Porifera () consists of just 4 kinds of cells arranged ~9,000 living ; >2200 forms around a system of pores and canals abundant fossil record though multicellular, no true organs or even

eg. first signs of multicellular are in 750 MY old rock, in this tissues same rock are unique chemical signatures of sponges sponges are closely related to the group of eg. newly discovered(2010) that may be sponges have protozoan protists called the been found in 635-659 MY old rocks choanoflagellates whose cells very closely eg. 400 MY ago sponges dominated the oceans as reef builders resemble the collar cells of sponges

eg. some fossil reefs are much larger than the great th ~ 1/4 of their are shared by all other barrier reef

à covered an arc across most of N Europe 200 MY ago about 1000 of those are absent from

and other protists fossilized into hard rock used to build castles and other

buildings in the Middle ages à may hold key to origin of multicellularity

genetic analysis indicates that sponges are the most while multicellular their structure is unlike any other primitive group alive today animal group

ancient spongelike ancestors were the first early biologists thought they were some kind of plant animals all are aquatic, mostly marine all other animal groups descended from this ancestor found at all depths from intertidal to the abyssal zone - the earliest sponges in symbiosis with bacteria may have significantly helped to aerate the ancient oceans making them more suitable for animal diversification a few (~150 sp./27 US) occur in freshwater sponges are some of the simplest animals most range from <1/2 inch to over 6 feet tall (=loggerhead sponges) all sponges are sessile Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 1 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 2

some are round, flat, grow as crusts or vaselike but only of its own species (if 2 blended together) most are assymetrical sponges need only very small amts of and, as some of the some are radially symmetrical earliest animals, may have played a role in helping to raise earths oxygen levels by feeding on dead or dying bacteria that often brightly colored: yellows, reds, greens, would deoxygenate the water

oranges, lavenders à pigments in surface cells body is a network of pores, canals and passageways most are colonial – colonies formed by budding no “” all are sessile (non motile) , most are filter feeders water is pumped through these passageways and the but larvae are free swimming (motile) animals filter nutrients from the water currents very simple in structure small openings are pores or ostia where water is drawn into the sponge though multicellular, they function largely like a colony of unicellular organisms water exits the sponge through larger openings = oscula (sing. = osculum) thought they were an intermediate between plants and animals natural selection favored an increase in surface area cellular level or organization leading to more complex “folding” of the sponge:

à no true tissues or organs; loose aggregate of cells simple to more elaborate canal systems à masses of cells in gelatinous matrix= mesophyll à only a few cells have specialized for a particular function a. asconoid (6 kinds of cells in sponges; simplest type humans have >250 kinds of cells) very small tube shaped sponges large central cavity = spongocoel eg. can force sponge through fine sieve to separate cells in via small openings called ostia and individual cells will reform a sponge out through single osculum

Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 3 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 4 functions b. syconoid derived from asconoid pattern by folding most cells are “totipotent” (ie. can change form more branching has incurrent canals and side passages and function – probably an important key to still have main spongocoel their success) single osculum

1. Choanocytes (= collar cells) c. leuconoid most complex consists of many small flagellated chambers probably the most distinctive and most important no longer a central spongocoel but almost unlimited of sponge cells ability for sponge to grow in size generally larger colonial forms each mass has its own osculum each collar cell has a flagellum incurrent and excurrent canals surrounded by a sieve-like collar that acts as a a typical sponge can pump water equivalent to its own strainer volume in ~ 8 seconds “collar” is made of microvilli and microfibrils a sponge must pump >1 ton of water to get 1 oz of the flagellum beats to draw the water currents into food the sponge and then to strain particles

through the collar they can also control the flow by constricting osculum

at night and opening in day when food is more food is absorbed (phagocytosis) by the collar cell plentiful and then sent to other cells in the sponge also can reverse the flow to clean out canals after a choanocytes line major cavities depending on canal system: storm a. spongocoel on asconoid types b. radial canals on syconoid types like cleaning pool filters c. flagellated chambers on leuconoid types

Cell Types collar cells are almost identical to the cells of

choanoflagellates only a few cells have been specialized for certain

Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 5 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 6

genetic analysis indicates a very close relationship between these protists and can differentiate into any other type of cell sponges different kinds à choanoflagellates are ancestors of animals sclerocytes à secrete spicules spongocytes à secrete spongin 2. Pinacocytes collencyotes à secrete

form outer “epithelium” and sometimes lines Support inner passages the cells in gelatinous matrix of a sponge are arranged nearest thing to tissues around a of spicules

thin flat cells spicules maintain its shape and keep pores and canals open some are contractile = myocytes in circular bands around oscula to regulate water flow spicules may be composed of:

3. Porocytes a. calcium carbonate

tubular cells form the pores of asconoid sponges b. silica

4. Archaeocytes à spicules often united to form a rigid network that looks like fiberglass

amoeboid type cells (eg. Venus Flower Basket)

move about in mesophyll matrix c. spongin (a form of collagen – a only found in animals)

receive particles from choanocytes for à flexible protein fibers related to

phagocytize old cells (eg. common commercial sponge and most sponges Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 7 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 8 normally encountered on reefs) within days other “tentacles” grow around victim and engulf Feeding and Digestion and digest it

1. all but a few sponges are filter feeders 3. a small number of sponges are “parasites”

feed on detritus, plankton, bacteria = boring sponges (demospongiae)

pinacocytes, archaeocytes and choanocytes can all phagocytize excavates hollow tubes and passageways into shells and food corals (living or dead host shells) or limetone rock archaeocytes can eat larger particles choanocytes can eat smaller particles the animal grows into the canals and holes it creates

sponges can also absorb dissolved nutrients when boring into live animal shells the host will either die outright or be much more susceptible to directly from the water may have significant impacts on coral reefs and oyster reefs digestion is all intracellular important in recycling shells and corals = “bioerosion”

each cell is responsible for getting its own food in some areas bridge supports are no longer constructed of

limestone because it is attacked by these sponges 2. one sponge is a predator No respiratory or Excretory Systems until 90’s all sponges were thought to be filter feeding omnivores take in O2 and get rid of wastes and CO2 by simple diffusion one sponge from Mediterranean is now known to be a predator = Cladorhiza corona a few have contractile vacuoles in choanocytes and archaeocytes found in Mediterranean caves

in stagnant water à not much to filter No or Sense Organs

has developed a tentacle like appendge covered with velcro-like hooks sponges can react to local stimuli

the hooks snag shrimplike crustacea some produce electrical signals Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 9 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 10

specialized cells in mesenchyme form sponges do produce some for chemical or control sperm released into water & Development are retained in mesenchyme reproduce both sexually and asexually sperm are drawn into female sponge Asexual through ostia or pores and fertilize a. egg

b. asexual buds: most sponges are viviparous may break off or remain attached to form =retain and nourish embryo colonies free swimming ciliated larvae hatch and are c. fw & a few marine forms produce internal released buds = gemmules unique larval form = amphiblastula

à dormant masses of encapsulated swims in plankton for a while then turns cells inside-out and settles to become a sessile adult usually produced during harsh conditions

may be retained inside “parent” sponge or as original sponge dies, they fall to bottom

Sexual some sponges are monoecious, some are dioecious

Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 11 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 12 Sponge Classification [not current ] Phylogeny of Sponges

A. Calcarea (calcareous sponges) origin dates to

small, vase shaped, primitive group related to flagellate protozoans mostly drab coloried; a few are yellow, red, green, lavender all marine, especially shallow waters à choanoflagellates show all 3 types of canal systems; mostly asconoid canals spicules of CaCO3, needle shaped or 3-4 rayed sponges diverged early

new genetic analysis (2010) indicate that sponges B. Class Hexactinellida (glass sponges) all marine; mostly deep colder waters are the most primitive animal group body often cylindrical or funnel shaped most vaselike or tubular; 7-10 cm to 1 m tall and should be divided into at least 2 separate all with siliceous spicules, 6 rayed or long hairs like fiberglass phyla; Calcarea and Silicaria usually with large spongocoel and large osculum

synconoid and leucon canal systems

C. Class Demospongiae (spongin sponges) largest class: ~90% of all living species, most diverse group including most large sponges includes common bath sponges mostly marine 1 small of freshwater sponges spicules of silica (but not 6-rayed), spongin fibers, or both some tall and fingerlike, some encrusting includes 1 group of “boring sponges”; burrow into shells and corals

Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 13 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 14

eg. some snails and clams have specific species of sponges encrusting their shells Ecological Interactions many sponges have mutualistic associations with 1. Mutualism & Commensalism bacteria

the greatest ecological role of sponges is to eg. heterotrophic bacteria (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas) live provide homes for a wide variety of organisms inside the tissue of some sponges

bacteria live in “mesohyl” jelly; a rich growth medium many commensal organisms live in or on sponges: sponges, snails, mites, up to half the weight of a sponge is bacteria

sponge eats bacteria à protection from predators esp Demospongiae larger sponges often harbor a larger variety of eg. demospongiae 38% of its volume was bacteria commensals eg. some sponges have blue green bacteria or algae eg. 1 specimen, 2M tall had 16,000 shrimp inside that live inside their tissues microorganisms get protection eg. another had >100 species of organisms in and on it sponge gets food

eg. venus flower basket: no other animal has cyanobacterial symbionts still used as a traditional wedding gift in SE Asia typically has a male and female shrimp locked 4. Sponges as Prey inside =”bonded bliss” or “prisoners of love” sponges seem to have few predators Sponges also grow on many other animals; molluscs, barnacles, corals, crabs some sponges produce chemicals to repel potential predators sponges are used by some animals as eg. several sponges are known to be toxic to camoflage still have some major predators eg. decorator crabs: mobile substrate

Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 15 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 16 à a few bony fish esp from corals and other sponges

àHawksbill produce “dead zone” around sponge

an endangered species associated with tropical reefs these biotoxins can be antimicrobial feeds almost exclusively on sponges only vertebrate known with such a diet most predators avoid the glass spines and poisonous àmay cause painful rashes in humans secretions of the hawksbill prey

à in freshwaters, spongilla fly larvae feed on sponges

5. Sponges and Competition

sponges are important components of coral reefs

their distribution is mainly limited by proper substrate

corals are their chief competitor for space

sponges produce quite a few chemicals that repel potential predators or other competitors for space

(often brightly colored to warn others)

à they make a wide range of “biotoxins”

àprevent competition for space on crowded reefs

Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 17 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 18

may attack AIDS Human Impacts of Sponges eg. a species of S Pacific sponge produces chemicals 1. bath sponges that can kill Candida à a human pathogen that causes have been used since bronze age; 4000 yrs thrush and vaginal infections

a new (2009) chemical derived from a sponge has holds up to 35 x’s its weight in water the ability to resensitize bacterial pathogens to antibiotics takes 5 yrs to reach marketable size à they lose their resistance to all antibiotics and die eg. before 1940’s the Florida sponge fleet in Key West had >350 ships and employed 1400 people 3. Material Science

the sponge harvest ceased in 1940’s due to overcollecting, red and a fungal disease that wiped out the the intricate glass skeleton of the venus flower sponge beds basket is the strongest “glass” structure known

this was also the same time that synthetic sponges it is so sturdy that it is being investigated by were introduced to the market material scientists for the source of its strength 2. sponges produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds: also, its silica spicules transmit light better than commercial optic fibers pharmaceuticals: antibiotics, asthma, arthritis, anticancer drugs, chemicals that promote efforts are being made to artificially duplicate wound healing, anti-inflammatories them

eg. antibiotics against bacteria such as E. coli and Staph 3. Aquarium Trade aureus

eg. Acyclovir from Caribbean sponge 1st antiviral compound approved for human use fights herpes infections used since 1982

eg. Vidabarine Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 19 Animals –Animal Phyla: Porifera; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.9 20