Trials of Cybernetic Human HRP-4C toward Humanoid Business

Kanako Miura, Shin’ichiro Nakaoka, Shuji Kajita, Kenji Kaneko, Fumio Kanehiro, Mitsuharu Morisawa, and Kazuhito Yokoi

Abstract— We have developed a humanoid (a cyber- netic human called ”HRP-4C”) which has the appearance and shape of a human being, can walk and move like one, and interacts with humans using speech recognition. Standing 158 cm tall and weighing 43 kg (including the battery), with the joints and dimensions set to average values for young Japanese females, HRP-4C looks very human-like. In this paper, we present ongoing challenges to create a new bussiness in the contents industry with HRP-4C.

I. INTRODUCTION Humanoid are expected to be one of the final forms of the next-generation robots, and various institutions, including many private companies, are conducting research and development [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][12]. We have also developed HRP series , HRP-2[10] and HRP-3[11]. However, applications to date have been limited to platforms for research and development [10][12], hobbies [13], and so forth, with the annual market worth only about a few billion yen in Japan. It is not easy to develop the next-generation robot industry, especially that of biped humanoid robots. The major barriers for industrialization include: (1) robots walking on two feet only have little commercial value, (2) the unit price is very Fig. 1. Cybernetic Human HRP-4C high, and (3) if it falls, it may be seriously damaged. We think one practical application for biped humanoid robots is the entertainment industry such as exhibitions and robots, we set the design concepts of HRP-4C decided as fashion shows, provided the robots can move very realisti- follows. cally like humans. For this reason, we have developed a humanoid robot (a 1) Capability of bipedal walking cybernetic human called ”HRP-4C”) [14] shown in Fig.1 2) Realistic figure of the average of a young Japanese which has the appearance and shape of a human being, female can walk and move like one, and interacts with humans 3) Configuration to imitate humanlike motion using speech recognition. The word ”Cybernetic Human” is We decided to design HRP-4C as the life-sized female a coinage for us to explain a humanoid robot with a realistic type humanoid based on anthropometry database of Japanese head and a realistic figure of a human being. 1997-1998 [20], in which the average of them is recorded, In this paper, we present HRP-4C and ongoing challenges because it is more attractive than the table-sized robotic style to create a new bussiness in the contents industry with HRP- one in the entertainment industries. 4C. Although there are several measured items concerning human body in the database [20], we selected principal items II. CYBERNETIC HUMAN HRP-4C from among them as target data to design HRP-4C. The data A. Design concepts which is not recorded in the database [20] is obtained by measuring a commercially available skeleton. Note that the Since applications in the entertainment industry such as a dimension of hand is not considered. The target weight of fashion model and a master of ceremony are leading candi- HRP-4C is set to be around 40(kg). dates for practical application of current bipedal humanoid In the process of the mechanical design, the link length, the breadth, and the circumference of HRP-4C are deformed All authors are with Intelligent Systems Reaserch Institute, AIST, AIST Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, 305-8568 Japan to be from 90% to 110% of the target dimension. The ankle [email protected] joint height and foot size of HRP-4C are exceptions in

978-1-4244-9123-0/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE consideration of the effect on putting on shoes.

B. HRP-4C specifications Base on the target specifications, we developed HRP-4C. Figure 2 and Table I show the principal dimensions and specifications of HRP-4C. HRP-4C is 1580[mm] high and its weight is 43[kg] including batteries. HRP-4C is slender than HRP-2 [10] (height 1539[mm], weight 58[kg] including batteries).

Fig. 3. Closeup of HRP-4C’s Head

Fig. 2. Rough measures of HRP-4C

TABLE I PRINCIPAL SPECIFICATIONS OF HRP-4C Height 1580 [mm] Weight 43 [kg] Total D.O.F 42 Face D.O.F 8 Neck D.O.F 3 Waist D.O.F 3 Arm D.O.F 6 each Hand D.O.F 2 each Leg D.O.F 6 each Motion Control CPU Pentium R M1.6[GHz] Joint sensor Incremental encoder Body sensor Posture sensor Fig. 4. Internal Joint Structure of HRP-4C’s Head Foot sensor 6-axes force sensor Batteries NiMH DC 48 [V ]

human model in order to avoid the problem of the so-called To make HRP-4C slender, the following efforts were “uncanny valley” [19]. made. We feel that the appearance of HRP-4C’s face was suc- 1) Miniaturizing the drive system cessfully designed so that at least its static appearance can be 2) Employing the distributed control system natural and charming without falling into the uncanny valley. 3) Employing the tiny and distributed motor drivers The facial parts can be moved by using the eight DOF 4) Employing the new computer system joints inside the head and the head attitude can be changed by using the three DOF joints inside the neck. The internal joint C. Face structure is shown in Fig. 4. The pairs of the eyebrows, eye- This section presents the overview of the hardware of lids and cheeks, and the upper lip, lower lip and mouth (chin) HRP-4C’s head [15]. Figure 3 is a closeup of HRP-4C’s are driven by one-DOF pitch joints labeled EYEBROW, head. As shown in Fig. 3, the head is clothed in the hair EYELID P, CHEEK P, UPPER LIP P, LOWER LIP Pand and skin, so that it looks as if it is a real human head MOUTH P respectively. The pan and tilt of the eye pair are at first glance. In fact, the shapes of the facial parts and driven by the joints labeled EYE YandEYEP respectively. the skin’s surface are slightly simplified from those of the The roll, pitch and yaw of the head are driven by the joints Fig. 6. HRP-4C at SHINMAI Creator’s Collection, SHINMAI Creator’s Project, JFW in Tokyo (2009.3.23)

Fig. 5. Cuts from example facial motions representing basic facial expressions. The upper-left represents smile, the upper-right represents surprise, the lower-left represents curious, and the lower-right represents anger. labeled NECK R, NECK P and NECK Y respectively. All the joint are rotational joints. The joints that move facial parts on the skin have a rigid arm of which end is attached with the corresponding skin area. Fig. 7. HRP-4C at JISSO PROTECH 2010 (2010.6.2–4) The actuator of each joint is composed of a servo motor and a reduction gear. It is controlled by a distributed motor driver which can do position control by reading the signal A. Master of Ceremony from its own incremental encoder. The motor drivers com- HRP-4C firstly appeared on the stage of a fashion show, municate with the main CPU board embedded in the chest the 8th Japan Fashion Week in Tokyo (JFW in Tokyo) which with an internal network based on Controller Area Network opened on March 23, 2009 as shown in Fig. 6. The role of (CAN). HRP-4C was the master of ceremony (MC) in the special We actually used the described system to create several stage named ‘SHINMAI Creator’s Project”. HRP-4C walked, facial motions of HRP-4C. bowed and made a speech about one minute long. Then HRP- Figure 5 shows cuts from the example motions where 4C turned and dropped out. HRP-4C does basic facial expressions including smile, sur- In JISSO PROTECH 2010, HRP-4C and a professional prise, curious, and anger. These motions were created using female MC made a duo for making a good pitch for products the key pose sequence editor, and each motion consists by 10 [min.] presentaion as shown in Fig 7. HRP-4C was of several key poses. Despite it was our first experience offer the role of a fall guy. Actually, it is hard for HRP- in creating the facial motions of HRP-4C, we were able 4C to be a sharp guy because it has no function of speach to create these motions just by taking about 20 minutes recognition. including a trial and error process. B. Fashion Model III. APPLICATIONS In 2009 YUMI KATSURA Grand Correction in Osaka, HRP-4C made her first professional runway appearance. We took HRP-4C to several applications in the entertain- HRP-4C wore a wedding dress by designer Ms. Yumi Kat- ment industry. sura who is the leader of the wedding dress design. HRP-4C Fig. 8. HRP-4C at 2009 YUMI KATSURA Grand Correction in Osaka, Fig. 10. HRP-4C in Digital Contents Expo 2009 (2009.10.22-25) Dress design YUMI KATSURA (2009.7.22)

from INTERNET Co., Ltd were used respectively. Figure 9 shows a customized version of the HRP-4C for ”Miku” style and the corresponding singer DB. One of the advantages of HRP-4C is found on its capacity to perform a variety of body motions and realistic facial expressions. D. Actress HRP-4C acted in a one man show in Digital Contents Expo 2009 (2009.10.22-25). Thanks for a motion editor software [18], we successfully made 5 minutes play motion of HRP- 4C from a human actress’s motion choreographed by SAM who is a professional dance creator. HRP-4C didn’t move her legs, but the way she moves her arms, head and facial muscles was unbelievably human-like and told jorks. IV. CONCLUSIONS Fig. 9. HRP-4C wore the costume of Hatune Miku in CEATEC JAPAN In this paper, we presented ongoing challenges to create a 2009 (2009.10.6-10) new bussiness in the contents industry with HRP-4C. How- it is not so easy to satisfy requests from entertainment industries. walked smoothly up and down more than 10-meter runway, In addition, as we described at Introduction of this paper, struck various poses, and gazed sidelong at the delighted we think there are 3 major barriers for industrialization of audience. humanoid. HRP-4C successfully added a new value to the C. Singer bipped humanoid, however the rest 2 barriers, high price and HRP-4C was a singer realized by collaboration of the seriously damage caused by its tumble, still exist. singing synthesis technology ”VOCALOID” in CEATEC There will certainly be many new challenges for us in the JAPAN 2009 (2009.10.6-10). VOCALOID [16] is a commer- years to come, but we are hopeful about the future. cial singing synthesis software developed by Yamaha Cor- V. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS poration. 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