GLOSSARY OF STONE TERMS Additional references are listed at the end of this glossary.

A repellents, coloring agents or to adjust the curing rate of the or . Abate In , to cut away material, Adoquin leaving parts in . A volcanic, based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice Finish in a quartz . Quarried in . A non-reflective surface finish. An abrasive finish may be defined by the grit size of the abrasive. A variegated, translucent, cryptocrystal- line variety of quartz showing colored Abrasive (Ha) bands or other markings (clouded, moss- A measure of the wearing performance like, etc.). of stone for floors, stair treads, and other areas subjected to by traffic. Agglomerated Stone Refer to ASTM C241 and C1353. A manmade product composed of combined with resin. See also en- Absorption gineered stone and cultured stone. The amount of absorbed by a stone, expressed as a percentage by weight. Refer to ASTM C97. A small of , having occurred naturally (as in or ) or by means Abutment of manufacture (as in a crushed aggregate A stone “springer” at the lowest product), used either in a loose, noncohesive point of an arch or . state, or as an ingredient in mortar or Accelerator concrete products. In , any ingredient added to mortar or concrete to speed the curing process. A fine grained and translucent variety of , generally in color. Com- Wash monly used in decorative applications as it A treatment applied to the face of a stone is can be cut and carved easily with a to achieve a texture or finish that is dis- or . Term is often incorrectly applied tressed. Most acidic chemical treatments to fine grained . are effective only when applied to calcar- eous stone varieties. Alkaline Pertains to a highly basic, as opposed to Adhered acidic, substance; for example, Used in reference to stone veneer, or of or . secured and supported by adhesion of an approved bonding material over an Allowable Capacity approved backing. The safe that can be resisted by a stone anchor, determined by dividing the Admixture ultimate capacity by the factor of safety. A material other than water, aggregates, or , added to concrete or Ambient mortar at the time of mixing. Admixtures Temperature of the surrounding environ- are typically added to function as water ment.

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-1 Anchor A resistant fastener used A weakly metamorphosed compact rock for securing to a struc- composed mainly of and . Used ture or adjacent stone units. Anchor types locally as building stone, although rarely for stonework include those made of flat produced commercially. (straps, dovetails)and round stock (rod cramp, rod anchor, eyebolt and ). A -rich containing 10% Anchorage or more clastic grains of feldspar. Also The means by which slabs are secured to a called “arkosic sandstone” and “feldspathic self supporting structure. sandstone.” Angle of Repose Arris The angle a normal pile of loose material A slight, although measurable, makes to the horizontal. Used as an indi- where two surfaces meet cator of flowability; the steeper the slope, the more sluggish the flow. A manmade product attempting to Anisotropic replicate the look of natural stone. This Having properties, either visual or me- term is actually a misnomer, as it includes chanical, that differ based on the direction an obvious contradiction of terms. Stone Apron in which they are measured. All stones are is naturally occurring material. See anisotropic to some degree, but the sedi- and cultured mentary stones typically have the greatest marble. degree of . Anorthosite A dark-colored consisting A stone façade of generally or mostly or entirely of calcic . rectangular units having sawed or dressed ANSI beds. There are three generally recog- nized distinctions: American National Standards Institute 1. random ashlar: ashlar set with Antique Finish stones of varying length and height so Arch A finish that replicates rustic or distressed that neither vertical nor horizontal textures. Produced through mechanical joints are continuous. or chemical means to simulate the naturally 2. coursed ashlar: Ashlar set to form occurring effects of the aging process. continuous horizontal joints. Apex Stone 3. stacked ashlar: Ashlar set to form Uppermost stone in a gable, pediment, continuous vertical joints. vault or . ASI Apron (Allied Stone Industries) A trim piece under a projecting stone top, The Allied Stone Industries is made up of stool, etc. Architrave stone quarriers, fabricators, and the sup- Arch pliers of natural building materials and The curved or pointed over related machinery and . a doorway or opening. Arch shapes range from flat to semicircular or semielliptical ASTM International to acutely pointed. A consensus standards authoring organi- zation originally founded 1896 as Ameri- Architrave can Society for Testing Materials. The beam or lowest division of the en- tablature in the classical orders, spanning Axed (British) from column to column. The decorated Hand-dressed stone surface showing fine- surrounds of a or at the to-course, generally linear toolmarks made Arris head and jamb. by , pick or bush .

23-2 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America B A dark colored, igneous rock commer- Back Anchor cially known as when fabricated Any of a variety of anchors that extends as dimension stone. The fine-grained and from the back surface of a stone panel, extrusive equivalent of . as opposed to anchors that penetrate the edges of a stone panel. In masonry, the bottom course of a stone , or the vertical first member above Backer Rod grade or a finished floor. A flexible and compressible type of closed Coursed Ashlar cell , butyl rubber, or Basic open-cell or closed-cell polyurethane, In geology, one of four subdivisions used to classify igneous rocks based on silica rounded at surface to contact sealant. content: acidic, intermediate, basic and The backer rod is positioned within the ultra-basic. Said of igneous rock contain- so as to maintain appropriate depth ing relatively low silica content (approx. and crosssectional shape of the . 45 to 50%). Back-parging Batted Work (British) The process of slathering the back of an Hand-dressed stone surface scored top adhered stone unit with an ma- to bottom in narrow parallel strikes, using a batting . Strokes may be vertical Random Ashlar terial to reduce or eliminate voids in ad- (in which case the surface may be called hesive contact. Also used in or tooled) or oblique, and may range from with the application of . 8 to 10 per . Batting is also called Also referred to as “back-buttering.” “broad tooling,” “droving,” or “angle dunting.” Backsplash Bearing Check A vertical covering of the wall where a A slot, generally not continuous, cut into surface meets the wall sur- the back or bed of dimension stone to face, designed to protect the wall from allow entry of a supporting angle or clip. moisture. Backsplashes range from a few Bed Joint in height to “full height backsplashes” A horizontal joint between stones, usually that extend from the countertop surface filled with mortar or sealant. Backer Rod to the underside of the upper cabinets. Bed 1. The top or bottom of a joint, natural Back-up Structure bed; surface of stone parallel to its A structural support wall erected behind stratification. stone or facing. 2. In and , a layer or sheet Baluster of the rock mass that is frequently horizontal, commonly curved and A short post or vertical member in a lenticular, as developed by . series that supports a railing or Sometimes also applied to the surface forming a balustrade. Balusters are tradi- of parting between rock sheets. tionally decorative forms that are turned 3. In stratified rocks, the unit layer formed Bearing Check on a lathe. by ; of variable thickness, Balustrade and commonly tilted or distorted by A railing system with top rail, balusters subsequent deformation.It generally and bottom rail. develops a rock , parting, or along the planes of stratification. Band Course See string course. Bedding Plane of sedimentary stone in the position Banker of its original formation. This plane may Bench of timber or stone (may be a single be horizontal, coincident with block) on which stone is worked. slopes, or random. Bedding Plane

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-3 Bedrock Block General term referring to the rock un- See block. derlying other unconsolidated material, such as . A fine- to medium-grain, quartz based Belt Course stone of the U.S. Appalachian . A continuous horizontal course, marking The stone is well known for relatively a division in the wall plane. easy cleavage along generally flat planes, Bench making it a common choice for naturally Steps formed in a quarry by removal of cleft products such as . The term stone. Also, a long seat of cubic stone. “bluestone” may be used in other parts of . A term describing the intersection the world to describe very dissimilar re- of two surfaces meeting at an angle other gional products. than 90 degrees. Bollard Black Granite A free standing stone post or guard. Rock species known to petrologists as di- abase, , gabbro and other varieties Bond quarried as dimension stone. As dimen- 1. of joints in successive courses. sion blocks or slabs, they are valued spe- 2. To stick or adhere. cifically for their dark grey to black color when polished. Scientifically, they are far Book Match Pattern removed in composition from true gran- A matching technique where oppo- ites though they may be satisfactorily used site faces of adjacent slabs are exposed, for some of the purposes to which com- producing a repeating mirror image of mercial granites are adapted. They possess the veining trend of the material. Book- an interlocking crystalline texture, but matched material is most commonly unlike granites, they contain little or no polished to allow the greatest visibility of quartz or alkalic feldspar, and are charac- the veining character of the stone. Book Match Pattern terized by an abundance of one or more Border Stone of the common black rock-forming Usually a flat stone used as an edging (chiefly , , material. A border stone is generally used and ). to retain or define the pattern around the Dressing field of paving. A maintenance process required periodi- cally to restore optimum performance Boss of abrasive cutting tools. The In masonry, a roughly shaped stone set to process consists of cutting or grinding project for carving in place. A carved into a softer material which will abrade ornamentation to conceal the jointing at at the matrix and expose new diamond the junction of ribs in a Gothic vault. surfaces. Dressing is frequently done with manufactured dressing sticks, soft brick, Naturally rounded rock fragment larger and some abrasive . than 256 mm diameter. Used for crude Bleed and foundation, generally in mortar. Staining caused by corrosive , oil based putties, mastics, caulking, or Bowing sealing compounds. A warping or curving of a stone unit. Blending The random positioning of adjacent Rock characterized by course, angular veneer panels, floor slabs, or , to fragments, either the result of crushing prevent large regions of uniform color, and recementing essentially in place, or contrasted by adjacent large regions of deposition of angular pieces that become dissimilar uniform color. consolidated. Numerous marbles owe

23-4 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America their distinctive appearance to the BSI brecciation caused by . (Building Stone Institute) Italian for, “broken stones, .” A trade association of quarriers, fabrica- Brecciated Marble tors, dealers, and others working with Any marble composed of angular natural stone. Founded in 1919, sponsor fragments. of the Tucker Architectural Awards. Crane Bugged Finish A hoisting system that consists of a hoist, A smooth finish produced in by normally using cables, which moves on grinding with power . a beam or “bridge” spanning an open- Building Stone ing between two rails. The hoist moves Rock material in its natural state of com- laterally along the bridge and the bridge position and aggregation as it exists in the moves longitudinally along the rails, quarry and is usable in construction allowing the hoist to be over any position as dimension building stone. Also used within the rectangle contained within the interchangeably with the term dimension lengths of the two rails. stone. Bridge Polisher Bullnose A single polishing that Convex rounding of a stone edge, such as travels along a beam, or “bridge”, which a stair tread or countertop. travels atop two rails. Also known as a “gantry” polisher. Bush Hammering Bullnose Bridge Saw A process which produces textured A saw that travels along a beam, or surfaces with small evenly spaced pits “bridge”, which travels atop two rails. produced by hand or pneumatic hammer. These are typically powerful and The spacing between the pits is often fitted with large diameter . A defined as “6-cut,” “4-cut,” etc. rotating is positioned below the saw, allowing for skew cuts, and the saw An external corner formed by two stone arbor typically rotates, allowing for panels with one finished edge in a lap angled cuts. joint configuration. Broach Buttering 1. To or cut out material left Placing mortar on stone units with a Butt Joint between closely spaced drill holes. before setting them into position. 2. A mason’s sharp-pointed for dressing stone. C 3. An inclined piece of masonry filling the triangular space between the base Limestone composed predominantly of of an octagonal spire and the top of a cemented sand-size grains of the square tower. (more rarely ), usually 4. A type of chisel used for working as fragments of shells or other skeletal narrow surfaces. structures. Some contain (small, spherical grains of A trade term applied to ferruginous dark carbonate that resemble fish eggs) and brown and reddish-brown arkosic quartz may be termed oolitic limestone. Cal- based stone extensively used for construc- careous sandstones, in which the calcium tion in the U.S. during the 19th century. carbonate is present chiefly as bonding Brushed Finish material, are not included in this category. A subtly textured surface finish achieved by wet brushing a stone with a coarse Refers to substances containing or com- rotary-type abrasive brush. posed of .

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-5 Calcite Carve A common rock forming mineral. The To shape a solid material such as stone by chief constituent of limestone and precisely cutting it with a tool. most marble. Caulk Calcite Limestone To seal a joint with an elastomeric, adhe- Limestone containing not more than five sive compound. percent of carbonate. Cavity Vent Calcite Marble An opening in joints of stone veneer to al- Cantilever A crystalline variety of limestone containing low the passage of air and moisture from not more than 5% of . inside the wall cavity to the exterior. The Calcite Streaks vents may be weep holes, tubing, White or milky streaks occurring in or wicks. stone. It is a joint plane usually wider than Cavity Wall a seam which has been recemented A multi-wythe masonry wall built with a by deposition of calcite in the crack. It is continuous cavity between the outer ma- structurally sound. sonry, typically brick or stone, and the Calibration inner wall, typically concrete block or Within the , the process in frame construction. The cavity is vented Overhang which stone slabs or units are abraded to reduce the amount of condensate that to achieve a more precise thickness will collect in the space, and is wept to tolerance (±1mm) than what would provide an evacuation path for any mois- normally be produced by standard sawing ture that collects within the space. techniques. The term is most frequently used in the production of stone , which Cement Putty or Butter must have limited thickness variation to See neat cement. allow installation using thinset adhesive. Chamfer The term is essentially synony- A flat treatment, produced by either mous, although is more commonly used Cap or Capital grinding or cutting, to eliminate the sharp to describe less precise techniques. edge where two surfaces meet. Canopy Chat Sawn Finish A sheltering roof, as over a niche or a A rough, gang-sawn finish produced by doorway. sawing with coarse . Cantera A volcanic, quartz based stone with quali- Hard, dense composed ties similar to adoquin, but not as dense. Quarried in Mexico. of interlocking quartz and pos- sibly amorphous silica (). Synony- Cantilever mous with “”. A structural member supported at only one Caulk end. The term is loosely used, although Chiseled Edge not technically correct, to describe an The rustic, aged appearance produced by overhang. mechanically chipping the stone edge. Cap or Capital Cladding The culminating stone at the top of a col- Exterior veneer stone covering. Non-load umn or pilaster, often richly carved. bearing stone veneer used as the facing material in exterior wall construction. A weak acid with the formula H2CO3. It is Clast also a name sometimes given to An individual grain or constituent of a Chamfer of dioxide in water. sedimentary rock.

23-6 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Cleavage Column The ability of a rock mass to break along A vertical support, usually consisting of a natural surfaces; a surface of natural base, shaft, and capital. parting. Compressive Strength Cleavage Plane (ASTM C170) Plane or planes along which a stone may A measure of the resistance of the stone likely break or delaminate. to crushing loads, generally tested per ASTM C170. Cleft Finish Rough-surfaced stones such as or sandstones that are cleaved or separated A coarse-grained sedimentary rock, with along a natural seam are referred to as clast grains larger than 2 mm. natural cleft. Construction (cold) Joint Closer (British) The joint between two separate place- 1. In equidimensional stone masonry, a ments of concrete. stone trimmed to non-uniform length Contractor, stone to close a course next to a quoin or Company or person that erects and other end unit. installs fabricated dimension stone. 2. A stone course running from one Control Joint Column window to another (a variety A partial depth joint that is either of string course). formed or sawed in concrete to control CNC Machine the location and frequency of shrinkage cracking. A computer numeric controlled, multi- axis, vertical spindle machine designed to Conveyor use rotating and profiling tools to A general term, often used interchange- produce shapes, cut outs, holes, finishes, ably with belt conveyor, but applicable and various other operations in stone that to all conveyor types including pans, Control Joint are otherwise accomplished by more screws, buckets, pneumatics, radial labor intensive techniques. stackers and others. Coping A dimension stone large enough for use A stone used as a cap on freestanding in paving. A term commonly used to de- walls. scribe paving blocks, usually granite, and generally cut or cleft to approximately Limestone composed predominantly of rectangular prisms. shells or fragments of shells loosely Colonnade cemented by calcite. Coquina is coarse A range of columns supporting an entab- textured and has a high . The Coping lature or one side of a roof. term is applied principally to a very porous rock quarried in . Color Enhancer/Sealer A product that is designed to enrich, Corbel brighten and enhance the color and/or A projection or bracket extending from character of the stone. Stone enhancers the face of a wall to support an element are more frequently used on honed or above it. textured surfaces where the stone color Core and/or character are muted by the finish. The cylindrical mass of stone that results Enhancers are also used to match the from a hole in stone with a color of an exposed slab edge to that of a hollow core bit, often times is used as a resin treated slab face. sampling technique in .

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-7 Core bit Cross-bedding A hollow cylindrical drilling tool that The arrangement of of strata bores a hole by abrading only the perimeter transverse or oblique to the main planes of the core, utilizing less abrasive than a of stratification. bit that would abrade the entire diameter Cross-cut of the hole. The process of cutting the initial block Cornice Core sampling of stone parallel to the natural bedding A drilling process by which a section of plane. The effect is a mottled or cloudlike rock is taken for the purposes of testing appearance. Synonymous with fleuri cut, and evaluation. although the term cross cut is most often Cornerstone used when describing travertine materials. A ceremonial stone at an exterior corner Crowfoot of a building, generally engraved with See . pertinent information about the build- Cubic Stone ing’s construction, including the date. Dimension units more than 2 inches thick Also used to describe a masonry stone e.g., cubic limestone, cubic marble. Coursed Veneer unit erected at an exterior corner from which lines can be strung to control the Cultured Marble linear position of subsequent stone units. An artificial, manmade product some- Cornice what resembling marble. Any projecting ornamental that Cup Wheel crowns or finishes the top of a building Shop tool used to remove large amounts or wall. of material from the edge of a stone. Course These can be used to aid in the creation of A horizontal range of stone units the edge profiles and larger radii. length of a wall. Curbing Coursed Veneer Stone, generally in cubic forms, border- Cove Base A veneer achieved by using stones of the ing streets, walks, etc. Sometimes spelled same or approximately the same height “kerbing.” with stones that achieve that height in Cure Time multiple courses. Some horizontal joints The time required for a chemical reac- run the entire length of the veneered area. tion (polymerization or hydration) to be Vertical joints are constantly broken, so that completed in a sealant, concrete, mortar, no two joints will be over one another. or other construction element until the Cove Base finished visual and performance attri- A concave stone molding. See base. butes are developed. Cove Molding Curtain Wall A concave molding, typically found at A non-bearing exterior stone cladding Cove Molding the sloped or arched junction of a wall supported by an anchoring system. Used and ceiling. to protect a building from the elements. Crack Cushion A man-made break, split, , sepa- A resilient pad placed between adjoining ration, cleavage, or elongated narrow stone units and other materials to absorb opening, visible without magnification to or distribute loads. the human and extending from the Cut Stone surface into the stone, which must extend Currently, stone that has been fabricated through the grain or matrix of the stone. to a finished size and configuration and Cramp ready to be installed. Historically, the A U-shaped metal anchor used to hold term “cut stone” was used to describe Cramp two adjacent units of stone together. limestone products.

23-8 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Cycle Time Digital Layout Application Time for a machine to complete one Software designed to allow CAD drawing cycle, i.e., load, haul, dump, return. files to be used with scaled digital pho- D tographs to allow a fabricator to preplan the layout of his slab or tile project prior Damp Proofing to cutting. One or more of a compound that is impervious to water. Usually applied to Digital Templating the back or face of the stone or the back A process for virtual, digital of the wall at or near grade. of site conditions which eliminates the need to make physical templates. Digital Dead Load templating information can be interfaced Permanent gravity induced loads, such with various CAD and CNC systems to as those developed by the structure, fin- allow rapid transfer and utilization of the ishes, and permanently affixed elements. information. See also live load. Dentil Dimension Stone Curtain Wall Block projections on an entablature. A natural stone product that has been cut, machined, and/or finished to specific size Dentil Course or shape. Mold course immediately below the cornice, comprising of small, uniformly spaced blocks referred to as “dentils.” 1. The mineral form of calcium- Derrick magnesium carbonate. Constituent Diamond Match A hoisting device, usually made up of a of some building . guyed mast and hinged boom with pulleys 2. A crystalline variety of limestone and cables. containing in excess of 40 percent Diamond magnesium carbonate as the A carbon based mineral, usually man- dolomite . made, used as an abrasive in stone cut- Also called “dolostone”. ting equipment. Dolomitic Limestone Diamond Match Limestone that contains more than 10 Die A vein matching technique in which percent but less than 80 percent of the contiguous faces of adjacent slabs are mineral dolomite. “unfolded” about two perpendicular , producing a vein pattern which has Dolostone approximate about a point. See entry 2 under dolomite. Dovetail Slot Diamond Wire Saw Dovetail Slot A machine using cable of various diameters A continuous with a trapezoid and lengths, impregnated with diamond section resembling a dove’s tail. dust or more commonly fitted with Dowel cylindrical diamond coated segments. A short piece of cylindrical nonferous Diamond wire saws are used in quarrying, metal used as a stone anchor. slabbing, and contour sawing operations. Dowel Die Drafted Margin (British) A covering layer of interior stone from Tooled border around the face of a stone. wainscot to ceiling. Also called “margin draft”. Digital Inventory Management Dressing A software and camera system allowing The shaping and squaring of natural stone fabricators and distributors to have a pho- blocks for storage and shipment. Some- tographic inventory of their materials. times called “scabbing”. Drafted Margin

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-9 Drill Rigs Edge Chiseling Tool used in quarry operations to Tool with jaws used to create a bore holes in a linear path to facilitate “pitched”, “quarry”, or “chiseled” edge separation of the stone loaf from its without using a hammer and chisel. insitu position. Edge Profile Drip The specific contour to which an exposed A groove or slot cut beneath and slightly edge has been shaped, normally for deco- behind the forward edge of a projecting rative purposes. stone member, such as a sill, lintel or cop- Efflorescence ing to cause water to at that location A deposit, in the form of a white and prevent water from running down powder residue that forms on the surface the face of the wall of stone, brick, or mortar. It is caused by Drip Stone leached from the masonry or soil A projecting molding over the heads of and carried to the surface by moisture doorways, windows and archways to throw Elevation off the rain. Also known as a “hoodmold” A drawing of the vertical faces and and, when rectangular, as a “label”. elements of a structure, either interior or Dry Seam exterior. Drip and Drip Stone A naturally occurring unhealed fracture Encrinal Marble in stone which may be a plane of weakness. Marble deriving decoration from Dry (encrinites) or shells. In construction, a self- Engineered Stone supporting wall erected without mortar. A manmade product composed of a blend Dual Finish of natural minerals (generally quartz) and Multiple contrasting finishes, such as manmade agents (such as polyester, glass, thermal and polished, on one piece of stone. , and other such ingredients). Entablature Durability Entablature The measure of the ability of natural A composite beam member carried by building stone to endure and to maintain columns and made up of an architrave its essential and distinctive characteristics (bottom), frieze (middle), and cornice of strength, resistance to decay, and (top). appearance, while exposed to the ele- ments encountered in its application Entasis environment. The slight convexity designed in a col- umn shaft for aesthetic purposes. This is Dutchman done intentionally to offset the per- 1. A small piece of stone inserted as ceived illusion of concavity of a perfectly a patch in a larger piece of dimension straight shafted column. stone. Epoxy Resin 2. A small piece of stone inserted in an ashlar wall. A flexible, usually exothermic curing resin made by the polymerization of an E epoxide; used as an adhesive. Eased Edge Erection A slightly arrised, chamfered, or radiused The process of setting vertical dimension edge to eliminate the sharpness of the stone into place. fabricated stone edge. Etched Eaves A decorative surface pattern created by The underside of a sloping roof that over- a variety of methods, produced either by Entasis hangs a wall. chemical or mechanical methods.

23-10 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Exfoliation Peeling or scaling of stone surfaces caused A naturally occurring, irregularly shaped by chemical or physical . stone, as found in a field, used for various Expansion Anchor or Bolt building applications without further A socket that grips a drilled hole in con- fabrication. Field stone are commonly crete by expanding as a tapered bolt is used in freestanding walls, veneers, walk- drawn into it. ways, and garden bed linings. Expansion/Contraction Joint Strip Expansion Anchor or Bolt A flexible joint between stone units designed See backer rod. to expand or contract to accommodate Filling movements due to temperature change A trade expression used to indicate the or dynamic structural movement. filling of natural voids in stone units with Exposed Face or synthetic resins and similar The visible side of any stone element. materials. F Fines Fabricated The powder, dust, and - or sand-sized Used in reference to dimension stone, material resulting from processing, usu- it means having undergone cutting, ally crushing, stone. Expansion/Contraction Joint machining, or other processes in order Finish to refine the product for its intended Process applied to the exposed surfaces application manufactured and ready for of dimension stone during fabrication installation. to achieve the desired aesthetic and/or Face performance characteristics of the stone. The exposed surface of stone on a structure. The finish may be applied early or late in the fabrication sequence. Fascia Any flat horizontal member, generally Fissure between moldings, most frequently used An industry term describing any naturally when referring to elements of a classical occurring separation along crystalline architecture cornice. boundaries visible in exposed surface of Feed Rate the stone. Note that the industry use of The rate of speed with which routing, this term is different than the scientific, cutting, or sawing blades and bits travel as geological use of this term. they are cutting the material. Flagstone Feldspar Thin slabs of stone with irregular shapes A group of crystalline minerals, all and split edges used for paving surfaces of aluminum with potassium, sodium, such as walks, driveways, and patios. The calcium, or barium. An essential constituent term is used to describe any stone used in of nearly all crystalline rocks. this pattern, although is most often used to describe sedimentary stones that have Ferruginous been cleft into their final thickness. Said of limestone or sandstone containing a high proportion of . Flamed Finish See Thermal Finish. Backing A fine grid mesh reinforcement that is Fleuri adhered to the back surface of stone slabs The mottled random effect obtained which have limited stability. The primary when slabs of certain stone varieties are intent of this reinforcement is to reduce sawn parallel to their natural bedding safety risks in the handling of fragile slabs. planes. See also Cross Cut. Fleuri

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-11 Fleuri Cut Gallet (British) To cut slabs of quarried stone parallel to A stone chip or spall. the natural bedding plane. Gang Saw Flexural Strength A mechanical device employing a series A bending strength test, normally per- of parallel reciprocating saw blades to cut formed per the ASTM C880 test method, stone blocks into slabs of predetermined in which a sample of stone of the project thickness. The most common variety of thickness is supported by two support gang saw used in the stone industry uses a rods creating a span of at least 10 times slurry containing shot as the abrasive the thickness, and loaded to failure by two medium; but diamond segments mount- rods positioned at points of the ed to steel blades are commonly used in span. The results are reported as the gang sawing softer stone such as marble experienced by the stone sample at the or limestone. time of specimen failure, and expressed as Gauge a per unit area (lbs/in² or pascals). Any process, although most frequently See also modulus of rupture. grinding, done to reduce the effects of the tolerances of stone slab thickness. Gaug- ing may be done to a precise thickness Stone used as an interior pedestrian with a specific tolerance, or may simply walking surface. be done to two or more stones until the Flute thickness of the lot is uniform. One of series of shallow, concave, parallel See also calibrate. grooves running vertically on the shaft of Glass Seam a column, pilaster, or other surface. A trade term in the limestone industry Fracture for a former fracture or parting that has Any break or separation of fabric within been naturally recemented and annealed the stone as a result of mechanical stress. by deposition of transparent calcite. Simi- Flute Freestone lar to calcite streak, but transparent. A stone that may be cut freely in any Compare with dry seam. direction without fracture or splitting. Gloss Meter Also called “universal stone.” See isotropic. An instrument designed to measure the Frieze reflectivity of a surface. 1. A decorated band along the upper part of an interior wall. Coarse-grained, with 2. The middle member of the entablature, discontinuous caused by planar located above the architrave and alignment of plate and lath-shaped minerals. below the cornice. When used for building stone, generally Front-end Loader classed as trade granite. Most gneiss is A heavy equipment earth moving ma- dark and composed mainly of quartz, Frieze with a hydraulically powered bucket feldspar, and ferromagnesian min- on two booms (or arms) extending in eral (iron-magnesium silicates). front of the tractor portion of the ma- Grain chine. The bucket may be replaced with 1. A quarry term for a plane of parting other devices to accomplish specific tasks in a metamorphic rock, e.g. ; the in stone quarrying operations. direction along which a stone is more G easily broken, split, or cut. The main Gabbro direction of the mineral composition A group of dark-colored basic intrusive and arrangement in stone. igneous rocks composed chiefly of labra- 2. A very small (less than a few mil- dorite or bytownite and . It is the limeters diameter) particle of rock, approximate intrusive equivalent of basalt. such as a sand grain.

23-12 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America 3. A general or descriptive term used Greenstone to describe the relative size of - A metamorphic rock, typically with poorly line rock components, as in defined granularity, ranging in color “fine-grained” and “course-grained.” from medium- or yellowish-green Granite (commercial definition) to black. Refer to greenstone group in A term that includes granite (as defined ASTM C119. below) plus gneiss, gneissic granite, gran- Grind ite gneiss, and the rock species known to To remove portions of stone material by petrologists as , , and any abrasive method. Grinding may be , species intermediate be- part of producing a finish, shaping a pro- tween them, the gneissic varieties and , achieving a specific dimension, creat- of corresponding mineralogic ing flatness between adjacently installed compositions and the corresponding va- pieces, or part of a restorative effort. rieties of textures. The term commercial granite shall also include other 1. A mixture of cementitious material feldspathic crystalline rocks of similar and water, with or without aggregate, textures, containing minor amounts of proportioned to produce a plastic accessory minerals, used for special decorative purposes, and known to consistency without segregation of the petrologists as anorthosite and . constituents; also a mixture of other composition but of similar consistency. Granite (scientific definition) 2. To place and tool grout in the joints A visibly granular, crystalline rock of pre- of stonework. dominantly interlocking texture com- 3. In quarrying: a term describing the posed essentially of alkalic and product of the quarry which is quartz. Feldspar is generally present in unusable for dimension stone, excess of quartz, and accessory miner- als (chiefly , hornblende, or more often piled near the extraction site. rarely ) are commonly present. Guillotine The alkalic feldspars may be present (1) A device used for cutting stone slabs to as individual mineral species, (2) as iso- sizes by means of driven by morphous or mechanical intergrowths hydraulic pressure. The resultant fracture with each other, or (3) as chemical inter- is of low precision, with a ragged, chipped growths with the lime feldspar molecule, appearance. but 80 + 3% of the feldspar must be composed of the or soda feldspar H . Granite Rock salt; the mineral form of sodium A very hard, crystalline, igneous rock, (NaCl); a sedimentary rock. gray to pink in color, composed of feldspar, Hardness quartz, and lesser amounts of dark ferro- In stones, hardness most frequently refers magnesium materials. Gneiss and black to stone’s resistance to abrasion, particu- “granites” are similar to true granites in larly abrasion due to foot traffic, as tested structure and texture, but are composed by either ASTM C241 or C1353. In min- of different minerals. Commercial and erals, hardness generally refers to the scientific definitions of the granite group mineral’s rank within the Moh’s Scale of are explained in detail in ASTM C119. Mineral Hardness. Granular Head Stones having a texture characterized by The exposed surface of the jointed end particles that are apparent to the unaided of any given piece of stone with a gauged eye. For sedimentary rocks, particles less dimension not more than the minimum than 4 inches in diameter and approxi- thickness of the material specified. Also mately equal in size. known as “return head.”

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-13 Hearth Incise 1. The floor of a together with To cut inwardly or engrave, especially in an adjacent area of fire-resistant a “V” shaped profile, as in an inscription. material that extends into the room. Inscription 2. An area permanently floored with Lettering cut in stone. fire-resistant material beneath and surrounding a stove. Isolation joint A joint separating a concrete slab from Hearth Stone another element, such as a column or wall. Originally the single large stone or stones J Hearth used for the hearth, now most commonly used to describe the stone in front of the Joint fire chamber and many times extending A space between installed stone units or on either or both sides of the front of the between a dimension stone and the fire chamber. adjoining material. Honed Jointing Scheme A satin-smooth surface finish with little The intentional pattern created by the or no gloss. direction and position of stone joints as Hysteresis, thermal determined by the design professional for A residual or permanent volume change aesthetic reasons. in stones after the temperature has been K normalized, generally causing the stone panel to bow. Most commonly associated A hydrous aluminum mineral. Kerf with fine grained true marbles used in thin panel applications. Kerf 1. A slot, either local or continuous, cut I into the edge of a stone with a saw Igneous blade for insertion of anchors. Any of the various volcanic rocks, 2. The width of a cut when sawing solidified after the molten state, such as through stone blocks or jointing slabs. granite. Igneous is one of the three main rock classifications. Compare with meta- Keystone morphic and sedimentary. The central stone of an arch, sometimes sculpted or otherwise embellished. ILIA (Indiana Limestone Institute of America) L A trade organization established for the dissemination of information on lime- Two or more thicknesses of stone slab Keystone stone standards, recommended practices, adhered together at an exposed edge, grades, colors, finishes, and all technical usually in decorative work such as coun- data required for specifying, detailing, tertops, creating an aesthetic effect that fabricating, and erecting Indiana Lime- suggests that the stone is thicker than stone. Publishers of the Indiana Lime- it actually is. Laminated edges may be stone Handbook and other technical dressed or profiled to a variety of shapes publications, founded in 1928. for additional decorative value. Impregnators Any applied repellent that penetrates the An acronym for Light Amplification by stone and resides below the plane of the Stimulated Emission of Radiation, which finished surface. Impregnators may be produces an intense narrow beam of co- hydrophobic (water-repellent), oliophobic herent, monochromatic light. are (oil repellent), or both, and are used in used in the stone industry for a variety some stone varieties to increase stain of cutting machine alignment aids, layout Lamination resistance. aids, and leveling instruments.

23-14 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Lathe Lintel Any machine that spins a block or mul- A horizontal stone spanning over the tiple blocks of material about a horizontal opening of a door, window, or other axis for the purposes of creating shapes opening that acts as a beam to carry the that have symmetry about the axis of weight of the wall above it. rotation, such as columns, balusters, and urns. Lippage The planar offset of the finished surfaces Lewis Buttons of two adjacent stone units. Although not often used in modern masonry construction, these were small Live Load shims made of lead or similar malleable The portion of a load on a structural metal alloys used in horizontal joints to member that is variable, such as occu- support the stones until the mortar has set. pants, furniture, traffic, and wind. See also Dead Load. Lewis Lewis Pin A lifting device consisting of multiple sec- Load Cell tions of metal forming a tapered shape An electronic device (transducer) that which is inserted into a dovetail shaped emits an electric signal based on the force preparation cut into the stone. Although applied to the device. uncommon in current industry use, lewis Lug Sill lifters were frequently used for hoisting In stone masonry, a sill that projects into quarry blocks or for heavy, cubic sections the jambs of a window or door opening of finished stone work. Also known as (compare slip sill). “box lewis.” M Lewis Pin Liner A pin, usually with an eye at the upper Machine Finish end, used in pairs and fitted to holes In limestone, the generally recognized drilled at opposing angles in cubic stones standard machine finish produced by the for hoisting purposes. planers. Also known as “machine smooth” Limestone or “planar” finish. A sedimentary rock composed primarily Maintenance of calcite or dolomite. The varieties of Cleaning and/or other remedial activity limestone used as dimension stone are performed on a scheduled basis: daily, usually well consolidated and exhibit a weekly, etc. in order to remove dirt, dust Lintel minimum of graining or bedding direction. and other contaminants that degrade the See definition of limestone group in stone’s appearance and/or performance. ASTM C119. Marble Line (edge) Polisher A metamorphic crystalline rock com- A large production machine which utilizes posed predominantly of crystalline grains one or more spindles to achieve a finished of calcite, dolomite, or serpentine, and edge profile on a piece of stone as it is fed capable of taking a polish. Commercial through a conveying line. and scientific definitions of the marble Lippage Liners group are explained in detail in ASTM C119. An additional block or strip of stone ad- hered and doweled to the back face of a Marble (commercial definition) stone panel for the purpose of providing a A crystalline rock, capable of taking horizontal surface which can be supported a polish, and composed of one or more by a shelf angle. The liner material may of the minerals calcite, dolomite, and or may not be of the same stone species serpentine. Commercial and scientific as the panel. Also known as “liner block” definitions of the marble group are or “cleat.” explained in detail in ASTM C119. Lug Sill

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-15 Marble Institute of America Mockup (MIA) A sample section of stonework that is An international trade association whose installed, often including other related membership is composed of producers, construction components, for the pur- fabricators, contractors, exporters, im- pose of obtaining designer and owner porters, distributors, sales agents, and approval prior to commencement of vendors who provide products and/or quarrying, fabricating, or installation of services to the dimension stone industry stonework. The mockup may be indepen- and building owners. MIA traces its roots dent of the project or may be part of the back to the National Association of Marble project and remain in place as part of the Dealers, founded in 1907, which joined completed work. with the National Association of Marble Producers in 1944 to form the Marble Modular Institute of America (MIA). The National Refers to standard used throughout Association of Marble Builders merged the stone industry that are usually based with MIA in 1962. on multiples of a given height or size. Masonry 1. Built up construction, usually individ- Modulus of Elasticity ual units set in mortar. Tested per ASTM C1352, the ratio of 2. That branch of construction dealing stress to corresponding linear strain of with , concrete construction, a material, expressed as a force per unit and the laying up of stone, brick, tile area (lbs/in² or pascals), and used as a and other such units with mortar. measure of a material’s stiffness. Also known as “Young’s Modulus.” Metamorphic Rock Rock altered in appearance, , Modulus of Rupture crystalline structure, and in some cases, A bending strength test, normally mineral composition, by high tempera- performed per the ASTM C99 test ture and intense pressure. Includes slate method, in which a small sample of stone derived from shale, quartz based stone from quartzitic sand, and true marble (8” x 4” x 2¼”) is supported by two sup- from limestone. port rods, and loaded to failure by a third rod positioned at the center of the span. Metamorphism The results are reported as the stress ex- The change or alteration in a rock caused by exterior agencies, such as deep-seated perienced by the stone sample at the time heat and pressure, or intrusion of rock of specimen failure, and expressed as a materials. force per unit area (lbs/in² or pascals). Microcrystalline See also flexural strength. Said of a stone that consists largely or Moh’s Scale wholly of crystals that are so small as to A relative scale of mineral hardness devel- be recognizable only under magnification. oped by German Mineralogist Friedrich Milling Mohs in 1822 ranking ten common min- In the stone industries, comprehensive erals by their scratch resistance. term for processing quarry blocks through sawing, planning, turning and Moldings cutting techniques to finished stone. Decorative stone deviating from a plane Miter surface by projections, curved profiles, Any condition of stone veneer, coping, recesses or any combination thereof. paving strips, etc, where a corner condi- tion is accomplished by two stones with Monolithic angular cuts, with the angles of the cuts Shaped from a single block of stone, being equal to the bisection of the total in contrast to a unit that was created by Miter angle. See also quirk miter. using multiple units of stone.

23-16 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Mortar posed of granite producers in the United A mixture of cement paste and fine aggre- States. Collectively, these companies gate used in setting stone units or filling provide a major portion of the domes- joints between stone units. Mortar may tically quarried architectural granite contain masonry cement, or may contain produced in the U.S. hydraulic cement with lime (and possibly Neat Cement other admixtures) to afford greater plas- A fluid mixture of and ticity and workability than are attainable water, with or without other ingredients; with standard portland cement mortar. also the hardened equivalent of such mix- ture. Commonly used in a thick, creamy A decorative installation, usually a graphic consistency to parge the stone surfaces or artwork display, made up of an assem- and strengthen the bond between a stone blage of small units of different colored and a setting bed. Also called “cement but- stones or glass to create the total image ter,” “cement paste” and “cement cream.” or pattern. See also back parging and parge. Movement Joint Niche In tile installations, a joint where only A recess in an interior or exterior wall the finish material is separated by an usually for a or an urn, often semi- elastomeric filler, and the is circular in design. uninterrupted. Also known as a “generic NIOSH movement joint.” The National Institute for Occupational MSDS Safety and Health The abbreviation for Material Safety Data Nonstaining Mortar Sheet. The information required by OSHA’s Mortar composed of materials which in- Hazard Standard (HCS) dividually or collectively do not contain to convey hazardous information to material that will stain the adjacent mate- downstream customers. rials to which it comes in contact. Mullion Notch A structural unit that separates two A V-shaped cut made on the edge or head window units of a stone. N NTCA Natural Bed (National Tile Contractors Association) The horizontal stratification of stone as it A trade association whose active mem- was formed in the deposit. bership consists of and stone Natural Cleft tile installation contractors in the United Stone that is split (cleaved) parallel to its States, with an associate membership of stratification, yielding a surface that is ir- those who supply products and services regular to a degree that corresponds with to the industry. Founded in 1947. the flatness of the material’s layering. O Natural Stone A product of nature. A stone such as granite, A glassy of . marble, limestone, slate, travertine, or sandstone that is formed by nature, and is Off Fall not artificial or manmade. Also “fall off.” See Remnant. NBGQA The abbreviation for the National Build- A stone molding roughly resembling an ing Granite Quarries Association, a trade “S” shape, with a reverse curved edge: association whose membership is com- concave above, convex below. Ogee

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-17 P A frequently translucent and generally layered, calcite with Palletize colors in pastel shades, particularly off To stack and secure stone units to a pallet white, yellow, tan, and green. Commer- for ease, safety, and efficiency in handling cial definitions of onyx are given in ASTM and transport. C119 as part of the marble group. Panel Oolitic Limestone A term used to describe either a single A calcite-cemented calcareous stone unit of fabricated stone veneer, or a preas- formed of shells and shell fragments, sembled panel including multiple stone practically noncrystalline in character. units affixed to a structural panel frame- It is found in massive deposits located work. almost entirely in Lawrence, Monroe, Parapet and Owen Counties, Indiana; and in Ala- A low wall along the edge of a terrace, bama, Kansas, and Texas. This limestone roof, or balcony, which is usually simply is characteristically a freestone, without the extension of the exterior wall below it. cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable Parge uniformity of composition, texture, and To apply a thin coat of mortar, thin-set, neat structure. cement, or other bonding agent to the Overhang Open-faced Quarry back of stone units, or to the face of the A quarry with relatively large lateral ex- backup material, normally for the pur- panse when compared to its depth, in pose of reducing the voids, increasing contrast to traditional derrick quarries bond strength, or waterproofing. See also which had relatively short lateral dimen- back parging and neat cement. sions and great depths. Patina OSHA The change in color or texture of the The acronym for Occupational Safety and surface of natural stone due to age or ex- Health Administration. posure to various elements Out-crop Paver That part of a geologic formation or A single unit of fabricated stone for use as structure that protrudes above or at an exterior paving material. ground level. Paving Outriggers Stone used as an exterior wearing surface, A temporary support extending from as in patios, walkways, driveways, etc. Pedestal machinery, such as cranes, to provide Pedestal greater stance width and improve stability In classical architecture, the support for when handling loads with extended boom a column or statue, consisting of a base, lengths. , and cap. Overburden Pediment Waste stone, earth or other material cov- The gable end of a roof in classical architec- ering the deposit of stone which must be ture. Located above a horizontal cornice removed to gain access to the desired stone. member, it comprises the raking cornices Overhang and the tympanum. It is typically triangular, The portion of a stone that protrudes past but can also be curved when applied as a the surface on which it is set. decorative element over windows. Pediment PEL A relatively strong acid that is used, typi- Permissible Exposure Limit: PELs are cally as an additive to other polishing established and enforced by OSHA to compounds, in the polishing of many protect workers against the health effects marbles and limestones. of overexposure to hazardous substances.

23-18 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Percussion Drilling Plutonic Any method of drilling that includes a Applies to igneous rocks formed beneath combination of hammering blows along the surface of the earth, typically with the longitudinal axis of the bit with ro- large crystals owing to the slowness of tation of the bit. Also called “hammer” cooling. drilling. Pointing Perforated Wall The final filling and finishing of mortar One which contains a considerable joints that have been raked. number of relatively small openings, Polished Finish often called pierced wall or screen wall. A glossy, highly reflective surface finish that brings out the full color and character Pergola of the stone. Garden structure formed by two rows of posts or pillars with joists and open Polishing above, often covered by climbing A process utilizing abrasives in combina- plants and shading a walkway. tion with specific polishing powders and/ or chemicals to produce a glossy, highly reflective surface finish on the stone. One of the relatively large and ordinarily Polishing Compounds Pergola conspicuous crystals of the earliest gen- Any of the powders or chemicals used in eration in a porphyritic igneous rock. addition to the abrasive machine heads Pilaster that are used to achieve a polished finish. A shallow, engaged pier or column Polishing Cream projecting from a wall, only decorative in A polishing compound that is supplied in function. a cream or paste consistency. Pillowed Polishing Pads A tile finish that features softly rounded Small diameter flexible disks with embed- edges, thus giving the tile a pillowed look. ded abrasives used with handheld tools or small portable machines for polishing of Pit Quarry stone. These pads may be used in combi- Below ground-level quarry. nation with compounds, and may be used either wet or dry. Pilaster Pitch Faced A rustic finish for veneer stone created An igneous rock characterized by dis- with a split or chiseled face, and dressed tinct and contrasting sizes of coarse and along the stone’s perimeter to produce fine-grained crystals. Used as a decorative convex projection. See also rock faced. building and/or paving stone. Pitched Stone Portico See pitch faced. A porch formed by a roof supported with Plinth columns, similar to a temple front. 1. The base block at the junction of the Poultice stone base and trim around a door or Any absorbent material (powder, cloth, etc) used in a saturated condition with other opening. Plinth water or based fluids and applied 2. The bottom stone block of a column to a stone surface for the purpose of re- or pedestal. moving embedded stains. Plucked Finish PPE A stone surface produced by setting a The abbreviation for Personal Protective planer blade so deep that it removes stone Equipment, such as protective clothing, by spalling rather than by shaving. safety toe shoes, helmets, goggles, etc.,

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-19 designed to protect the wearer’s body Q from injury from exposures in the work environment. Quarried Stone Stone which has been extracted from Preassembled Units the earth by means of man power and A composite unit consisting of a struc- machines. tural backing, usually steel or concrete, multiple panels of stone, and necessary Quarrier anchorage and connection hardware that Company or person that extracts natural is built off-site and transported to the stone from a quarry. construction site for erection. Quarry Precast 1. The physical site, open or under- In stone facades, refers to a bi-material ground, where stone is extracted panel consisting of multiple stone face units and a concrete backer panel. The from the earth. panel is cast off-site, then transported to 2. The process of extracting stone from the construction site for erection. open pit or underground mine. Pressure Relieving Joint Quarry Block See expansion joint. Generally, a piece of rough stone as it comes from a quarry, generally dressed or Primer wire sawed to the shape of a rectangular 1. A unit or package of ignition devises prism (having three pairs of roughly used to initiate other explosives or parallel faces) for shipment. blasting agents in the quarry. 2. A coat applied to increase Quarry Run bond strength of a joint sealant. A term used by some producers to mean the lot of material has not been culled or Privacy Partition otherwise limited for range of color and/ A thin stone panel between urinals. or features, and includes the entire spec- See urinal screen. trum of material that is yielded by that Producer particular deposit. Company or person that quarries and Quarry Sap supplies dimension stone to the commer- A term used by the limestone industry to cial market. describe the natural moisture in freshly Profile Wheel quarried stone. Any grinding wheel that has convex or concave shapes and can be adapted to a Quartz , hand held grinder, or CNC A dioxide mineral that occurs in machine for the purpose of producing a colorless and transparent or colored hex- desired shape to a stone edge. agonal crystals or in crystalline . One of the hardest minerals of abundance Projections in stones such as sandstone, granite, and Any stone that is installed in a position . outward of the balance of the wall for aesthetic or water control purposes. Quartz Based Stone A dimension stone group that includes Prospecting both sedimentary (as in sandstone) or The practice of locating mineral deposits metamorphic (as in quartzite) stones of commercial value. and are characteristically high in free sil- Pumice ica content. Definitions of the classes of Exceptionally cellular, glassy lava resem- stone which form the quartz based stone bling a solid froth. group are explained in ASTM C119.

23-20 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Quartzite position of the anchor so that it doesn’t A dense, hard metamorphic quartz based occupy any of the joint region, allowing stone typically formed from sandstone. full movement capability of the joint In some deposits, intrusion of minerals dimension. during the formation process creates un- Recess usual coloration. See ASTM C119. Any feature cut into a stone that is set Quartzitic Sandstone back or indented from the balance of the Quirk Miter A variety of sandstone including higher stone surface, either to accommodate an- content of free silica and siliceous cements other element, such as anchorage, or for than typical quartz-based sandstones. aesthetic appeal. Quirk Miter Recrystallized Limestone An external corner formed by two stone A limestone in which a new pattern of panels with beveled (usually 45°) edges has pervasively replaced the and blunted, finished noses to reduce the crystal orientation in the original clastic chipping vulnerability of the sharp edges particles, fossils, or fragments, and that occur with a common miter. interstitial cement. Quoin One of the decorative dressed stones or The process of insitu finishing of existing used at the corner of a building. stonework to return it to its near original Quoins are usually laid so their faces are appearance. alternately large and small. Reglet Raked Joint R A narrow groove cut in stone to receive Rabbet flashing. A groove cut into the surface along an Reinforcement edge so as to receive another piece. Any element, metal, fiberglass, stone, Rain Screen etc. that is embedded in or applied to the A curtain wall system in which the outer stone panel for the purpose of increasing façade shields, or “screens,” rain from strength. infiltrating the wall cavity, but is not actually sealed. The cavity is pressure Relief equalized with the outside air, avoiding Carving or embossing raised above a pressure differences that would other- background plane, as in a bas-relief. Rebated Kerf wise draw water into the cavity. Minor Relieving Arch amounts of water that penetrate the rain One built over a lintel, flat arch or small- screen are evacuated via weep systems de- er arch to divert loads, thus relieving the signed into the system. lower member from excessive loading. Raked Joint Remnant A mortar joint in which the mortar, while A leftover portion of a slab that cannot be still soft, has been scraped back to a specified utilized in the primary project, but is dimension with a square-edged tool. It is salvaged for possible use in another project. Reglet generally used to accentuate the joint due to Reprise the pronounced shadow line produced. The line formed by the intersection of Random Slab two like profiles upon meeting at an inte- A stone slab of length and width that are rior corner. not prespecified, but rather determined Resin by the size of the block from which it Any of a number of clear or translucent was cut. substances, either from plant origin or Rebated Kerf synthetics, used in producing lacquers, A kerf that includes a second cut at 90° , , polyesters, , to the kerf axis which accommodates , etc. Relieving Arch

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-21 Resin Patching Sticks Rock Faced A stone patching material supplied as a A rustic finish for veneer stone created solid substance and installed in a heated with a split or chiseled face, and dressed condition to facilitate flowing into surface along the stone’s perimeter to produce imperfections to be filled. convex projection. See also pitch faced. Resin Polishing Rock A reference to abrasive pads used for hand 1. Geologically, any natural mass of earth Return tool polishing, in which abrasives are em- material that has appreciable extent. bedded in a resin matrix. 2. In , solid Resined Slab that requires mechanical or explosive Slabs that have been treated with a cos- techniques for removal. metic improvement process prior to pol- 3. In the quarry industries, the term ishing, in which a resinous adhesive, usu- stone is more common and means ally epoxy, is applied to the face of the firm, coherent, relatively hard slab, filling various voids in the stone sur- earth material. face. The resin is cured at elevated tem- perature, after which it is polished, allow- Rodding ing the resin to remain in the voids. This A reinforcement technique used princi- produces a more cosmetically attractive pally in countertop fabrication wherein surface without the interruptions of the metal or fiberglass rods are embedded natural defects. into shallow kerfs in the underside of the Restoration stone slab at narrow regions of the coun- Remedial action taken to return an exist- tertop, such as the portion in from of a ing installation of stone to its original or . See reinforcement. acceptable “near original” condition. Roman Arch Return A semicircular arch. If built of stone, all The right-angle turn of a stone surface, units are shaped. either a molding or flat, as in a window Rough Back jamb condition. The outermost slab produced when Return Head slabs are sawn from a block, having one See head. side sawed and the other rough from the Reveal original quarry block face. Also known as “skin.” The exposed portion of a stone between its outer face and a window or door set Rough Sawn Rodding into an opening. A surface finish resulting from the gang or Ribbon wire sawing process. Narrow bands of rock within the quarry Rubbed Finish deposit of contrasting color and/or tex- A stone finish between smooth machine ture due to varying mineralogical compo- finish and honed, obtained by mechanical sition rubbing to a very smooth surface. Rubble Direction in which stone splits most read- A term applied to dimension stone used ily. Term is most commonly used for gran- chiefly for walls and foundations, consist- ite or other stone without visible stratifi- ing of stone units that may be highly irreg- cation or foliation. ular or partly trimmed or squared, gen- erally with one or more split faces, and Large, irregular shaped stones randomly selected and specified with a size range. placed on an embankment to prevent or Rubble stone may be installed randomly Roman Arch minimize soil or coursed.

23-22 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Rustication ized by thin foliae that are composed Any embellishment done to the joints in predominately of minerals of thin platy stonework, either or grooves, or prismatic habits and whose long di- for the purpose of visually accentuating mensions are oriented in approximately the joint by increasing the shadowline. parallel positions along the planes of fo- liation. Because of this foliated structure, S split readily along these planes Saddles and so have a pronounced rock cleavage. See thresholds. The more common schists are composed of mica-like minerals (such as chlorite) Sample and generally contain subordinate quartz An actual piece of dimension stone in a and/or feldspar of a comparatively fine- small size used to demonstrate the gen- grained texture; all gradations exist be- eral color, markings, and finish of a given tween and gneiss (coarsely foliated variety of stone. feldspathic rocks). Sandblasted Scotia A matte-textured surface finish produced A deep concave molding by small particles (“sand”) striking the stone surface at high velocities. Screed Sandstone A flat board or other straight piece used Sandstones are sedimentary rocks usu- to level freshly placed concrete, mortar, ally composed of quartz cemented with or sand by sliding it over prepositioned silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate. guides that determine the height of the Sandstones range from very soft and fri- concrete or mortar. able to very hard and durable, depending on the depth at which it was buried and A three-dimensional art form cut or chis- the nature of the cement. Generally, the eled from a monolithic block of stone. most durable sandstones are cemented with silica.Sandstone has a wide range of colors Sealant or textures. See quartz based stone. An elastic adhesive compound used to seal stone veneer joints while still allow- Sawed Edge ing differential movement between the A clean-cut edge generally achieved by stone units. cutting with a . Sealer Sawed Face A protective or treatment which A finish obtained from the process used in prevents or retards foreign liquid or mat- the cutting of the blocks, slabs, or other ter from penetrating the stone by closing units of building stone without further the pores in the surface. embellishment. It varies in texture from smooth to rough, and is typically named Sealing for the type of material used in sawing, The process of applying a sealer. e.g. diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn, Seam Setter and shot sawn. A tool designed to pull two pieces of stone Sawyer together and make the surfaces flat with One who operates a saw. each other. The tools are made with suc- Scabbing tion cups and attached with a set of steel glides. The tool will allow the installer to See dressing. apply adhesive, pull the stone together, Schist shim if necessary to make flat, while the A loose term applying to foliated meta- tool is holding the pieces together until morphic (recrystallized) rock character- the adhesive dries.

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-23 Sedimentary Shop Ticket Rocks formed by deposition of particles, A document used by a stone fabricator or “” laid down in successive describing the fabrication details of an in- strata and cemented together by another dividual piece of dimension stone, most agent. The materials of which they are commonly employing graphics in addition formed are derived from preexisting rocks to text, and possibly including production or the skeletal remains of creatures. and/or quality control monitoring. Also Serpentine referred to as a “cutting” or “cut” ticket. Setting Space A common hydrous magnesium silicate Shot Sawed rock-forming mineral; generally dark Description of a finish resulting from us- green in color with markings of white, ing steel shot abrasive in the gang sawing light green, or black. Rocks composed process without further embellishment. predominantly of such minerals are This surface will normally have random correctly called “”, and are linear markings for a rough surface texture. commercially sold as a marble because Silica they can be polished. The definition of An oxide of silicon with the chemical for- serpentine is given in ASTM C119 under mula SiO2, found abundantly in nature as the marble group. sand quarts, or other rock components, Setter The dry cutting or grinding of silica will A field mechanic who specializes in the produce silica dust, which when airborne Shim installation of dimension stone. in particles of respirable size, are a well Setting Space known health hazard to those exposed to The distance from the finished face of it without adequate PPE. a stone unit to the face of the backup Siliceous material. (Note: in some regions, the A rock bearing abundant silica. term is used to describe the distance be- tween the back of the stone and the face Sill of the backup material. See also “cavity”) The bottom horizontal part of a window or opening in a structure. Setting The installation of dimension stone units. A fine-grained, non-carbonate Shale composed of detrital grains of quartz and Sill A fine grained sedimentary stone formed silicate minerals of silt size. are by the of clay, silt, or . rarely marketed as such but commonly are considered as fine-grained quartz-based A force that causes, or attempts to cause, stones (sandstones). Siltstone is textur- internal adjacent planes of material to ally transitional between quartz-based slide along one another. stones and (). Many Shim and siliceous fall within this category. The term is included A piece of plastic or other non-corrosive, in these definitions chiefly to explain the non-staining material used to temporarily relationship of some siliceous flagstones or permanently adjust the position of a to the quartz-based stone category. stone unit. Shop Drawing Simulated Stone A detailed fabrication and installation An artificial manmade product that at- tempts to resemble natural stone. drawing showing layout, joinery, dimen- sions, materials, finishes, methods of an- Slab chorage, and/or any other information A flat “sheet-like” section of natural stone pertinent to the fabrication or installation sawn to a prescribed thickness, with of the stone material. length and width determined by the size

23-24 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America of the quarry block from which it was sawed. Soundness Slabs will generally receive a face finish A property of stone used to describe rela- and further fabrication processes to be- tive freedom from cracks, faults, voids, come usable dimension stone products. and similar imperfections found in un- treated stone. One of the characteristics Slate encountered in fabrication. A very fine grained metamorphic rock derived from sedimentary shale rock, Spall with excellent parallel cleavage, and A chip or splinter separated from the main Slip Joint entirely independent of original bedding, mass of a stone. Also known as sprawl. slate may be split easily into relatively Spandrel thin slabs. See definition of slate in ASTM 1. The often-decorated triangular area C119. between an arch and a wall, or Sling between two arches. A type of strap, typically in the form of 2. In modern high-rise construction, the a “loop”, made of high-density cloth and panel area between the head of one rated for the intended load, which is window and the sill of the one above wrapped around an object that is being it. Can be clad in stone, metal, Slip Sill lifted. or glass. Slip Joint Splay A connection which permits vertical or A surface that makes an oblique angle horizontal movement of a stone unit rela- with another surface, such as the non-ver- tive to the adjacent unit. tical riser face frequently seen on steps. Slip Sill Split Division of a rock by cleavage. A stone sill set between jambs. (compare lug sill). Split-faced Stone Stone on which the face has been broken Slurry to an approximate plane. A suspension of insoluble particles in a liquid. Split-stone Finish In building stone, a rough face formed Smooth Finish by splitting slabs in a split-face machine. A finish of minimum textural quality, pre- Generally the slabs are sawed parallel to senting the least interruption of surface. bedding in stratified stone, so that the Smooth finish may be applied to any sur- split face exposes the bedding in natu- face, flat or molded. It is produced by a ral orientation or overturned, but some variety of machines. stone is sawed perpendicular to bedding and then split with the bedding vertical, Snapped Edge either exposed as a cleft surface or vertical. See Guillotine. Spot or Spotting Soapstone The mortar applied to the back of dimen- Spandrel A -rich stone with a “soapy” feel, used sion stone veneer to bridge the space for hearths, tabletops, chemical-resistant between a stone panel and the backup laboratory tops, stove facings, and clad- wall. Often used to describe the plaster ding; known for its heat, chemical, and or mortar spot used with wire anchorage. stain resistant properties. Spreader Bar Soffit A beam with two lifting slings or cables, The underside of any architectural ele- one on each end, intended to spread the ment, such as an arch, beam, lintel, or lifting points while the bar is hoisted from balcony. its center. Splay

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-25 Stacked Bond Support Stone that is cut to one dimension and An angle, plate or other stones which carry installed with unbroken vertical and hori- a gravity load. zontal joints running the entire length and height of the veneered area. T Sticking TCNA The butt edge repair of a broken piece of (Tile Council of North America) stone, now generally done with , An organization of manufacturers serving cements, or epoxies. The pieces are the ceramic tile industry, with overlap- “stuck” together; thus “sticking.” ping interest in the stone tile industry, Stone particularly in installation. The TCNA Sometimes synonymous with rock, but publishes the Handbook for Ceramic Tile more properly applied to individual Installation and serves as the Secretariat blocks, masses or fragments taken from for the ANSI accredited A108 and A118 their original formation or considered for committees. Established in 1945 as the commercial use. In commercial use, the Tile Council of America (TCA), it be- term stone is more frequently used, while came the Tile Council of North America scientifically, geologists and petrogra- (TCNA) in 2003 to reflect its member- phers more frequently use the term rock. ship expansion to all of North America - Stool Canada, Mexico and the . The interior sill of a window. Template Stratification A pattern for a repetitive marking or fab- The layered structure in sedimentary ricating operation. stone deposits as a result of the deposi- tion of sediments in beds or layers (also A flooring surface of marble or granite Stool “strata” or “lamina”). chips in a cementitious or resinous String Course matrix, which is ground and finished A horizontal band of masonry, generally after setting. narrower that other courses, extending across the façade of a structure and in Texture some structures encircling such deco- Surface quality of stone independent rative features as pillars or engaged col- of color. umns. May be flush or projected, and flat Textured Finish surfaced or decorated. Also called belt Any of the rough surface finishes used in course or band course. dimension stone, selected for aesthetic reasons or as performance for String Course Stripping To remove coatings that block a stone’s walking surfaces. ability to breathe which may cause spall- Thermal Finish ing (when the stones crack, pop, or shale). A textured surface treatment applied by Some examples of common coatings are brief exposure to intense heat. topical acrylic sealers, janitorial waxes, and polyurethanes. Thin Stone Stylolite Dimension stone units that are 2” (50 mm) or less in thickness. In limestone and marble, generally a bedding plane, along with differential Threshold of the material on each side has caused A flat or profiled strip of stone project- interpenetration of points, cones, or ing above the floor between the jambs of a columns, forming a contact surface that door, often marks the transition between is rough when separated. Also known as two different flooring materials. Also Threshold crowfoot. known as a “saddle.”

23-26 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America Tile U A thin modular stone unit, less than Ultimate Capacity ¾” (20 mm) thick, and not exceeding The load resisted by a stone anchor at 24” (600 mm) in its greatest dimension. failure. This load must be divided by the Tilt Shop Cart factor of safety to determine a safe load, A device used in stone fabrication areas or allowable capacity. to move slabs and/or cut-to-size pieces Undercut within the shop. The cart has a bed that Cut so as to present an overhanging part. Tread tilts, allowing it be loaded with a slab in a vertical orientation but unload the same Unit slab in a horizontal orientation. A piece of fabricated cubic or thin di- mension stone. Oxide Urinal Screen A powder used in the polishing of granite A thin stone panel used as a privacy parti- with a talc-like appearance and applied tion between urinals. with a felt pad and slow speed buffer. V Tolerance The permissible limit of variation from Vacuum Cups the specified dimension. A device used in the handling of smooth surfaced stone which secures itself to the Tooled Finish stone surface using vacuum contained A finish that customarily has four, six, within an enclosed chamber that is sealed or eight parallel, concave grooves to against the stone via gasketing. the inch. See also bush hammered. Vacuum Lifter Translucence Any stone handling device using vacuum A characteristic of light colored onyxes cups as a means of securing itself to Vein Cut and some light colored marbles allowing the stone. light to diffuse as it passes through. Vein Cut A cut in quarried stone that is perpen- Travertine dicular to the natural bedding plane, A variety of limestone formed by chemi- exposing the veining of the material. cal precipitate from hot springs. Some va- rieties of travertine take a polish and are Vein known commercially as marble. ASTM A layer, seam, or narrow irregular C119 classifies travertine in both the body of mineral material contrasting limestone and the marble groupings. the surrounding material in either color, texture, or both. Tread A flat stone used as the top (horizontal) Veneer A non-structural facing of stone, interior walking surface on steps. or exterior, serving as ornamentation and Trim a weather barrier. The framing or edging of openings and Venting other features on the interior or exterior See Cavity Vent. of a building, including , pic- ture rails, cornices, and casings. Vug A pocket-like natural cavity in stone, Tumbled Finish generally the result of solution or recrys- A weathered, aging finish created when tallization. Size not limited, but most are the stone is tumbled with sand, , between a small fraction of 1 inch and a or steel bearings. few inches in average diameter. May be Veneer

Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com 23-27 lined with crystals or botryoidal layers of Water-jet Finish mineral materials. Most common in dolo- A surface treatment performed by using mite, limestone and marble. Adj.: vuggy water under extreme high pressure. W Waterproofing Wainscot See Damp Proofing. An interior veneer of stone covering the lower portion of an interior wall. Waxing Wall Tie The practice of filling minor surface im- In masonry, a type of anchor, generally such as voids or sand holes a metal strip, used to secure facing to with melted shellac, cabinetmaker’s wax, backup wall or to connect the wythes of a or certain polyester compounds. In the cavity wall. Ties are mortared into joints during setting, and thus do not require dimension stone industry, it does not that slots or anchor holes be cut. refer to the application of paste wax to Walls, bearing make surfaces shinier. A wall supporting a vertical load in addi- tion to its own weight The removal of material or impairment Walls, cavity of surface finishing through friction or Wainscot A wall in which the inner and outer impact use. wythes are separated by an air space but tied together with metal ties. Weathering Wash Natural alteration by either chemical or The slope on the top of a stone unit mechanical processes due to the action of intended to shed water. constituents of the atmosphere, soil, sur- Water Jet face , and other ground waters, or A machine which uses extremely high by temperature changes. pressure water and an abrasive to cut stone material in complex and exacting Wedging Wash shapes from slabs or tile. Splitting of stone by driving wedges into Water Recycling System planes of weakness or holes in the stone. Any system that recovers water used in Weep Holes shop fabrication machinery and restores it to a reusable condition by filtering and/ Openings for drainage in veneer joints or or chemical neutralization, after which it in the structural components supporting is returned to service. the veneer. Water Repellent Wire Sawing Any of several types of liquid-applied for- A method of cutting stone by a wire or mulations used to render masonry walls cable. Traditionally, the term applied less absorptive. These treatments are said to maintain a material’s ability to breathe to the use of a twisted wire carrying an away moisture, as distinct from “sealers” abrasive slurry as the cutting agent. Cur- which form impervious, non-breathing rently, the term is more frequently used coatings. to describe the use of a cable that is fitted Water Table with diamond abrasive segments at regu- A course that projects from the face of lar intervals, cooled with water. a wall, generally near grade and having a beveled top and a drip cut in the pro- Wythe jecting underside, to deflect water. The inner or outer part of a cavity wall.

23-28 www.marble-institute.com Glosssary of Terms | ® 2011 Marble Institute of America References American Concrete Institute (ACI), Farmington Hills, MI. ASTM International. ASTM C119: Standard Terminology Relating to Dimension Stone. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Amrhein, James E., and Michael W. Merrigan. Marble and Stone Slab Veneer. Los Angeles: Masonry Institute of America, 1986. Bates, Robert L. and Jackson, Julia A., ed. Dictionary of Geological Terms. 3rd edition. The American Geological Institute. Carnella, Enrico. The Architect’s Handbook of Marble, Granite and Stone, Volume I, Technical Guide; New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990. Chacon, Mark. Architectural Stone: Fabrication, Installation, and Selection. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999. Donaldson, Barry, ed. New Stone , Design and Construction for Exterior Wall Systems. ASTM Special Technical Publication 996. West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 1988. Indiana Limestone Institute of America, Inc. Indiana Limestone Handbook. 22nd Edition. Bedford: ILIA, 2007. McGraw-Hill Construction. Sweet’s Catalog.Chicago: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2010. National Building Granite Quarries Association, Inc. Specifications for Architectural Granite. Washington, DC: NBGQA, 2011. National Tile Contractors Association. NTCA Reference Manual. 2011. Jackson: NTCA. Patton, John B. Glossary of Building Stone and Masonry Terms. Geological Survey Occasional 6; Bloomington: Indiana Dept. of Natural Resources, 1974. Pit & Quarry. Glossary of Terms. By: P&Q Staff, 2007. Prestressed Concrete Institute. Stone Veneer-Faced Precast Concrete Panels. Chicago: PSI, 1988. R.E.D. Granti S.p.A. Stone Industry Technical Glossary. Massa: promorama, 2003. Tile Council of America. Tile Council of North America Installation Handbook. Princeton: TCA, 2011. Winkler, Erhard M. Stone in Architecture. 3rd ed. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1994.

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