctly All Immigrants Immigrated Immigrated after 1990 before 1980 New England’s own. Source: U.S. Census, 2000.

Detailed profiles of the region’s foreign-born population are available on the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston’s Community Affairs web site: www.bos.frb.org/commdev

Communities&Banking 21