Common Name: VANADIUM
CAS Number: 7440-62-2 DOT Number: None RTK Substance number: 3762 DOT Hazard Class: None Date: January 2001 Revision: January 2007 ------
HAZARD SUMMARY * Vanadium can affect you when breathed in. * If you think you are experiencing any work-related health * Contact can irritate the skin and eyes. problems, see a doctor trained to recognize occupational * Breathing Vanadium can irritate the nose, throat and diseases. Take this Fact Sheet with you. lungs causing coughing, wheezing and/or shortness of breath. WORKPLACE EXPOSURE LIMITS * High exposure to Vanadium can cause nausea, vomiting, NIOSH: The recommended airborne exposure limit is abdominal pain and greenish discoloration of the tongue. 0.05 mg/m3 (as Vanadium dust), which should * Exposure to Vanadium can cause headache, tremors and not be exceeded at any time. dizziness. * Vanadium may cause an asthma-like allergy. Future WAYS OF REDUCING EXPOSURE exposure can cause asthma attacks with shortness of * Where possible, enclose operations and use local exhaust breath, wheezing, cough, and/or chest tightness. ventilation at the site of chemical release. If local exhaust * Vanadium may damage the kidneys. ventilation or enclosure is not used, respirators should be * Repeated high exposure may cause anemia. worn. * Wear protective work clothing. IDENTIFICATION * Wash thoroughly immediately after exposure to Vanadium is a gray or white, shiny powder or solid metal. It Vanadium and at the end of the workshift. is used to make steel alloys, other Vanadium compounds, x- * Post hazard and warning information in the work area. In ray equipment, Sulfuric Acid, and synthetic rubber. addition, as part of an ongoing education and training effort, communicate all information on the health and REASON FOR CITATION safety hazards of Vanadium to potentially exposed * Vanadium is on the Hazardous Substance List because it workers. is cited by NIOSH, DEP and EPA. * Definitions are provided on page 5.
HOW TO DETERMINE IF YOU ARE BEING EXPOSED The New Jersey Right to Know Act requires most employers to label chemicals in the workplace and requires public employers to provide their employees with information and training concerning chemical hazards and controls. The federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) requires private employers to provide similar training and information to their employees.
* Exposure to hazardous substances should be routinely evaluated. This may include collecting personal and area air samples. You can obtain copies of sampling results from your employer. You have a legal right to this information under the OSHA Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records Standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).
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This Fact Sheet is a summary source of information of all If symptoms develop or overexposure is suspected, the potential and most severe health hazards that may result from following are recommended: exposure. Duration of exposure, concentration of the substance and other factors will affect your susceptibility to any of the * Complete blood count potential effects described below. * Kidney function tests ------* Urine test for Vanadium
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Any evaluation should include a careful history of past and present symptoms with an exam. Medical tests that look for Acute Health Effects damage already done are not a substitute for controlling The following acute (short-term) health effects may occur exposure. immediately or shortly after exposure to Vanadium: Request copies of your medical testing. You have a legal right * Contact can irritate the skin and eyes. to this information under the OSHA Access to Employee * Breathing Vanadium can irritate the nose, throat and lungs Exposure and Medical Records Standard (29 CFR 1910.1020). causing coughing, wheezing and/or shortness of breath. * High exposure to Vanadium can cause nausea, vomiting, Mixed Exposures abdominal pain and greenish discoloration of the tongue. * Because smoking can cause heart disease, as well as lung * Exposure to Vanadium can cause headache, tremors and cancer, emphysema, and other respiratory problems, it may dizziness. worsen respiratory conditions caused by chemical exposure. Even if you have smoked for a long time, stopping now will Chronic Health Effects reduce your risk of developing health problems. The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Vanadium and can last for months WORKPLACE CONTROLS AND PRACTICES or years: Unless a less toxic chemical can be substituted for a hazardous Cancer Hazard substance, ENGINEERING CONTROLS are the most * According to the information presently available to the New effective way of reducing exposure. The best protection is to Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, enclose operations and/or provide local exhaust ventilation at Vanadium has not been tested for its ability to cause cancer the site of chemical release. Isolating operations can also in animals. reduce exposure. Using respirators or protective equipment is less effective than the controls mentioned above, but is Reproductive Hazard sometimes necessary. * There is limited evidence that Vanadium compounds may damage the male reproductive system in animals. In evaluating the controls present in your workplace, consider: (1) how hazardous the substance is, (2) how much of the Other Long-Term Effects substance is released into the workplace and (3) whether * Vanadium can irritate the lungs. Repeated exposure may harmful skin or eye contact could occur. Special controls cause bronchitis to develop with cough, phlegm, and/or should be in place for highly toxic chemicals or when significant skin, eye, or breathing exposures are possible. shortness of breath.
* Vanadium may cause an asthma-like allergy. Future In addition, the following control is recommended: exposure can cause asthma attacks with shortness of breath,
wheezing, cough, and/or chest tightness. * Where possible, automatically transfer Vanadium from * Vanadium may damage the kidneys. drums or other storage containers to process containers. * Repeated high exposure may cause anemia.
Good WORK PRACTICES can help to reduce hazardous MEDICAL exposures. The following work practices are recommended:
Medical Testing * Workers whose clothing has been contaminated by Before beginning employment and at regular times after that, Vanadium should change into clean clothing promptly. for those with frequent or potentially high exposures, the * Do not take contaminated work clothes home. Family following are recommended: members could be exposed. * Contaminated work clothes should be laundered by * Lung function tests. These may be normal if the person is individuals who have been informed of the hazards of not having an attack at the time of the test. exposure to Vanadium. * Eye wash fountains should be provided in the immediate work area for emergency use. VANADIUM page 3 of 6
* If there is the possibility of skin exposure, emergency * NIOSH has established new testing and certification shower facilities should be provided. requirements for negative pressure, air purifying, particulate * On skin contact with Vanadium, immediately wash or filter and filtering facepiece respirators. The filter shower to remove the chemical. At the end of the classifications of dust/mist/fume, paint spray or pesticide workshift, wash any areas of the body that may have prefilters, and filters for radon daughters, have been contacted Vanadium, whether or not known skin contact replaced with the N, R, and P series. Each series has three has occurred. levels of filtering efficiency: 95%, 99%, and 99.9%. * Do not eat, smoke, or drink where Vanadium is handled, Check with your safety equipment supplier or your processed, or stored, since the chemical can be swallowed. respirator manufacturer to determine which respirator is Wash hands carefully before eating, drinking, applying appropriate for your facility. cosmetics, smoking, or using the toilet. * Where the potential exists for exposure over 0.5 mg/m3, * Use a vacuum or a wet method to reduce dust during clean- use a NIOSH approved full facepiece respirator with a high up. DO NOT DRY SWEEP. efficiency particulate filter. Increased protection is obtained from full facepiece powered-air purifying PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT respirators. * If while wearing a filter or cartridge respirator you can WORKPLACE CONTROLS ARE BETTER THAN smell, taste, or otherwise detect Vanadium, or if while PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. However, for wearing particulate filters abnormal resistance to breathing some jobs (such as outside work, confined space entry, jobs is experienced, or eye irritation occurs while wearing a full done only once in a while, or jobs done while workplace facepiece respirator, leave the area immediately. Check to controls are being installed), personal protective equipment make sure the respirator-to-face seal is still good. If it is, may be appropriate. replace the filter or cartridge. If the seal is no longer good, you may need a new respirator. The OSHA Personal Protective Equipment Standard (29 CFR * Be sure to consider all potential exposures in your 1910.132) requires employers to determine the appropriate workplace. You may need a combination of filters, personal protective equipment for each hazard and to train prefilters or cartridges to protect against different forms of a employees on how and when to use protective equipment. chemical (such as vapor and mist) or against a mixture of chemicals. The following recommendations are only guidelines and may * Where the potential exists for exposure over 1.25 mg/m3, not apply to every situation. use a NIOSH approved supplied-air respirator with a full
facepiece operated in a pressure-demand or other positive- Clothing pressure mode. For increased protection use in * Avoid skin contact with Vanadium. Wear protective combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing gloves and clothing. Safety equipment suppliers/ apparatus operated in a pressure-demand or other positive- manufacturers can provide recommendations on the most pressure mode. protective glove/clothing material for your operation. * Exposure to 35 mg/m3 is immediately dangerous to life and * All protective clothing (suits, gloves, footwear, headgear) health. If the possibility of exposure above 35 mg/m3 should be clean, available each day, and put on before exists, use a NIOSH approved self-contained breathing work. apparatus with a full facepiece operated in a pressure- demand or other positive-pressure mode equipped with an Eye Protection emergency escape air cylinder. * Wear impact resistant eye protection with side shields or goggles. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS * Wear a face shield along with goggles when working with corrosive, highly irritating or toxic substances. Q: If I have acute health effects, will I later get chronic * Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this health effects? substance. A: Not always. Most chronic (long-term) effects result from repeated exposures to a chemical. Respiratory Protection IMPROPER USE OF RESPIRATORS IS DANGEROUS. Q: Can I get long-term effects without ever having short- Such equipment should only be used if the employer has a term effects? written program that takes into account workplace conditions, A: Yes, because long-term effects can occur from repeated requirements for worker training, respirator fit testing, and exposures to a chemical at levels not high enough to make medical exams, as described in the OSHA Respiratory you immediately sick. Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134).
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Q: What are my chances of getting sick when I have been ------exposed to chemicals? The following information is available from: A: The likelihood of becoming sick from chemicals is increased as the amount of exposure increases. This is New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services determined by the length of time and the amount of Occupational Health Service material to which someone is exposed. PO Box 360 Trenton, NJ 08625-0360 Q: When are higher exposures more likely? (609) 984-1863 A: Conditions which increase risk of exposure include dust (609) 984-7407 (fax) releasing operations (grinding, mixing, blasting, dumping, etc.), other physical and mechanical processes (heating, Web address: http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/odisweb/ pouring, spraying, spills and evaporation from large surface areas such as open containers), and "confined Industrial Hygiene Information space" exposures (working inside vats, reactors, boilers, Industrial hygienists are available to answer your questions small rooms, etc.). regarding the control of chemical exposures using exhaust ventilation, special work practices, good housekeeping, good Q: Is the risk of getting sick higher for workers than for hygiene practices, and personal protective equipment including respirators. In addition, they can help to interpret the results of community residents? industrial hygiene survey data. A: Yes. Exposures in the community, except possibly in
cases of fires or spills, are usually much lower than those Medical Evaluation found in the workplace. However, people in the If you think you are becoming sick because of exposure to community may be exposed to contaminated water as chemicals at your workplace, you may call personnel at the well as to chemicals in the air over long periods. This Department of Health and Senior Services, Occupational may be a problem for children or people who are already Health Service, who can help you find the information you ill. need.
Q: Can men as well as women be affected by chemicals that Public Presentations cause reproductive system damage? Presentations and educational programs on occupational health A: Yes. Some chemicals reduce potency or fertility in both or the Right to Know Act can be organized for labor unions, men and women. Some damage sperm and eggs, possibly trade associations and other groups. leading to birth defects. Right to Know Information Resources Q: Who is at the greatest risk from reproductive hazards? The Right to Know Infoline (609) 984-2202 can answer A: Pregnant women are at greatest risk from chemicals that questions about the identity and potential health effects of harm the developing fetus. However, chemicals may chemicals, list of educational materials in occupational health, affect the ability to have children, so both men and references used to prepare the Fact Sheets, preparation of the women of childbearing age are at high risk. Right to Know Survey, education and training programs, labeling requirements, and general information regarding the Right to Know Act. Violations of the law should be reported to (609) 984-2202. ------
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ACGIH is the American Conference of Governmental NAERG is the North American Emergency Response Industrial Hygienists. It recommends upper limits (called Guidebook. It was jointly developed by Transport Canada, the TLVs) for exposure to workplace chemicals. United States Department of Transportation and the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation of Mexico. It is a A carcinogen is a substance that causes cancer. guide for first responders to quickly identify the specific or generic hazards of material involved in a transportation The CAS number is assigned by the Chemical Abstracts incident, and to protect themselves and the general public Service to identify a specific chemical. during the initial response phase of the incident.
CFR is the Code of Federal Regulations, which consists of the NFPA is the National Fire Protection Association. It classifies regulations of the United States government. substances according to their fire and explosion hazard.
A combustible substance is a solid, liquid or gas that will burn. NIOSH is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. It tests equipment, evaluates and approves respirators, A corrosive substance is a gas, liquid or solid that causes conducts studies of workplace hazards, and proposes standards irreversible damage to human tissue or containers. to OSHA.
DEP is the New Jersey Department of Environmental NTP is the National Toxicology Program which tests Protection. chemicals and reviews evidence for cancer.
DOT is the Department of Transportation, the federal agency OSHA is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, that regulates the transportation of chemicals. which adopts and enforces health and safety standards.
EPA is the Environmental Protection Agency, the federal PEL is the Permissible Exposure Limit which is enforceable by agency responsible for regulating environmental hazards. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
A fetus is an unborn human or animal. PIH is a DOT designation for chemicals which are Poison Inhalation Hazards. A flammable substance is a solid, liquid, vapor or gas that will ignite easily and burn rapidly. ppm means parts of a substance per million parts of air. It is a measure of concentration by volume in air. The flash point is the temperature at which a liquid or solid gives off vapor that can form a flammable mixture with air. A reactive substance is a solid, liquid or gas that releases energy under certain conditions. IARC is the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a scientific group that classifies chemicals according to their STEL is a Short Term Exposure Limit which is usually a 15- cancer-causing potential. minute exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a work day. IRIS is the Integrated Risk Information System database of the federal EPA. A teratogen is a substance that causes birth defects by damaging the fetus. A miscible substance is a liquid or gas that will evenly dissolve in another. TLV is the Threshold Limit Value, the workplace exposure limit recommended by ACGIH. mg/m3 means milligrams of a chemical in a cubic meter of air. It is a measure of concentration (weight/volume). The vapor pressure is a measure of how readily a liquid or a solid mixes with air at its surface. A higher vapor pressure A mutagen is a substance that causes mutations. A mutation is indicates a higher concentration of the substance in air and a change in the genetic material in a body cell. Mutations can therefore increases the likelihood of breathing it in. lead to birth defects, miscarriages, or cancer.
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Common Name: VANADIUM HANDLING AND STORAGE DOT Number: None DOT Hazard Class: None * Prior to working with Vanadium you should be trained on NAERG Code: No Citation its proper handling and storage. CAS Number: 7440-62-2 * Vanadium must be stored to avoid contact with OXIDIZING AGENTS (such as PERCHLORATES, PEROXIDES, PERMANGANATES, CHLORATES, Hazard rating NJDHSS NFPA NITRATES, CHLORINE, BROMINE and FLUORINE) FLAMMABILITY 0 - and LITHIUM since violent reactions occur. REACTIVITY 0 - * Vanadium is not compatible with STRONG ACIDS (such POISONOUS FUMES ARE PRODUCED IN FIRE as HYDROCHLORIC, SULFURIC and NITRIC) and ALKALI METALS. Hazard Rating Key: 0=minimal; 1=slight; 2=moderate; * Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated 3=serious; 4=severe area away from HEAT.
FIRE HAZARDS FIRST AID
* Extinguish fire using an agent suitable for type of For POISON INFORMATION call 1-800-222-1222 surrounding fire. Vanadium itself does not burn. * POISONOUS FUMES ARE PRODUCED IN FIRE, Eye Contact including Vanadium Oxide. * Immediately flush with large amounts of water for at least * Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. * If employees are expected to fight fires, they must be trained and equipped as stated in the OSHA Fire Brigades Skin Contact Standard (29 CFR 1910.156). * Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Immediately wash contaminated skin with large amounts of soap and water. SPILLS AND EMERGENCIES Breathing If Vanadium is spilled, take the following steps: * Remove the person from exposure. * Begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions) if * Evacuate personnel and secure and control entrance to the breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. area. * Transfer promptly to a medical facility. * Collect powdered material in the most convenient and safe manner and deposit in sealed containers. PHYSICAL DATA * Ventilate and wash area after clean-up is complete. * It may be necessary to contain and dispose of Vanadium Vapor Pressure: 0 mm Hg at 68oF (20oC) as a HAZARDOUS WASTE. Contact your state Water Solubility: Insoluble Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) or your regional office of the federal Environmental Protection OTHER COMMONLY USED NAMES Agency (EPA) for specific recommendations. * If employees are required to clean-up spills, they must be Chemical Name: properly trained and equipped. The OSHA Hazardous Vanadium Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (29 CFR 1910.120) may apply. ------Not intended to be copied and sold for commercial ======FOR LARGE SPILLS AND FIRES immediately call your fire purposes. department. You can request emergency information from the ------following: NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SENIOR SERVICES CHEMTREC: (800) 424-9300 Right to Know Program NJDEP HOTLINE: 1-877-WARN-DEP PO Box 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368 ======(609) 984-2202 ------