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Treasure Hunt in

Author: Marty Mater Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations 3-G1.0.1 Use thematic maps to identify and Lesson Overview: Michigan’s rich natural describe the physical and human characteristics resources have greatly influenced where people of Michigan live and what work they do. In this lesson 3-G4.0.1 Describe major kinds of economic students locate Michigan’s resources, learn how activity in Michigan today and explain factors they have been used, and consider the influencing the location of these economic consequences of those uses. activities. 3-G5.0.1 Locate natural resources in Michigan Essential Questions: and explain the consequences of their use.  What are the valuable natural resources 3-E1.0.3 Analyze how Michigan’s location and in Michigan? natural resources influenced its economic  Where are they located? development (i.e. How waterways and other  What industries have developed because natural resources have influenced economic of the natural resources of Michigan? activities)

Objectives: Students will be able to: National Geography Standards  Locate natural resources of Michigan Standard 4: The physical and human today characteristics of places  Describe the uses of natural resources in Standard 16: The changes that occur in the Michigan and the Region meaning, use, distribution, and importance of and the consequences of these uses. resources  Explain how Michigan’s natural resources influenced the development of mining, lumbering, and . Teacher Background Notes

Subject/Grade Level: Social Studies, 3-4 Important natural resources in the state of

Student Materials (Included) Michigan include water, fertile soil (for farming and forests), minerals (iron, ,  Student worksheets: Uses of Michigan’s limestone, gypsum), and salt. Oil and natural Natural Resources; Michigan’s gas are also found in Michigan. While other Natural Resource Map; Human states had mineral and other natural resources, Activities; Treasure Hunt in Michigan Michigan had an additional advantage as a  Student resources: Resource Information Great Lakes state. Water transportation is the Cards; General Land Uses in the Great least expensive means to move heavy bulky Lakes (map); Location of Resources in natural resources, such as and copper. Michigan Many of Michigan’s minerals were near the Provided by teacher: Michigan maps; Great Lakes and it possible to ship them colored pencils by lake freighter long before towns in other

Teacher Materials: states had railways or highways. The  Resource labels combination of natural resources and the water transportation to ship resources and goods has  Answer keys benefited Michigan.  Resource Background notes

 Treasure Hunt PPT See also Resource Background notes

Procedure:

1. Divide the class into groups of 3-4 students. Pass one set of 12 resource information cards (Resource #1) and Worksheet #1, “Uses of Michigan’s Natural Resources” to each group. Students take turns reading the resource cards, listening for the uses of the resources, and completing the first two columns on worksheet #1 as a group. (Alternatively: set up samples of resources with resource card and let groups visit each display to fill in worksheet)

2. Bring the class together and, using the answer key, discuss the uses of each resource. Students may predict where in Michigan these resources may be found to prepare for activity #6 below.

3. Show the class Resource #2, “General Land Uses in the Great Lakes” and discuss the legend/ key. Distribute Map/worksheet #2, “Michigan’s Natural Resources” to each student and ask them to color and label forest and agriculture land, and to make a key for the map. Discuss where urban areas are located and why they are located there

4. Ask groups to suggest answers to the following questions about the human activities (and related economic development) that results from the use of the natural resources in these land areas: forest, agriculture, and urban areas: a. What are the human activities that occur for this land use? b. How do the water ways and natural resources influence how humans use the land and what they produce on this land? (Economic activities.) c. What might be the consequences of using the land in this way?

Develop a class chart of this information or use Worksheet #3: Human Activities, Economic Development, and Consequences of Land Use. See answer key with possible answers. (Not all of these answers need to be written to gain the major ideas.) Boldface words are key economic concepts.

5. Distribute a set of printed address labels and Resource # 3 to each student. Alternatively, use blank labels and ask students to write the resources they remember before passing out Resource #3. (Possible assessment activity)

Direct them to find the locations of the natural resources using Student Resources #1 and # 3 “Location of Resources in Michigan” and a Michigan map (teacher-supplied road map or Michigan map with major cities in MI.) Students can complete worksheet 1 and place their printed or handwritten labels on their own Map/Worksheet #2. Note: Gypsum is found in several places; hence 2 labels.

6. Discuss the following with the class or use student worksheet #4, “Treasure Hunt in Michigan” a. What are our most valuable natural resources today? (List all but copper, coal and gold) b. Which of these resources are non-renewable, that is, we can use them up? (copper, gold, coal, gypsum, oil, natural gas, gravel, limestone, iron, salt, sand) Some, like copper, are recyclable. c. Which of these resources are least valuable in Michigan today? (copper, coal, gold and silver are not plentiful enough in Michigan or useable enough today to be very valuable) d. Which of our valuable resources are used in manufacturing? (gypsum, oil, limestone, iron, gravel, sand, timber) e. Where are most manufacturing plants located in Michigan? (urban areas, lower ) f. How do manufacturing plants get the resources they need? (shipping on the Great Lakes, trucking on our highways)

7. Group assignment: Using the maps, student resources, and what students have learned, each group should produce a poster, picture book, or skit about one of the valuable resources in Michigan. Include location of resource; at least one use; a flow chart of economic activities associated with the resource (e.g., forests >paper mills >newspapers; water >fishing industry >restaurants), and the location of an economic activity. Students should be encouraged to pursue additional materials that tell the story of Michigan’s resources and how they are used. Possible additional information could include consequences of misuse of resource.

Assessment 1. Alternative Activity #5 may be used an assessment. 2. The completed map (Activity #6) is a formative assessment of the student’s capacity to locate natural resources of Michigan. (Should include resources in correct locations; correct land uses with legend) 3. The poster, skit or picture book may be used to assess student conceptual knowledge. (Should include information about resource and resulting economic activities) 4. Individual writing activity: Each student should choose a resource and produce either a poster or picture book which describes location (both where it is found, and where it is used), at least one use, and a human or economic activity resulting from this resource (e.g., iron is found in western upper peninsula, and is shipped to the manufacturing plants in for producing cars). Encourage students to pursue additional materials that tell the story of Michigan’s resources and how they are used.

References General Land Uses of The Great Lakes map: Adapted from The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book. Jointly produced by the Government of and the U. S, Environmental Protection Agency, 1995. More information can be found at www.on.ec.gc.ca/great-lakes-atlas/intro.htm

Resource Background Notes:

1. Fertile Soil and Forests. Good soil was brought from Canada and by the glaciers to . Agriculture is Michigan’s 2nd most valuable industry because of this soil and a varied climate due to the Great Lakes. Michigan is number one in production of tart , , cucumbers for pickles, and many other crops. Even in the northern lower and Upper Peninsula, the soil and climate encourages the growth of forests, another valuable resource in Michigan. Wood is used in the manufacturing of paper and wood products, and can be used for generating energy and as fuel. 2. Copper was deposited in this nearly 1 billion years ago. It is one of the first metals known to humans and one of the most useful. It is the best low-cost conductor of electricity (wiring) and heat (pots and pans). It is easy to shape, and will not rust (pipes and plumbing fixtures). It is a nonrenewable resource. The of Michigan has produced over 14 billion pounds since 1845, but mining ceased in 1969. leads the nation in copper production. Copper deposits are located in the Keweenaw Peninsula. 3. Gold was deposited about 2.5 billion years ago. It is used for money, jewelry and dental work. There is little gold left in the Ropes Mine in the southwestern UP, and it’s not being mined at present because it is too expensive to recover. Silver has also been found in Michigan, usually along with the copper mines in northern Michigan. 4. Soft Coal was formed in the central Lower Peninsula about 300 million years ago, from the remains of plants and animals. It is used for fuel (mostly for electric power plants), heat, and as coke in the manufacturing process (mainly of steel). Any coal remaining in Michigan is too poor in quality to be economically useful now. 5. Gypsum is a non-metallic mineral, found in rock form. Evaporation of the saltwater seas that covered Michigan 300 million years ago was responsible for Michigan’s gypsum deposits, which are among the richest in the world. Gypsum has many uses. As a building material, it was used in the Pyramids, and is used today as plaster, wallboard and lath. It is used in cement, and in the production of toothpaste and chalk. Another important use is in making molds used in the manufacturing of tile, plate glass, and car parts. Gypsum is produced commercially from open pit quarries near Tawas City and Alabaster in Iosco County and from underground mines near Grand Rapids. 6. Oil and Natural Gas were the result of the decay of plants and animals millions of years ago in central lower Michigan, and oil is now considered one of the most valuable natural resources in the world. The most common use of oil is energy production (fuel and heat), but it is also used in many common household items. The mid-Michigan area is a source for both oil and natural gas. Since they are nonrenewable resources, many think the world’s supply is rapidly running out. The Middle East countries have about 56% of the known oil sources, but , , , and have significant oil. 7. Gravel deposits occur throughout the state, and have remained commercially productive throughout the 20th century. In the late 19th century, quarries at Grindstone City, near the tip of , supplied grindstones for sharpening tools. Sandstone, from Hillsdale and Jackson counties and the south shore of , is used as a building material. Sand and gravel have been used in large quantities for building roads and making cement. Gravel is mined in many local places, especially near urban regions on the east coast of the Lower Peninsula and the tip of the Thumb area. 8. Limestone was formed about 360 million years ago from a calcium carbonate solution when water evaporated. It is used in cement and for building, and is also an ingredient in many manufacturing processes (tanning hides, neutralizing acids, making steel and glass). Rogers City has the largest limestone quarry in the world. 9. . Water is abundant in Michigan. No one in Michigan is farther than about 80 miles from a Great Lake, and there are 11,000 inland lakes and 36,500 miles of rivers in Michigan. Water is used by industry, for irrigation, for recreation, and for private use. In addition, of the 37 million people that live in the Great Lakes watershed, 20 million of them get their drinking water directly from the Great Lakes. 10. Iron is found in certain kinds of rock, or ore, especially near Negaunee in the Upper Peninsula. It can be welded when hot, hammered into thin sheets, or drawn out into fine wires. It is easily magnetized. Iron makes up about 5% of the earth’s crust. The formation of iron ores began about 2 billion years ago, during the period of volcanoes. Its most common use is in making steel. It is a nonrenewable resource, but there are enough known iron deposits to supply the world’s needs for at least 320 years. 11. Salt was formed in Michigan about 410 million years ago, when salt seas covered the Great Lakes area. It is mined under and Huron. It is used for cooking, for icy roads in winter, for preserving, and mostly for manufacturing processing. There is enough salt under Michigan (mostly in the southeast) to supply the world for thousands of years. Salt is mined under Detroit and Port Huron. 12. Sand was deposited by glaciers from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago. Wind and wave action built up the largest stretch of in the world along the coast of the Lower Peninsula, about 4500 years ago. Sand is used for glass and in foundries to make molds for the auto industry. Sand mining is currently a big issue in Michigan, because sand dunes are considered a nonrenewable resource unless we have another age. Sand is mined along the Lake Michigan coast of the Lower Peninsula.

Student Worksheet #1

Uses of Michigan’s Natural Resources

Resource name Uses for the resource Location of resource

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Answer Key Worksheet #1

Uses of Michigan’s Natural Resources

Resource name Uses for this resource Location Agriculture: Southern 1. Fertile Soil Agriculture, Michigan and Forests Forestry: Northeast Lower, UP Pipes, wires, pennies, 2. Copper Northwest UP cookware 3. Gold/Silver Money, dental work, jewelry Southwest UP

4. Coal Heating, electrical generation Mid-Michigan Plaster, wallboard, cement, 5. Gypsum Grand Rapids Area, Iosco Cty chalk 6. Oil and Natural Heating Mid-Michigan Gas Fuels Road building 7. Gravel East Coast, Thumb sharpening tools Building, 8. Limestone Rogers City Cement, manufacturing Drinking, irrigation 9. Water Recreation, manufacturing, Great Lakes, inland lakes shipping 10. Iron Steel Negaunee, UP Roads 11. Salt Under Detroit and Port Huron Preserving, manufacturing Glass, cement, foundries, 12. Sand road building Student Resource #1 1. Fertile Soil and Forests. Good soil 2. Copper has been in Michigan for was brought to Michigan by the nearly 1 billion years. It is one of the glaciers. Farming is an important most useful metals known to humans. industry in Michigan. Our state grows Copper is used for wiring, pipes, and more tart cherries, blueberries, and to make pots and pans. It is a cucumbers than any other state. Soil and nonrenewable resource. The climate encourages the growth of Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan has forests. Wood is used in the produced over 14 billion pounds since manufacturing of paper and other wood 1845. Arizona leads the nation in products. It also is used for making copper production now energy and as fuel.

3. Gold has been in Michigan for about 4. Soft Coal was formed in the 2.5 billion years. It is used for money, central Lower Peninsula about 300 jewelry and dental work. There is only million years ago. It is used for fuel, a little gold left in the Ropes Mine in and heat. It is also used for making the southwestern UP. steel and electricity. Any coal Silver has also been found in remaining in Michigan is too poor in Michigan, usually along with the copper quality to be useful now. mines in northern Michigan.

5. Gypsum is a mineral found in rocks. 6. Oil and Natural Gas are found in Michigan’s deposits are among the central Lower Michigan. Oil is one of richest in the world. It has many uses. the most valuable natural resources in As a building material, it was used in the world. The most common uses of the Pyramids, and is used today as oil are fuel and heat. It is also used in plaster and wallboard. It is also used in many household items. Oil and cement, toothpaste and chalk. Gypsum natural gas are nonrenewable is produced near Tawas City in Iosco resources. The Middle East has about County and from underground mines 56% of the world's oil. Alaska, near Grand Rapids. Louisiana, California, and Texas have oil also. 7. Gravel is found all over the state. 8. Limestone was formed about 360 Stones for sharpening tools come from million years in Michigan. It is used the Thumb. Sandstone, from the shores in cement and for building. It is also of Lake Superior, is used for building. used in tanning hides and making Sand and gravel is used for making steel and glass. Rogers City has the roads and cement. largest limestone quarry in the world.

10. Iron is found in rock, called ore, 9. Water is plentiful in Michigan. No especially near Negaunee in the one is farther than 80 miles from a Upper Peninsula. It is easily Great Lake. There are 11,000 inland magnetized. Iron makes up about 5% lakes and 36,500 miles of rivers in of the earth’s crust. The formation of Michigan. Water is used by industry, iron ores began about 2 billion years for irrigation, for recreation, and for ago. Its most common use is in private use. 37 million people live near making steel. It is a nonrenewable the Great Lakes. 20 million get their resource, but there are enough known drinking water directly from the Great iron deposits to supply the world’s Lakes. needs for at least 320 years.

12. Sand was brought by glaciers 11. Salt was formed in Michigan about 10,000 to 50,000 years ago. Wind 410 million years ago. It is mined under and waves made the largest fresh Detroit and Port Huron. It is used for water dunes in the world along the cooking, for icy roads, and for Lake Michigan coast. Sand is used manufacturing. There is enough salt for glass and to make molds for cars. under southeast Michigan to last many Sand mining is a big issue in years. Michigan, because sand dunes are a nonrenewable resource. Student Resource #2

Adapted from The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book jointly produced by the Government of Canada and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1995 Map / Worksheet #2

Student Resource #3 Location of Resources in Michigan

1. Soil is generally more fertile in southern Michigan than in northern Michigan. 2. Forests, once covering most of Michigan, are the dominant land cover of the Upper Peninsula and the northeast of the Lower Peninsula. 3. Copper deposits are located in the Keweenaw Peninsula 4. Gold has been mined in the southwestern part of the Upper Peninsula. 5. Gypsum deposits are located in the Tawas City area and in Grand Rapids. 6. Oil and natural gas deposits and coal are located in the central Lower Peninsula. 7. Gravel is mined in many local places, especially near urban regions on the east coast of the Lower Peninsula and the tip of the Thumb area that have access by lake transportation to urban regions where large amounts of gravel and cement are used. 8. Limestone is mined near Rogers City. 9. Water is an important throughout Michigan, with the Great Lakes, inland lakes, underground reservoirs, and rivers providing a great natural resource. A major problem is to protect the water resources from over use and pollution. 10. Iron is mined near Negaunee in the Upper Peninsula. 11. Salt is mined under Detroit and Port Huron. 12. Sand is mined along the Lake Michigan coast of the Lower Peninsula for use in the foundry and glass industries. Answer Key for Map / Worksheet 2

Copper

Gold

Iron

Limestone Water

S a Gypsum n Coal d Oil Natural Gas Gravel S a n d Gypsum

Fertile Soil Salt Student Worksheet #3

Human Activities, Economic Development, and Consequences of Land Use Forest Agriculture Urban

Human Activities

Influence of Great Lakes and rivers on Economic Activities

Consequences of Land Use Answer Key Worksheet #3

Human Activities, Economic Development, and Consequences of Land Use Forest Agriculture Urban

Tourism, camping, parks, recreation, Growing crops (food) hiking and sports Grazing animals Manufacturing: industries making Lumbering, wood products Fertilizing, clearing land products based on materials mined Human (furniture) Construction: sewer systems, Activities Mining of resources (gold, oil, iron, industry, landscaping, homes, roads etc.)

Influence of Rivers help in draining land; water Water used for industry, drinking; Great Lakes Rivers and lakes used for shipping, for crops (irrigation) and animals; Great Lakes used for shipping both and rivers on paper mills, and recreation shipping grain raw materials and products Economic

Activities

Decrease in forest cover (until Change of drainage, pollution of reforested areas grow) Water pollution from fertilizers and water system (from sewage, detergent, Dirt roads for logging equipment may weed killers; Rural landscapes may oil products), air pollution. erode land Consequences replace forested areas. Homes for laborers needed for Changes in natural habitats for plants of Land Use Valuable Farming Industry industry and animals

Valuable Timber Industry

GOLD COPPER GOLD COPPER COAL OIL COAL OIL GYPSUM GRAVEL GYPSUM GRAVEL GYPSUM IRON GYPSUM IRON LIMESTONE SAND LIMESTONE SAND WATER SALT WATER SALT NATURAL GAS FERTILE SOIL NATURAL GAS FERTILE SOIL

GOLD COPPER GOLD COPPER COAL OIL COAL OIL GYPSUM GRAVEL GYPSUM GRAVEL GYPSUM IRON GYPSUM IRON LIMESTONE SAND LIMESTONE SAND WATER SALT WATER SALT

NATURAL GAS FERTILE SOIL NATURAL GAS FERTILE SOIL

Teacher Resource: These labels are formatted to print on return address labels (e.g., Avery 8167) Cut apart for each student or group Student Worksheet #4

Treasure Hunt in Michigan

Discuss these questions in your group and write your answers here:

1. Which of these resources are non-renewable, that is, we can use them up? ______

______

______

______

______

2. Which of these resources are least valuable in Michigan today? ______

______

3. Which______of our valuable resources are used in manufacturing?

______

______

______

4. Where are most manufacturing plants located in Michigan?

______

______

5. How do manufacturing plants get the resources they need?

______

______Answer Key Worksheet #4

Treasure Hunt in Michigan

Discuss these questions in your group and write your answers here:

1. Which of these resources are non-renewable, that is, we can use them up? Copper Gravel Gold Limestone Gypsum Iron Oil Salt Natural gas Sand

______2. Which of these resources are least valuable in Michigan today? Copper ______Gold

Coal Silver

3. Which of our valuable resources are used in manufacturing?

Gypsum Iron

Oil Gravel

Limestone Sand

4. Where are most manufacturing plants located in Michigan? Near urban areas

Mostly in the Lower Peninsula

5. How do manufacturing plants get the resources they need? Shipping on our Great Lakes

Trucking on our highways