TheThe AmericanAmerican


TheThe MagazineMagazine ofof thethe AmericanAmerican HorticulturalHorticultural SocietySociety JulyJuly // AugustAugust 20112011


Ice Plants for Summer Sizzle Ornamental Shade-Loving Bugbanes


Volume 90, Number 4 . July / August 2011




8 NEWS FROM THE AHS 2011 Great American Award recipients at River Farm, André and Claire Viette are honorary co-chairs for 2011 AHS annual gala, River Farm to host 2011 America in Bloom program in October, latest AHS book to be released, the Homestead Resort hosts annual “In the Weekend.”


42 GARDEN SOLUTIONS Dealing with drought. page 36 44 HOMEGROWN HARVEST Flavorful fennel. 14 WATER-THRIFTY BUCKWHEATS BY CAROL BORNSTEIN 46 Buckwheats ( spp.) are a large and diverse of ’S NOTEBOOK American natives prized for their drought tolerance, wildlife Fleuroselect announces its value, and long season of interest. 2011 Gold Medal plants, citizen scientists take on invasive plants in , page 42 20 GARDENING WITH SELF-SOWERS BY KAREN BUSSOLINI evaluating the carbon Whether they bloom briefly or look good year-round, easily footprint of horticultural removed self-sowing plants play many roles in the garden and practices, best disease-resistant blueberries, can be a boon for the busy gardener. USDA modifies regulations for importing non-native plants, launch of national campaign for gypsy moth awareness, State 26 BUGBANES FOR AMERICAN BY RICHARD HAWKE of to restore These statuesque, late-season bloomers brighten up shade and floodplain , legacy of Dutch woodland gardens at a time when little else is flowering. bulbsman Jan Ohms. Green Garage®: Selected useful garden tools and products. 32 WARS AND TURF DEFENSE BY KATHRYN LUND JOHNSON Certain plants use allelopathy, a form of chemical defense, to 52 BOOK REVIEWS keep competitors at bay. Attracting Native and Fifty Plants that Changed the Course of History. 36 HARDY ICE PLANTS BY PANAYOTI KELAIDIS Special focus: Books about bugs.

With brilliant and a long season of bloom, ground-covering 56 REGIONAL HAPPENINGS succulents in the genus are starting to find a home in more American gardens. 60 HARDINESS AND HEAT ZONES AND PRONUNCIATIONS

62 PLANT IN THE SPOTLIGHT ON THE COVER: Designed by Sharon Tingley, this informal garden in northwestern Connecticut overflows with sunny color from a variety of self-sowing plants, including California , lady’s Desert willow ( linearis). left: david winger. right: ahs staff mantle, and brown-eyed Susan. Photograph by Karen Bussolini


Making America a Nation of Gardeners, a Land of Gardens

Board of Directors CHAIR Harry A. Rissetto, Esq. Falls Church, FIRST VICE CHAIRMAN Don E. Riddle, Jr. Davidsonville, SECOND VICE CHAIRMAN Mary Pat Matheson Atlanta, Georgia SECRETARY Leslie Ariail Alexandria, Virginia TREASURER J. Landon Reeve, IV Woodbine, Maryland IMMEDIATE PAST CHAIR Susie Usrey Dayton, Oregon EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Henrietta Burke Alexandria, Virginia

Sandra Address Chevy Chase, Maryland ■ Allan M. Armitage Athens, Georgia ■ Amy Bolton Falls Church, Virginia Jane Diamantis McDonald, ■ Gay Estes Houston, Texas ■ Carole Hofley Wilson, Wyoming Margaret Kulp Louisville, ■ Jack Lowry , Maryland ■ Shirley Nicolai Ft. Washington, Maryland


President’s Council

CHAMPION’S CIRCLE Anonymous ■ Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Kulp, Jr.

CHAIRMAN’S CIRCLE Anonymous ■ Mr. and Mrs. Kurt Bluemel ■ Mr. and Mrs. George Diamantis ■ Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Farrell ■ Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. Rissetto ■ Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Smith, Jr. ■ Mr. and Mrs. W. Bruce Usrey

LIBERTY HYDE BAILEY CIRCLE Mrs. Leslie S. Ariail ■ Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Bogle ■ Ms. Judy Daniel ■ Trish and Cam Gibson ■ Mr. and Mrs. J. Landon Reeve, IV ■ Dr. Erich Veitenheimer and Mr. Andrew Cariaso ■ Ms. Katy Moss Warner ■ Mr. and Mrs. Klaus Zech

HAUPT CIRCLE Mrs. Sandra L. Address ■ Mrs. Lynda A. Bachman ■ Nancy J. Becker, M.D. ■ Ms. Amy Bolton ■ Mr. and Mrs. Taylor Burke, III ■ Mr. James R. Cargill, II ■ Mrs. Elisabeth C. Dudley ■ Mr. and Mrs. Carl Estes ■ Dr. and Mrs. John A. Floyd, Jr. ■ Mr. and Mrs. Don W. Godsey ■ Dr. and Mrs. William O. Hargrove ■ Mrs. Carole S. Hofley ■ Ms. JoAnn Luecke ■ Mrs. Shirley Ann Nicolai ■ Mr. David D. Parrish

COUNCIL MEMBER’S CIRCLE Mr. and Mrs. Robert Baillie ■ Mr. and Mrs. Carter Bales ■ Mrs. Katherine Belk ■ Mrs. George P. Bissell, Jr. ■ Mr. and Mrs. C. William Black ■ Dr. Sherran Blair ■ Mrs. Elspeth G. Bobbs ■ Mr. and Mrs. Michael T. Bradshaw ■ Ms. Petra Burke ■ Mr. and Mrs. Edward N. Dane ■ Mrs. Barbara O. David ■ Mrs. Julie Ernest ■ Ms. Inger Fair ■ Ms. Walter S. Fletcher ■ Ms. Marguerite Peet Foster ■ Ms. Joyce W. Godsey ■ Ms. Amy Goldman ■ Mr. and Mrs. Joel Goldsmith ■ Mrs. Joan Goltzman ■ Ms. LaDawn Griffin ■ Mr. Gerald T. Halpin ■ Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Hanselman ■ Ms. Catherine M. Hayes ■ Mr. Edwin L. Heminger ■ Ms. Nancy Hockstad ■ Mrs. Elizabeth Hooff ■ Mr. and Mrs. Albert Huddleston ■ Mr. Philip Huey ■ Mrs. Marta J. Lawrence ■ Mrs. Carolyn M. Lindsay ■ Ms. JoAnn Luecke ■ Mr. and Mrs. Bob J. MacLean ■ Ms. Melissa Marshall ■ Mrs. Dorothy Marston ■ Mrs. Carol C. Morrison ■ Mr. and Mrs. James R. Moxley, Jr. ■ Mr. and Mrs. James T. Norman ■ Mr. Michael Panas ■ Mrs. Jeanne Otis Shields ■ Mr. Harold Stahly ■ Mr. Arnold Steiner ■ Dr. and Mrs. Steven M. Still ■ Mr. Howard McK. Tucker and Ms. Megan Evans ■ Mr. and Mrs. Tom Underwood ■ Mr. Joe Viar ■ Ms. Angela M. Vikesland ■ Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Volk ■ Mr. and Mrs. Dennis White ■ Mr. and Mrs. Harvey C. White ■ Mr. and Mrs. John W.White, Sr. ■ Mr. and Mrs. John Zoldak

HONORARY PRESIDENT’S COUNCIL Ms. Louise Fruehling* ■ Mrs. Enid Haupt* ■ Mrs. John A. Lutz* ■ Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Miller* *In memoriam

Corporate Members

Bonnie Plants ■ The Care of ■ Chapel Valley Landscape Company ■ The Espoma Company Furbish Company ■ Homestead Gardens ■ Kurt Bluemel, Inc. ■ Monrovia ■ Osmocote Photo Credit: Alexander Armster-Wikoff Please contact 1-800-367-0003 or Horticultural Partners Tony Richard at 301-883-8834 America in Bloom Symposium & Awards Program ■ Bellingrath Gardens and Home

py p y ■ The Fresh Air Fund, 633 Third Avenue, 14th Floor, New York, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Garden Symposium Cox MetroPark NY 10017 (212-897-8900) or from the Office of the Secretary Garden Centers of America ■ The Gardeners of America/Men’s Garden Clubs of America of State, State House, Annapolis, MD 21401 (for the cost of copies and postage) or by calling 1-888-874-0013 within Maryland. Great Gardens and Landscaping Symposium ■ The Homestead in the Garden Symposium Registration does not imply endorsement. 2009 The Fresh Air Fund. Inniswood Garden Society ■ Oklahoma Botanical Garden & Arboretum


For general information about your membership, call (800) 777-7931. Send change of address notifications to our membership department at ID YOU GET 7931 East Boulevard Drive, Alexandria, VA a chance to read Kelly Norris’s feature on “Next-Generation 22308. If your magazine is lost or damaged in Gardeners” in the May/June issue of The American Gardener? We regularly the mail, call the number above for a replace- receive feedback from our members about the magazine, but this story in ment. Requests for membership information D and change of address notification can also be particular seemed to stir up an exceptional amount of interest. It’s a thought-pro- e-mailed to [email protected] voking topic that horticultural groups of all kinds are discussing these days. Through THE AMERICAN GARDENER To submit a letter to survey data and interviews with experts, the article little doubt that the next the editor of The American Gardener, write to generation of gardeners will be fueled by renewed environmental awareness and a pas- The American Gardener, 7931 East Boulevard sion for fresh and locally grown . (If you missed it, you can read the article in the Drive, Alexandria, VA 22308, or send an e-mail to [email protected] digital edition of the issue linked through our website at www.ahs.org.) One personification of this next generation of gardeners that comes to mind for DEVELOPMENT To make a gift to the American Horticultural Society, or for information about us is Sam Levin, a university-bound high school graduate from Massachusetts who a donation you have already made, call co-founded the first student-initiated (800) 777-7931 ext. 127 or send an e-mail and student-run public to [email protected] in the country. From rallying his class- E-NEWSLETTER To sign up for our monthly mates around the project to inspiring e-newsletter, visit www.ahs.org. thousands of his peers to get into gar- INTERNSHIP PROGRAM The AHS offers intern- dening, Sam’s passion is infectious. ships in communications, , and youth programs. For information, send an At the age of 18, he became the e-mail to [email protected] Information and youngest recipient of the Society’s Jane application forms can also be found in the L. Taylor Award, given in recognition River Farm area of www.ahs.org. of outstanding efforts in children’s and NATIONAL CHILDREN & YOUTH GARDEN youth gardening to inspire and nurture SYMPOSIUM For information about the Soci- ety’s annual National Children & Youth Gar- future horticulturists. We were honored den Symposium, call (800) 777-7931 ext. to have Sam and his mother, Susan 132 or visit the Youth Gardening section of Engel, join us at River Farm this past www.ahs.org. June to accept his award during our RECIPROCAL ADMISSIONS PROGRAM The AHS Great American Gardeners Awards and Reciprocal Admissions Program offers members free admission and other discounts to more than AHS Book Awards Ceremony. 250 botanical gardens and other horticultural The AHS also nurtures an interest destinations throughout . A list of in gardening in the next generation Sam Levin, with his mother, Susan Engel, participating gardens can be found in the Mem- bership area of www.ahs.org. For more infor- through our annual National Chil- accepts the Jane L. Taylor Award in June. mation, call (800) 777-7931 ext. 119. dren & Youth Garden Symposium. RIVER FARM The AHS headquarters at River We are proud to be the driving force behind this innovative gathering of teachers, Farm is open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. weekdays year- designers, and other children’s gardening advocates that have impacted tens of thou- round (except Federal holidays), and 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Saturdays from April through September. sands of children across the country since its inception in 1993. We hope to see some Admission is free. For information about events, of you at this year’s symposium in Michigan from July 21 to 23. rentals, and directions, visit the River Farm sec- As for this issue of The American Gardener, there is plenty to inspire you in your tion of www.ahs.org. own garden. Sprinkle on some spontaneity with well-behaved self-seeding plants TRAVEL STUDY PROGRAM Visit spectacular pri- that star in “Gardening by Subtraction with Self-Sowers.” Discover colorful and vate and public gardens around the world through the Society’s acclaimed Travel Study tough buckwheats and hardy plants that offer something beyond the usual Program. For information about upcoming water-thrifty options. Meet some top-performing bugbanes that can up your trips, call (800) 627-6621, send an e-mail to beds in fall. And did you know that some plants use chemical warfare to defend [email protected], or visit the Travel Study section of www.ahs.org. their turf? You’ll find a fascinating article about how this works and what effects it can have in your garden. WEBSITE: www.ahs.org The AHS website is a valuable source of information about the Soci- ety’s programs and activities. To access the Happy gardening and have a wonderful summer! members-only section of the website, the user name is garden and the password is ahs2011. Harry Rissetto, Chair, AHS Board of Directors

֢֤֢֣֥֧֪֪֦֢֧֭֮֡֩֫֨֨֠֫֬֫ Tom Underwood, Executive Director֥֥֧֬֬֬

July / August 2011 5 MEMBERSC’ FORUM

EASY-CARE tions” by Scott Aker. While not a strict or- you know how to garden and plant a I enjoyed Patricia Taylor’s article “Rethink- ganic gardener, my petrochemical use is re- you can always eat, always put food on ing the Garden” (May/June 2011). I stricted to rare, sparing uses. I feel I have a the table. Soil isn’t just for walking on, it have always admired roses—as long as fair grasp of and soil-related is- can sustain you. Thanks again for all you someone else was growing and maintain- sues that enables me to avoid petrochemi- do to spread this message, and we look ing them. Pests, diseases, and lots of need- cals on and gardens; however, forward to visiting River Farm soon. ed attention were, unfortunately, what in-depth knowledge about plant growth, Paul and Marsha Fosberg came to mind when looking at most spec- the effects of pH, etc. is still lacking. This Natick, Massachusetts imens. The new sustainable and hardy cannot be too lengthy! ones mentioned in the article offer possi- Bob Hatton CORRECTION bilities, so kudos to the developers and the Amarillo, Texas In the May/June issue, a supplier for the gardens who are evaluating these roses. Rootrainers system de- Who knows? Perhaps a fragrant blast of SOIL ROCKS scribed in the Green Garage column color may bloom in my courtyard soon. We both have been gardening since we (page 52) was inadvertently left out. Lee Steven G. Maurer were little kids and love it. We feel that Valley Tools (www.leevalley.com) also car- Philadelphia, the American Horticultural Society is ex- ries this product.  tremely important to our country and— when you think about it—to our PLEASE WRITE US! Address letters to Editor, The PRAISE FOR GARDEN SOLUTIONS survival. My dad, who grew up in the American Gardener, 7931 East Boulevard Drive, As an avid, self-taught gardener, I thank Depression, always said that no matter Alexandria, VA 22308. Send e-mails to you for the new column, “Garden Solu- how bad things get with the economy, if [email protected] (note Letter to Editor in subject line). Letters we print may be edited for length and clarity.


America in Bloom Symposium & Awards s'ETYEARSOFBESTIDEASFROM     COMMUNITIESACROSS!MERICA  2012 “Gardener’s” Calendar ONHOWTOIMPROVEYOURTOWN   Thirteen award-winning photographs taken by various TGOA/MGCA members. We encourage all men and s.ETWORKWITHCOMMUNITY  women to become a member of TGOA/MGCA and enjoy INNOVATORSANDLEADERS the benefits of a great organization. For more information on the organization or to order /CTOBER  7ASHINGTON $#   calendars for $6.95 postpaid, please call or e-mail: WWW!MERICA)N"LOOMORG    The Gardeners of America/ Men’s Garden Clubs of America Box 241, Johnston, IA 50121-0241 (515) 278-0295 e-mail: [email protected] www.tgoa-mgca.org


Gardens and Innovation: Chicagoland and Rockford August 17–21, 2011 with AHS Host Katy Moss Warner and AHS Tour Escort Maren Seubert ■ Discover the horticultural abundance that the Chicago area offers during this tour of the innovative gardens that have contributed to the greening of Chicago. Among these are the Lurie Gardens in Chicago’s Millennium Park, the world-renowned Chicago Botanic Garden, and Garfield Park Conservatory. We will also visit several stunning private gardens, award-winning gardens in Rockford, Illinois, and the trial gardens at Ball Horticultural Company’s headquarters. ְ֪֣֮֠֯ ְֱ֤֪֪֠֡֨֠֩֬֫֫֨ Castles and Gardens of Bohemia and Moravia September 25–October 6, 2011 ְֲֳִ֢֧֧֧֭֯֠֯ ְֱִ֤֦֧֥֤֭֮֠֡֠ with AHS Host Kurt Bluemel and Tour Escort Harriet Landseer of Specialtours ■ We begin this trip to the Czech Republic in the capital city of Prague, renowned for its castles and cathedrals. From there we will venture to the historic and picturesque regions of Bohemia and Moravia. Experience a wealth of gardens in styles ranging from formal Italianate, Renaissance, and Baroque to Neo-classical and modern—including several 20th-century gardens created by visionary designers.

COMING SOON! 2012 Travel Destinations The AHS’s Travel Study Program will be bound for three exciting destinations in 2012. Start planning now for next year’s trips! Late March/early April—Gardens of San Diego June 26–July 6—Midsummer Gardens and Castles of Sweden October 26–November 5—Andalusian Heritage and Gardens: Seville, Cordoba, and Granada Full travel itineraries will be available later this summer.

For more information about upcoming tours in the AHS Travel Study Program, please contact our travel partner, MacNair Travel: • E-mail: [email protected] • Call: (866) 627-6621 • Visit: www.ahs.org GARDENER Copyright ©2011 bytheAmericanHorticultural Society. ©2011 Copyright material. Backissuesareavailableat$8percopy. stamped envelope.Wecannotguaranteethesafereturn ofunsolicited possible publicationwillbereturnedifaccompanied byaself-addressed, ily thoseoftheSociety.Manuscripts,artwork,andphoto graphs sentfor expressed inthearticlesarethoseofauthorsand arenotnecessar- and onthe list oftheVascularFloraUnitedStates,Canada andGreenland Society A–Z EncyclopediaofGarden Plants, Botanical nomenclatureisbasedon 22308-1300. American Gardener,7931EastBoulevardDrive,Alexandria,VA tional mailingoffices.Postmaster:PleasesendForm3579to tion. PeriodicalspostagepaidatAlexandria,Virginia,andaddi- tion to (703) 768-5700.MembershipintheSocietyincludesasubscrip- Society, 7931EastBoulevardDrive,Alexandria,VA22308-1300, ber/October, November/December)bytheAmericanHorticultural ly (January/February,March/April,May/June,July/August,Septem- The AmericanGardener dues are$50.$10ofannualgoestowardmagazinesubscrip- 8 h American The ADVERTISING & PARTNERSHIPS CONTACT US CORPORATE EDITORIAL The AmericanGardener.Annualduesare$35;international the American Gardener Royal HorticulturalSocietyIndexofGardenPlants CHAIR Printed intheU.S.A. (703) 768-5700 Alexandria, VA22308 7931 EastBoulevardDrive West DesMoines,Iowa Elvin McDonald Kennett ,Pennsylvania Richard W.Lighty Denver, Colorado Panayoti Kelaidis San Francisco,California John E.Bryan Birmingham, Steve Bender Ithaca, NewYork Nina L.Bassuk Athens, Georgia Allan M.Armitage Brevard, NorthCarolina Richard E.Bir EDITORIAL ADVISORYBOARD Carole Ottesen CONTRIBUTING WRITER Rita Pelczar CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Helen Thompson EDITORIAL INTERN Viveka Neveln ASSOCIATE EDITOR Mary Yee MANAGING EDITORANDARTDIRECTOR David J.Ellis EDITOR E-MAIL: The AmericanGardener E-MAIL: (ISSN 1087-9978)ispublishedbimonth- [email protected] [email protected] The AmericanHorticultural on A Synonymized Check- . Opinions The André andClaireViette tember 25.The onlineauctionwillinclude exciting tohave aprivate opportunities line auctionopen forbiddingonemonthprior tothegalaandconcluding onSep- ONE OFTHE AT FARM RIVER PARTY GARDEN AN INSPIRED www.ahs.org/awards. complete listofwinners,andtonominateyour own hero for2012,visit horticultural well asfourBookAwards bookspublishedin2010.For foroutstandinghorticultural a 11 otherGreat AmericanGardeners awards were presented throughout theevening, as Hydeerty Bailey Award, plants. moting native woody role inpro-instrumental his culturist, particularly reer asanExtension horti- course ofhislongca- the for hisachievements over cepted thisyear’s award business. or ministration, art, search, leadership, ad- disciplines suchasre- tions through multiple cant lifetimecontribu- who have madesignifi- nication andteachingtoplantbreeding andlandscapedesign. June 9tocelebratetheiroutstandingcontributionshorticulture—from commu- Society’s atthe andstaff bers River Farm Virginia, inAlexandria, on headquarters year’s recipients, togetherwiththeirfamiliesandcolleagues,joinedAHS Board mem- cultural Society annually recognizes achievements. This horticultural extraordinary THROUGH ITS SUPERSTARS AMERICA’S HORTICULTURAL CELEBRATING also achancefortheSociety toshow offRiver Farm’s uniquebeautywhilecelebrating In addition to the Lib- The Society’s tophonor, Hyde theLiberty Bailey Award, forthose isreserved Richard Bir AHS’s main fundraisingevents isitsannualGalaAHS’s heldatRiver Farm. It’s Great AmericanGardeners Awards Program, theAmericanHorti- Nominations willbeaccepteduntilSeptember 30,2011. ac- PROGRAMS • EVENTS • ANNOUNCEMENTS right, presentRichardBirwiththeLibertyHydeBaileyAward. Board Chair Harry Rissetto, Awards Chair Jane Diamantis and AHS gala hostcommittee. growing inspirations,”says of plants,theViettes are theembodimentof truly productionexciting of new ofmanyvarieties ettes are familiarfaces andvoices inAmericanhorticulture. inVirginia andgardeningclass nursery radioshow, theVi- Known throughout themid-Atlantic region fortheirfirst- on September 24withthetheme,“Growing Inspirations.” co-chairsoftheAHS’sare thehonorary 18thannualGala gardening champions.This year, auction ofone-of-a-kinditems. There alsowill beanon- music, thisfestive, black-tieevening willfeature asilent “With their amazing horticultural knowledge theiramazinghorticultural and “With In additiontoanelegantformaldinnerand live News from the July /August2011 Leslie Ariail,chairofthe André andClaire Viette AHS

ֲֲֳֵֵֶֶֶַַַַֹּ֢֦֪֣֮֡֠֯֨֯֠֬֩֨֨֬֬֯ garden tour with distinguished horticulturists around the coun- try. To view all the offerings, visit www.ahs.org/auction. Remember to Save Your Proceeds from the Gala and auctions will support the AHS’s Next time you’re deadheading in the garden, remember to outreach and educational programs for gardeners across Amer- save the seeds you’re snipping for the AHS Seed Exchange, ica as well as the stewardship of River Farm. For more infor- which is a great way for AHS members share plants with each mation and to purchase tickets, contact Maren Seubert at (703) other. Seeds received by November 1 will be included in our 768-5700 ext. 132 or [email protected] annual seed catalog available online starting in January. Mem- bers who donate seeds also get first pick from the available AIB SYMPOSIUM AND AWARDS CEREMONY offerings. For more information, visit www.ahs.org/seeds. IN SUPPORT OF urban beautification, the AHS has been a longtime partner of America In Bloom (AIB), a nonprofit or- ganization dedicated to “planting pride in our communities.” pact on events at the White House. AIB will announce eight com- This year, as AIB cele- munities that have achieved excellence in specific categories, such as brates its 10th an- urban , community involvement, and heritage preservation, niversary, the Society as well as reveal the winner of its YouTube video contest. is excited to play a In concert with the Criteria Awards program, attendees will special part in “Capi- have the opportunity to explore the gardens of the Society’s Riv- tal Ideas,” AIB’s sym- er Farm headquarters and get practical ideas they can take back posium and awards to their communities. The gardens will be enhanced for the oc- program taking place casion with colorful floral displays showcasing varieties from four in Washington, D.C. of the country’s premier growers—Ball, , Proven Win- from October 6 to 8. ners, and Ecke Ranch. In addition to AHS The next two days will feature educational activities, focusing This year’s America In Bloom symposium President Emeritus on successful community and urban gardens over the last decade will take place in Washington, D.C. Katy Moss Warner and offering some exceptional opportunities for attendees to sharp- and AHS Executive Di- en their skills and increase their community impact. The agenda rector Tom Underwood serving as co-chairs of the event, the AHS includes keynotes by garden television personality Joe Lamp’l on will host the AIB’s Criteria Awards ceremony at River Farm on Oc- sustainable community beautification projects and by noted cus- tober 6. Guest of honor and White House Chief Florist Laura tomer service expert Dennis on how businesses and com-

ְְְֲֳִֵֵֶֶַַַָֺֹֹּ֪֭֬֠֠֨֨֠֨֬ Dowling will speak about the importance of flowers and their im- munities can raise the bar and “unleash excellence” in order to beְְְֲֳִֵֵֶֶַַֹֽ֪֥֪֠֠֠֬֨֠֨֨ ֢֦֣֨ ֤֦֧֤֥֠֨֡

In addition to vital support through membership dues, the American Horticultural Society relies on grants, bequests, and other gifts to support its programs. We would like to thank the following donors for gifts received between April 1 and May 31, 2011.

Anonymous In memory of Max DeSilva and in honor of In honor of the André Bluemel Meadow Mrs. Julie W. Ernest Alexander DeSilva Dr. and Mrs. Steven M. Still Mr. and Mrs. Carl Estes Dr. and Mrs. James W. Smith ExxonMobil Foundation In honor of Arabella Dane Dr. and Mrs. John A. Floyd, Jr. In memory of Ann Randle Hanover Garden Club Ms. LaDawn Griffin Ms. Jennifer Randle Ms. Catherine M. Hayes In honor of James Gagliardi Learn2Grow.com In memory of sister Barbara Wall Bond and Silver Spring Garden Club Ms. JoAnn Luecke mother Louise Vanderburgh Wall Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. Rissetto Ms. Judy Daniel In honor of Charles McDougall Mr. and Mrs. Tom Underwood Ms. Stacey Hudson Mr. and Mrs. John Zoldak In honor of the 60th Wedding Anniversary of Mr. and Mrs. Alb Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. Russell If you would like to support the American Horticultural Society as part of your estate planning, as a tribute to a loved one, or as part of your annual charitable giving plan, please contact [email protected] or call (703) 768-5700 ext. 123.

July / August 2011 9 10 complimentary membershipstoallattendees. complimentary through the AHSwebsite are available wherever booksare soldandmaybeordered sort’s sumptuous accommodations.TheAHS willalsoprovide tours oftheHomestead’s gardens, whileluxuriatinginthe re- this July withtherelease of 21, participants will enjoy21, participants seminars by gardening and experts the Garden Weekend.” For thisyear’s event from August 19to summer getawayforgardenersthe perfect withitsannual“In THE HOMESTEAD RESORT RESORT WEEKEND” AT THEHOMESTEAD THEGARDEN “IN THE AHS’S SUMMER RELEASEDTHIS GUIDE UPDATED AHSPLANT 1117 orvisit symposium. For more informationortoregister call(614)487- gardeningcommunity beautificationandpublic canattendthe communities basedonpopulation.Anyone withaninterest in with communitymayors andproject funders. and avariety ofinformative sessionsincludingpaneldiscussions of speciallyarrangedfieldstudiesinandaround theNational Mall, more successful. The program also features an impressive line-up designed toraiseawarenessaboutthebenefitsgardensprovide. and saucers.Throughavarietyofactivities,thisannualeventis led anactivityforkidstocreateaminibirdbathoutofterracottapots At theSmithsonianGardenFestinWashington,D.C.,May,AHS Garden Fest 2011 AIB willconclude theeventwithan awards ceremony for the American Gardener www.americainbloom.org. acclaimed lineofgarden title bookswillgainanew as well ascultural requirements. tions ofmore than 1,000plantvarieties, referenceand portable includesdescrip- the coloroftheir flowers. Thecompact each section,plantsare alsogrouped by of year they are attheirbest.Within guide organizes plantsbasedonthetime Plants forEvery Season, lishing. Originally publishedin2003as This andotherAHSgardenbooks (www.ahs.org). What Plant When in Hot Springs, Virginia, offers from DKPub- this updated www.thehomestead.com. care, techniques,andvegetable proper gardening. Other speakerswillpresent ontopicssuchassustainable show, willgive apresentation aboutsomeofhisfavorite plants. Nova Sadowski, Editor withAssociate Viveka Neveln. News written by Editorial Interns Helen ThompsonandTerra- The Homestead’seventwillincludetoursofitsspagarden,above. M www.ahs.org River Farm,Alexandria,Virginia. Washington, D.C. AHS TravelStudyProgram.CzechRepublic. East LansingandGrandRapids,Michigan. OCT. 22 OCT. 6–8. SEPT. 25–OCT.6. SEPT. 24. Experts” Symposium. AUG. 19–21. Chicagoland andRockford,Illinois. AUG. 17–21. JULY 21–23. Horticulturist André Viette, hostof“In theGarden” radio To learnmore about this event and to register, visit sponsored orco-sponsored by theAHS.Visit ark your calendarfortheseupcomingevents thatare . Dr. CatheyDay—ACelebrationofGrandparents. America inBloomSymposiumandAwards. AHS AnnualGala. National Children&YouthGardenSymposium. The Homestead’s13thAnnual“IntheGardenwith AHS TravelStudyTrip:GardensandInnovation. or call(703)768-5700formore information. Castles andGardensofBohemiaMoravia. CALENDAR 2011 AHS EVENTSANDPROGRAMS Hot Springs,Virginia. River Farm,Alexandria,Virginia. 

ְֱֳֳִִֵֵֵֵֵֵֵֵַַַַַָָָֺֹֹֹֺֹֹֹֹֻּ֤֧֪֭֮֫֬֫֠֩֠֯֠֬֠֠֯֬֠֯֬֬֨֫֠֬֠֬֨־ֲֵֶֹֹ֧֭֬֠ e American Horticultural Society PRESENTS 18th Annual Gala Growing Inspirations 6:00 pm – 10:00 pm Saturday, September 24, 2011 AT RIVER FARM IN ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA

American Horticultural Society’s Board of Directors invites you to join us for an evening of ne dining and entertainment in the garden at ONLINE The our 18th Annual Gala, “Growing Inspirations.” is year’s event will celebrate the many inspirations that originate from our gardens. Auction In conjunction with the annual Gala, André and Claire Viette, proprietors of André Viette Nurseries in Virginia’s picturesque the American Horticultural Society Shenandoah Valley, will be our Honorary Co-Chairs for this year’s gala. e horticultural is proud to announce its third annual accomplishments and generous spirit of the Viette are legendary — please join online auction, featuring a fascinating us as we recognize this dedicated duo for their contribution to American horticulture, array of exclusive experiences and sharing their passion for plants and oering encouragement to gardeners across the special offerings. The AHS online auction is your chance to bid on country. e Viettes’ endeavors include a weekly radio show “In the Garden with André ‘once in a lifetime’ experiences Viette,” gardening books, and special events at their nursery where visitors delight in the that allow you to spend time “One extensive display gardens and collections of perennial plants. on One with Great American Gardeners.” is festive evening under the stars will include an elegant formal dinner and silent auction; attire is black-tie. Advance reservations only; tables for 10 and individual tickets Visit www.bluetreemarketing.com/ahs are available. for more information about the auction. The deadline to bid is September 25, 2011.

All proceeds from the Gala and Online Auction benet the stewardship of River Farm and the American Horticultural Society’s outreach and educational programs.

For more information about the gala or to purchase tickets, please contact Maren Seubert at 703.768.5700 ext. 132 or email [email protected]

Sponsorship opportunities also available. www.ahs.org Call for Nominations

AMERICAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 2012 GREAT AMERICAN GARDENERS AWARDS ֢֤֧֧֪֦֥֪֦֪֣֤֤֦֭֠֩֬֩֫֡֨֡֠֡֫֫֫ 2011 Professional Award Richard Piacentini Executive Director, Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens

Liberty Hyde Bailey Award course of his or her career Given to an individual who have cultivated widespread has made significant lifetime 2012 interest in horticulture. contributions to at least three It’s an Honor… of the following horticultural Catherine H. Sweeney Award fields: teaching, research, AWARDS Recognizes extraordinary communications, plant and dedicated philanthropic Since 1953, the American Horticultural exploration, administration, Meritorious Service Award support of the field of Society’s Great American Gardeners Awards art, business, and leadership. Recognizes a past Board horticulture. Program has recognized individuals and member or friend of the H. Marc Cathey Award American Horticultural Jane L. Taylor Award institutions that have made significant Recognizes outstanding Society for outstanding Given to an individual, contributions to American horticulture. scientific research that service in support of the organization, or program that Nominations are now being accepted for has enriched the field of Society’s goals, mission, has inspired and nurtured 2012. horticulture. and activities. future horticulturists through Nominate your “horticultural hero”— efforts in children’s and Paul Ecke Jr. B. Y. Morrison youth gardening. a memorable professor, a favorite garden Commercial Award Communication Award writer, or the driving force behind an Given to an individual or Recognizes effective and Teaching Award incredible community project. company whose commitment inspirational communica- Given to an individual whose For additional information and a to the highest standards of tion—through print, radio, ability to share his or her nomination form, visit www.ahs.org/awards excellence in the field of television, and/or online horticultural knowledge with commercial horticulture media—that advances public others has contributed to a or call (703) 768-5700 ext. 132. contributes to the betterment interest and participation better public understanding of gardening practices in horticulture. of the plant world and its Nominations must be submitted everywhere. important influence on by September 30, 2011. Frances Jones Poetker Award society. Landscape Design Award Recognizes significant Given to an individual whose contributions to floral design Urban Beautification Award work has demonstrated in publications, on the Given to an individual, and promoted the value platform, and to the public. institution, or company of sound horticultural for significant contributions practices in the field of Professional Award to . Given to a public garden and the beautification of administrator whose American cities. achievements during the

12 the American Gardener ְֱֲֳֵ֦֨֯֨֬֠֫ ְְְְְְֱֱֱֱֱֱֱֱֱֲֲִִֵֵ֢֦֤֤֤֦֣֥֦֧֦֤֤֦֪֪֦֤֭֭֭֭֮֠֠֯֬֯֨֬֠֨֬֨֠֠֯֠֠֠֠֫֩ by Terra-NovaSadowski AHS MEMBERS MAKING ADIFFERENCE: several localpublicandprivate gardens, cellent,” hesays.In additiontovisiting plane ticket. close tohome,however, hedidn’t needa tain level.spring wasso trip this The 2011 AHS memberswhodonateabove a cer- offered eachyear indifferent citiesfor numerous AHSPresident’s Counciltrips, Boston,” heexplains. colors, soIdecidedtoheadtowards would gotoNew England toseethefall “Every year around September thefamily sonal tripHuey hadalready planned. timing happenedtocoincidewithaper- year, the event was held in Boston, and the Parks Recreation and That Department. he wasthe assistant director of the Dallas attended anationalmeetingin1981while ican Horticultural Society (AHS)whenhe Huey firstbecameinvolved withtheAmer- MAN TRAVELING P some things.” into the20sseveral timesanddamaged and thesepastcoupleyears it’s gotten 9,” saysHuey,8 or “butitstillfreezes, with tropical plants.“Hempstead isZone Daffodil Society. tinkers often he And dening magazinesandwiththeAmerican publishing hisresults gar- instatewide fodils andotherspring-flowering , Huey. says ment,” He enjoys daf- trialing how itreacts andadaptstoitsenviron- growingobservation: aplantandseeing Hempstead, Texas. treescitrus hecultivates inhisgarden in plants, suchastheoleanders,palms,and knows athingortwoaboutgrowing laughs. Alifelonggardener, healso writing alotofthank-you letters,”Huey with 395friends.“Now mybigproject is Dallasthe at Arboretum80th birthday They were at theheightoftheirbloom thing Iremember mostwastheazaleas. George H.W. Bush andBarbara. The “we gottoseethegarden andhomeof and were just beautiful.” “This year’s“This tourinHouston wasex- Since in then,hehasalsoparticipated “I’ve alwaysbeeninterestedplant in alumnus recentlyalumnus his celebrated party. TheTexas A&Mfloriculture HIL HUEYknows how tothrow a and tropical, butit’s hard toduplicatethat plants for someof itsexhibits. environment inTexas,” Huey explains. togrowbeen struggling South African manager of theDallas Zoo, hetraveled to its naturalhabitatsbecausethe zoo had tostudy indigenous in capacity. astheinterim Whileserving el andinterest in plantsinaprofessional Huey toindulgebothhispassionfortrav- ment ofParks andRecreation allowed One special assignmentwiththeDepart- THETROPICSTEXAS IN MIMICKING interest inplants even more.” others enjoytheir gardening hobby and theAHS,it’sporting possible tohelp I thinkthatby beingamemberandsup- inhorticulturecate meevenand further AHS membershipbecause“ithelpsedu- to exciting destinations, Huey values his A lifelonggardener,PhilHueyenjoysgrowingavarietyofplantssuchasspringbulbs. “A lotofareas inSouth Africaare lush Aside from the opportunity to travel to Aside from theopportunity Phil Huey hardy native palmsandmimosatrees. look usingTexas-adapted plants,suchas standing ofhow toreplicate thistropical The expeditionprovided abetterunder- area inhisgarden. ing room foraMediterranean-inspired this upcomingtrip,mak- hejustmightbe sail from Cape Town toLondon.After turning toSouth years Africa afew ago to This willbeHuey’s afterre- secondcruise Mediterranean, from Venice toBarcelona. ward thisfallthrough the toacruise long.He’sput very already lookingfor- thank-yous, hewon’tbirthday bestaying venture. Afterhefinisheswritinghis Huey isalwayslookingforanotherad- Whether athomeinhisgarden orabroad, NEW ADVENTURES AHEAD for hernexthorticultural adventure. Gardener, A recent for editorialintern Terra-Nova Sadowski islooking July / August /August July The American 2011  13 The rosypinkflowers ofEriogonumgrande 14 Buckwheats versatile andwater-thrifty ogonum such group. Anotherisbuckwheats(Eri- increasingly popular. Succulents are one minimal care. In regions where water erate extended dry periodsare becoming erate extendeddry scarcity isthenorm,plantsthatcantol- looking forplantsthatwillthrive with W Buckwheats drought tolerance,wildlifevalue,andlongseason ofinterest. the American Gardener spp.), agenusofwater-thrifty gardeners nationwide are able landscapingontherise, ITH INTEREST (Eriogonum in sustain- spp.) arealargeanddiversegenusofAmerican nativesprizedfortheir var. says Panayoti Kelaidis, seniorcuratorat any seriouspractitionerof‘xeriscape’.” this region andare absolutelyessentialto era are thebackboneofnative gardens in Denver BotanicGardens. twogen- “These mons aslandscapeplantsinwestern states,” garden. the dry beauty oftenovershadows theirutilityin North Americannatives whosedelicate rubescens “Eriogonums are theequalofpenste- spill gracefullyover rocks,alongside meadow andprairiegardens, orcontain- well inrock gardens, mixed borders, equally best ininformalgardens, serving focal points.Theirbillowy shapeswork ing, groundcovers, informalhedges,or are usefulforerosion control,dustry edg- currently in- available through thenursery ticularly suitedfortrough gardens. ers. Thediminutive alpinespeciesare par- Leymus condensatus The twodozen orsoperennial BY CAROLBORNSTEIN 'Canyon '.

RUGGED BEAUTIES Buckwheats typically grow in dry, sun- and texture at a time of year when most Eriogonum is a diverse genus that includes drenched, rocky sites and can be found native plants have long finished blooming roughly 250 species of annuals, perennials, clinging to wind-whipped ocean bluffs, in western gardens. “Even out of bloom, and . Approximately one-third of cascading down steep chaparral slopes, or they are nearly always interesting in form these are uncommon to rare in the wild. carpeting mountain ridge tops. Some and foliage, and some are truly spectacu- They range from prostrate, cushion-form- species prefer the dry, dappled shade be- lar,” notes Nevin Smith, director of horti- ing mats to eight-foot-tall shrubs. Buck- neath and trees. Virtually all of culture at Suncrest Nurseries in are found throughout the western them grow best in well-drained rocky or Watsonville, California. Foliage color states as well as south into Mexico and sandy soils with low fertility—conditions varies from silvery-white to bright green north into Canada, along with a few loca- in which more traditional garden orna- and, for some species, turns dark purple or tions in the eastern United States. Cali- mentals tend to struggle. maroon in winter. fornia is home to about 125 species, Buckwheats offer year-round orna- It is their , however, that including many of the ones that have al- mental interest, something that West truly sets buckwheats apart. Masses of tiny ready become fairly well established in the Coast gardeners in particular can appreci- white, cream, yellow, or pink to red flow- nursery trade. Other species can some- ate due to the region’s exceptionally long ers are borne in wandlike spikes, dense times be acquired through seed exchanges growing season. Several species in heads, or flattened and intricately and native plant sales. summer and fall, providing welcome color branched sprays. The display lasts for FLOWER OR ? Those unfamiliar with the genus Erio- gonum may wonder if these North American plants are related to the Asian (Fagopyrum escu- lentum), whose seeds are ground into flour used for pancakes, noodles, and other foodstuffs. The connection is that both genera belong to the knotweed or buckwheat family (Polyg- onaceae), along with plants such as rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) and sorrel ( spp.). Several Native American tribes are known to use Eriogonum flowers, seeds, stems, and leaves for food, but overall the American buckwheats are valued more for their medicinal and ornamental properties than their culi- nary ones. —C.B.

months as the flowers age to deep pink, rusty red, cinnamon, chocolate-brown, or dark yellow. “I like using them for rusty fall color in the same manner as Sedum ‘Au- tumn Joy’,” says Susan Van Atta, a land- scape architect based in Santa Barbara, California. As a bonus, the dried inflores- cences of many species retain their shape and color for years in floral arrangements. Buckwheats also provide valuable wildlife habitat. Their flowers and foliage are an important food source for bees, but- terflies, and other beneficial insects. and eat the seeds and enjoy the From early summer’s creamy white to autumn’s reddish brown, the delicate flowers of St. ’s protective cover. David Salman,

Catherine’s lace (Eriogonum giganteum) provide a spectacular, long-lasting show. owner of High Country Gardens nursery

July / August 2011 15 16 several islands.Therounded, wavyleaves wide oncoastalbluffsandrocky slopeson below. Its frothy, softpink todeeprose are gray-green on top anddowny white typically grows onetotwofeettalland diminutive, looselymoundedsubshrub rubescens) Try neararugged using thiselegantshrub roughened bark addingtexturalinterest. an informalmixed border. flowered buckwheat(E.grande boulder orweave several plants through The ChannelIslands, locatedoffthecoast ISLANDS CALIFORNIA’S CHANNEL in Santa Fe, New Mexico, callsthem“an cream topalepink flowers inspringand yet bold-textured plantisimpressive. thing aboutthissimultaneouslydelicate Catherine’s lace(E.giganteum).Every- al buckwheatspecies.AmongtheseisSt. become garden favorites, includingsever- many outstandingnative plantsthathave of southernCalifornia,are hometo erned by shade,you shouldbeabletosuc- re-valuable cluesabouttheirhorticultural garden, looktotheirnaturalhabitatsfor e leaves, and smaller, yarrowlike clustersof feet tallandwide,hasnarrow, sage-green way,in every Santa Island Cruz buck- liage ofcoyote bush(Baccharis pilularis). likes combiningitwiththelimegreen fo- San Francisco-based landscapearchitect, border.backdrop inadry Ron Lutsko, a point andisusefulasaninformalhedgeor St. Catherine’s lacemakesastrikingfocal liage. Thesedome-shaped,two-foot-wide creamy whiteflowers hovers above thefo- below. By earlysummer, alacyveil of that are gray-green ontopandsilver-gray may extendeven wider, bearingoval leaves Plants quicklyreach five tosixfeettalland pending uponyour climatezone. de- buckwheats discussedinthisarticle, cessfully grow atleastoneormore ofthe companions. Unless your garden isgov- quirements, potentialuses,andpossible with age,theircrooked branchesand plants reinforces theirsculpturalcharacter. reddish-brown. Judicious ofolder pruning inflorescences eventually darken towarm summer. Some plantsbecometreelike ssential beeplant.” For amore vibrantsplashofcolor, red- To pickthebestbuckwheatsforyour More modestthanSt. Catherine’s lace the American Gardener (E. arborescens) is anexcellent choice.This grows twotofive var. irregular formandproducescreamtopalepinkflowersinspring andsummer. A goodchoiceforbordersorrockgardens,Eriogonumarborescens short-lived plant. short-lived will germinatetoreplace thisrelatively turning brown. If you’re lucky, someseeds species, theflowers upon quicklyfallapart through earlysummer. Unlike other f flowers addzingtorock gardens orthe blend easilywithotherxeric plantsinthe light grayleaves andbillowing shape three feettalland cansprawlseveral feet garden. Individualdry plantsreach upto rather understatedshrub. Its rounded, from theCaliforniamainland. demics andthesebuckwheatspecies cluding theaforementioned islanden- adapted tothisharshenvironment, in- buffeting winds.Many plantshave ly constantinfluxofsalt-ladenairand ocean ischallengingduetotheseeming- Gardening inexposedareas nearthe MAINLAND CALIFORNIA ceptional erosion control capabilities. slopes inthewildindicatethis plant’s ex- across. Large coloniesspillingdown steep hot season. providing monthsof cool colorinthis stalks inlatesummerandwell intofall, ers dottheslender, branchedflower Small heads ofcream tolight pinkflow- ront ofamixed border from spring Ashyleaf buckwheat(E.cinereum) is a da, andArizona. Occurring from thecoast borders intoBaja California,Utah, Neva- the genus,extendingbeyond thestate’s is themostwidespread speciesin shrubby occasionally available. white orlightpink;deeppinkformsare pomponlike clustersare usuallycreamy heads thatbloominsummerandfall.The foliage andmore tightlycompactflower Coast buckwheatdiffersinhavinggrayer fulfill thesamefunctioningarden. arefar ashorticulturists concerned,they sidered thesetobethesamespeciesandas buckwheat. At onetime,botanistscon- m riner Lytle’, ‘Bruce Dickinson’, ‘Theodore number ofselections—including ‘War- take . Thelatterformhasyieldeda ing several feetacross astheirbranchtips to fourfeettallandarching formssprawl- shrub, withuprightformsreaching three the base.Californiabuckwheat isavariable growthand stimulatesasurgeofnew from plants toground level removes thistinder species. Periodically cuttingbackolder high-fire zones shouldavoid planting this leaves over time,sogardeners livingin tendency toaccumulatedeadtwigsand thisdurablenative hasa to inlanddeserts, ainland counterpart tored-floweredainland counterpart California buckwheat(E.fasciculatum) Coast buckwheat(E.latifolium) develops aninteresting, is the

Resources Alpine Plants of North America: An En- cyclopedia of Mountain Flowers from the Rockies to Alaska by Graham Nicholls. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 2002. California Native Plants for the Garden by Carol Bornstein, David Fross, and Bart O’Brien. Cachuma Press, Los Olivos, California, 2005. Eriogonum Plant Society (www.eriogonum.org). Members of this new society have access to edu- cational programs and an annual seed exchange. High and Dry: Gardening with Cold-Hardy Dryland Plants by Robert Nold. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 2008. Native Treasures by M. Nevin Smith. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2006. North American Society (www.nargs.org). Members receive the Rock Garden Quarterly and have ac- cess to their annual seed exchange.

Above: The loose, silvery gray foliage of Sources Wright’s buckwheat surrounds the golden Annie’s Annuals, Richmond, CA. (888) blooms of saffron buckwheat. Right: 266-4370. www.anniesannuals.com. California buckwheat blooms from spring High Country Gardens, Santa Fe, NM. through late summer or fall. (800) 925-9387. www.highcountrygardens.com. Payne’, and ‘Dana Point’—valued as Jelitto Perennial Seeds, Louisville, groundcovers. The needlelike, green to KY. (502) 895-0807. gray-green leaves are superficially similar to www.jelitto.com. rosemary, but the resemblance ends once Larner Seeds, Bolinas, CA. (415) the creamy white flowers emerge. Plants 868-9407. www.larnerseeds.com. can bloom from spring through summer Siskiyou Rare Plant Nursery, Talent, and even into fall before turning copper or OR. (541) 535-7103. deep brown. Beekeepers especially prize www.siskiyourareplantnursery.com. this common buckwheat for the flavorful honey it yields. Saffron or Conejo buckwheat (E. cro- sharp drainage and full sun, saffron buck- found throughout the mountains of catum) is one of California’s rarer buck- wheat is a beautiful informal addition to northern California and into Oregon, wheats, occurring in a narrow area within rock gardens, dry borders, containers, or Colorado, and Utah. Kelaidis calls this the Santa Monica Mountains. A stunning as a low hedge in knot gardens. species the workhorse of the genus. foliage plant, this silvery forms Plants range in size from prostrate mats mounds one to two feet tall and up to FOR COLDER CLIMES to 18-inch-high mounds and can spread three feet wide. Soft white hairs coat the Gardeners in colder regions of the coun- up to three feet across. The evergreen to rounded, wavy leaves and flower stalks try, including high-elevation locations in semi-evergreen foliage varies from sage- that begin to elongate in spring. The rust- California, have an ever-expanding green to gray-green and may turn purple colored give way to vivid yellow palette of hardy buckwheats to cultivate. or bronze-red in winter. The spring or flowers that eventually ripen into choco- One of the most popular is sulfur buck- summer-blooming flowers span the spec-

late-brown seed heads. Provided with wheat (E. umbellatum), a variable species trum of yellows.

July / August 2011 17 Several varieties and selec- tions are recommended, in- cluding E. umbellatum var. aureum ‘Kannah Creek’, a groundcover with bright green leaves and huge yellow that age to bronze-orange in the late summer to early fall. Another, E. umbellatum var. porteri from central Utah, is a subalpine coveted by rock gar- deners for its mat-forming , shiny green foliage that blushes to dark bronze in win- ter, and brilliant yellow flow- ers that turn orange and scarlet as they age. For those partial to gray foliage, E. umbellatum var. humistratum is another ex- cellent performer. ‘Shasta Sul- phur’ is a densely mounded, yellow-flowered that performs reliably throughout California, whereas ‘Alturas Red’ is a more diminutive se- lection with white flowers that quickly turn red. Wright’s buckwheat (E. wrightii) is Eriogonum umbellatum var. aureum ‘Kannah Creek’ makes a colorful groundcover with its another highly variable montane species bright yellow blooms that age to deep orange in late summer and early fall. whose range encompasses Southern Cal- ifornia and parts of Nevada, Arizona, bined with its carefree nature and toler- Shale barrens buckwheat (E. allenii), New Mexico, and Texas. The small, lin- ance of modest irrigation, are garnering is one of the few species native to the leaves are lightly felted, lending a sil- rave reviews. eastern United States. This rare perenni- very-gray sheen to the matted or loosely al occurs on rocky slopes in oak and pine upright plants. Tiny clusters of white to woodlands in the Appalachians of Vir- pink flowers punctuate the wiry stalks in ginia and . The broadly summer and fall. These potentially long- oval leaves are sage-green above and cov- lived plants are perfect for rock or trough ered with soft, brownish-white hairs gardens. Closely related and similar in below. This handsome foliage is upstaged many respects is the pancake-flat in late summer by the splendid, dome- Kennedy’s buckwheat (E. kennedyi), shaped inflorescences of yellow flowers. whose flowers bloom in summer in clus- Despite its rare status in the wild, it is ters on unbranched stalks. Older plants quite adaptable and durable in cultiva- may carry hundreds of tiny rosettes. tion. Look for the recently named seed strain ‘Little Rascal’. OTHER BUCKWHEATS Dogtongue or sandhill wild buckwheat The diversity of buckwheat species and (E. tomentosum) grows in sandy soils in cultivars available to gardeners continues woodlands and of , to climb, thanks to adventurous growers Georgia, Alabama, and the Carolinas. Al- and collectors. Crispleaf buckwheat (Eri- though rarely cultivated, this buckwheat ogonum corymbosum), for example, oc- holds the distinction of being the first curs in several western states and typically species to be called Eriogonum, or “woolly produces clouds of white, pink, and oc- knees” in Greek, a reference to the swollen, casionally yellow flowers in summer. hairy nodes on the stem. Depending upon ‘Henrieville Yellow’, a yellow-flowered future garden trends, this delicate beauty, variety from Utah, was recently intro- Small pink flower clusters of Eriogonum whose white flowers bloom in late summer

duced. Its showy, staticelike sprays, com- wrightii appear above felted foliage. and fall, might just find a wider audience.

18 the American Gardener MORE BUCKWHEATS TO CONSIDER Botanical/ Height/Spread Ornamental Characteristics Native Range Common Name (inches) Eriogonum caespitosum 1–4/8–30 dense mat of white felted leaves, western U.S. (matted buckwheat) yellow to red flowers E. compositum 8–30/10–15 cream to yellow umbels, sage-green leaves western U.S. (arrowleaf buckwheat) E. douglasii 1–4/2–16 dense mat of whitish leaves, yellow flowers western U.S. (Douglas’ buckwheat) E. elongatum 24–72/12–24 pink-tinged white flowers on wandlike, California to Baja (longstem buckwheat) leafy stems E. gracilipes 2–4/2–26 mat of white felted leaves, white to rose flowers White Mountains of (White Mountain buckwheat) in pompon heads California and Nevada E. jamesii 2–10/12–60 mat of sage-green to gray leaves, white to southwestern U.S. to Mexico (James’ buckwheat) yellow flowers E. lobbii 1–6/2–16 cushion of rounded gray leaves and white to California, Oregon, Nevada (Lobb’s buckwheat) rose flowers in pompon heads E. nudum 4–60/2–12 broad, somewhat hairy leaves and white to western U.S. to (naked buckwheat) yellow flowers on long, forked stems northwestern Mexico E. parvifolium 12–40/20–80 matted to sprawling shrub with green leaves, coastal central and (seacliff buckwheat) white to pink or greenish-yellow flowers southern California E. saxatile 4–8/2–8 loose clusters of silvery-white leaves, white California and Nevada (hoary buckwheat) to rose or pale yellow flowers E. sphaerocephalum 2–16/12–24 open mats with downy leaves, yellow flowers in western U.S. (rock buckwheat) rounded heads E. thymoides 2–8/4–12 narrow, silky leaves, white to yellow flowers, low Washingon, (thymeleaf buckwheat) shrubby plants become gnarled with age Oregon, Idaho

CARING FOR BUCKWHEATS may be necessary. Fortunately, many ity to a garden composition. However, Buckwheats are practically care-free plants species freely self-sow without becom- it’s important to note that if your gar- in the garden. An inch or two of gravel or ing weedy, adding a touch of spontane- den is adjacent to natural areas, there is pine needle mulch will keep their crowns potential for buckwheats to escape cul- dry; avoid humus-rich materials that re- tivation or hybridize with indigenous tain too much moisture. Anne Spiegel, species, risking contamination of the who grows several western species in her local gene pool. In that case, it is best to LaGrange, New York, garden, notes that avoid these problems by planting local- good air circulation during the hot, ly native species. humid summer months is also important in the eastern United States. PROMISING POTENTIAL Few pests bother buckwheats. A Once beguiled by buckwheats, few gar- strong pulse of water will dislodge deners can settle for growing just one aphids that occasionally congregate on kind. In addition to the ones profiled the new leaves or flower buds. Deer and here, there are at least a dozen other rabbits may nibble the tender young commercially available Eriogonum tips. Powdery mildew can be trouble- species to further tempt us (see chart some, but adequate sunlight and good above). So make room for some beauti- air circulation should keep this disease ful, carefree buckwheats in your water- in check. thrifty garden.  Buckwheats rarely need pruning other than the removal of broken Carol Bornstein is a horticulturist and au- branches or spent flower stalks. As thor based in Santa Barbara, California. plants become leggy with age, rejuve- Her most recent book is Reimagining the nate them by pruning back to pencil- California Lawn: Water-conserving diameter . This technique isn’t Although rare in the wild, Eriogonum allenii Plants, Practices, and Designs (Cachuma

.(always reliable, so eventual replacement is quite adaptable in cultivation. Press, 2011 ְְֱֱֲֳ֪֥֣֧֦֪֮֡֠֨֠֡֠֨֯

July / August 2011 19 gardening by subtraction with


Whether they bloom briefly or look good year-round, easily removed self-sowing plants play many roles in the garden and can be a boon for the busy gardener.

VEN AS A kid I never understood why Grumple Eddy, my crabby Eold uncle, cursed the Johnny jump-ups ( tricolor) that popped up in his garden each spring, going after them with a and a scowl. Not only did I love their cheerful purple-and-yel- low faces, but because they self-seeded with abandon, they had a delightful pen- chant for appearing in unexpected places. Unlike my uncle, I welcome plants that sow themselves in my garden, where they create random jazzy combinations and make themselves at home in places I would never have considered. Self-sown plants also save me from having to buy and re- plant my tried-and-true garden favorites each year. Instead, I practice gardening by subtraction—that is, I simply remove the plants where they are not wanted. This lower-maintenance technique of- Above: Brown-eyed Susans fill the gaps in the author’s garden with splashes of sunny color. fers many advantages: Self-sown plants es- Top right: Johnny jump-ups appear among the leaves of ‘Sapphire’ blue grass. tablish faster and have a greater success

20 the American Gardener rate than transplants. Also, some seeds deners need to do their homework before time, a dozen plants originally situated in sprout in fall or require a cold period in introducing any plant into their gardens a wet, shady trial garden adjacent to a order to germinate, and this is easier to ac- that may have a broader negative environ- stream have multiplied into thousands, es- complish naturally outdoors than buried mental impact. caping the garden and establishing them- in the freezer under last summer’s pesto. For example, Japanese primrose (Primu- selves across the road and into natural And allowing plants to set seeds also pro- la japonica) is one of those self-seeding areas. Five years after a regime of vides a food source for wildlife and en- plants that can be a dream—or a nightmare. and handweeding, Cary Institute staff still courages genetic diversity. This robust wetland plant features basal pull 100 to 200 primrose a year. leaves that emerge in April, develops eight- Planted near water that connects with a SEEDS TO HAVE—AND HAVE NOT to nine-inch-long leaves from a central natural freshwater source, Japanese prim- When it comes to which plants make the crown topped by tall-stemmed clusters of roses are highly invasive, outcompeting best self-seeders in a garden, trial and error red, pink, or white flowers, and remains at- and displacing native plants. are the best guides. You want plants to be tractive throughout the growing season. Other popular plants that are poten- not too big or too small for your space, At the Vermont farm of landscape de- tially invasive and banned in certain states and they should be easy to remove with- signers and authors Gordon and Mary include water forget-me-nots ( out digging. They should be pleasing in form and color, reliably show up when they’re needed, set the right amount of seed, and disperse it without much fuss. A handful—including Johnny jump- ups—have qualities that make them wel- come wherever they appear in my garden. Other self-seeders—like Cory- dalis lutea, which has ferny leaves that provide multi-seasonal appeal—need to be kept in bounds, but their redeeming qualities justify the special attention. Teasing tiny seedlings from the crowns of neighboring perennials, then a thorough pulling and cutting back in summer keeps them under control. Tap-rooted plants, in particular, should be thinned when small. I had an eight-foot-tall bronze fennel growing in an undesired location that took a three- foot-deep excavation and a pot of boiling water to finish off. Now I make sure to pull the seedlings when they’re small and harvest more seeds for . Located away from a natural watercourse, this moist garden in is suitable for Keep in mind that seeds of some hybrid cultivating Japanese primroses, which spread happily among other woodland plants. plants may not produce plants that look like their parents, or the seeds may be ster- Hayward, seeds from Gordon’s 87-year- scorpioides), cup plant (Silphium perfolia- ile. Also, some plants are notorious for old garden mentor Howard Andros were tum), yellow flag ( pseudacorus), dame’s cross-pollinating with each other, resulting scratched into moist soil under a grove of rocket (Hesperis matronalis), and bachelor’s in seeds that produce very different-look- wild in 1984. Japanese primroses buttons ( cyanus). ing plants. After several years, the original have bloomed every spring since under a To find out what plants are listed as in- plants will have disappeared, leaving be- canopy of fragrant white blossoms vasive in your state, check the State Nox- hind an assortment of seedlings with mot- and now also cover the northern half of ious Weed Lists at http://plants.usda.gov/ ley traits. Diligent monitoring of plants the garden. The Haywards encourage the java/noxiousDriver#state. before they form seeds may be the only spread of deep pink- and red-flowered way to preserve the original traits. Howev- plants by removing the seedheads of REGIONAL DIFFERENCES er, allowing nature a free hand may both lighter colored flowers. When gardening by subtraction, there’s save effort and yield delightful variations. At the Cary Institute of Ecosystem a colorful palette of self-sowing plants Studies in Millbrook, New York, Japanese that can yield pleasing, spontaneous dis- BEWARE SPLIT PERSONALITIES primroses are not so well-behaved. Judy plays. It has been interesting comparing Some plants have a two-faced nature de- Sullivan, who spent years there developing notes with gardeners in other parts of the pending on where they are grown, so gar- habitat gardens, relates that in over 15 years’ country, many of whom grow the same

July / August 2011 21 plants with different results due to re- For me, the shallow-rooted seedlings are foot area. Although wild does spread gional , soil type, aesthetic prefer- never too numerous. by rooting along its creeping stems, Gor- ences, and other factors. don assists the process by removing spent The following are a few favorite self- Wild Phlox (Phlox divaricata) flowers with a string trimmer to strew ripe seeders that have grown well for me in After seeing Gordon and Mary Hayward’s seeds about. Connecticut, as well as for fellow garden- one-and-a-half-acre Vermont garden, I’ll ers across the country. (See the sidebar on never deadhead wild phlox again. Native Lady’s Mantle (Alchemilla spp.) page 23 for recommended self-seeders for to the woodlands and fields of the eastern Gardeners coast to coast like lady’s mantle specific regions.) half of North America, this perennial pro- for its neat clumps of wavy-edged round- duces masses of fragrant lavender to pink ed leaves emerging in early spring to PERENNIAL FAVORITES flowers in spring. The Haywards started charmingly catch the sparkling dew, fol- Brown-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia triloba) with 16 plants in a dry woodland garden; lowed by loose cymes of small chartreuse Many plants don’t survive in my Dar- now wild phlox carpets a 30-foot-by-70- flowers that last for several weeks. Plants winian garden, where compe- tition is stiff and the only water they get comes from rainfall. One that performs like a star under these trying conditions is brown-eyed Susan, a native of eastern and central North America with a lyrically airy habit. Small first-year rosettes form almost a groundcover in spots, holding soil, contributing a green presence, and suppressing weeds. First- and second-year plants are easy to pull. Cutting back in early summer encour- ages a more compact form with many flowers. For a tall narrow form, thin entire stems. A final thinning at bloom time refines the composition and fills the vase. Adaptable to both sun and shade, brown-eyed Susan blooms in August, providing a big shot of color for six weeks or more. Golden one-and-a-half to two-inch Above: Chartreuse-flowering lady’s mantle daisylike flowers are touched with white as stands out on top of a wall. Left: Self-sown they age, and their seeds feed hungry birds great blue lobelia flowers rise above the fine such as goldfinches all winter. foliage of Japanese sweet flag in the author’s Connecticut garden. Great Blue Lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica) Another native to eastern and central work in formal or informal settings, and North America, this plant thrives in wet are especially good for transitioning from sites. In August, the lobelias’ long-lasting full baking sun to part shade. They look spires of intense cobalt-blue tubular good even while going to seed. Self-sown flowers up above the strappy gold- seedlings come up equally well in garden en blades of Japanese sweet flag (Acorus beds and between pavers. gramineus ‘Ogon’), creating a vibrant vi- sion of blue and yellow in my garden. Lungworts (Pulmonaria spp.) Great blue lobelia needs disturbed soil to Because lungworts have a reputation for colonize. Individuals may not live long, cross-pollinating and producing seeds of but if you stir up the soil, harvest ripe plants with unpredictable traits, I used to flower stalks, and shake their seeds over dutifully label and deadhead all the fancy the area, the plant will spread over time. new selections with superior foliage and

22 the American Gardener Sources ENCOURAGING ANNUALS AND TENDER PERENNIALS TO SELF-SOW Bustani Plant Farm, Stillwater, OK. For years I never understood why spider flower (Cleome hassleriana), California pop- (405) 372-3379. py ( californica), flowering (Nicotiana spp.), sweet alyssum (Lob- www.bustaniplantfarm.com. ularia maritima), and countless classic grown-as-annual self-sowers flourished for High Country Gardens, gardeners everywhere but failed to reproduce Santa Fe, NM. (800) 925-9387. in my Connecticut garden. Sometimes at www.highcountrygardens.com. summer’s end a would appear in Johnny’s Selected Seeds, Winslow, the middle of a stone path or my front steps, ME. (877) 564-6697. too late to set seed. www.johnnyseeds.com. On one late summer visit to Bob Hyland Munchkin Nursery & Gardens, De- and Andrew Beckman’s Loomis Creek pauw, IN. (812) 633-4858. Nursery in Hudson, New York, I noticed a www.munchkinnursery.com. gorgeous jewels of Opar (Talinum panicu- Prairie Moon Nursery, Winona, MN. latum ‘Kingswood Gold’)—the same plant (507) 452-1362. that was just then flowering in my home www.prairiemoonnursery.com. garden—was here already spilling seed everywhere by a gravel parking area. I won- dered aloud at the difference, and Bob flowers that I introduced to my garden. I said, “Oh, everything seeds in gravel.” (For must have missed some because—to my a list of his top picks for the gravelly edges delight—assorted lungworts now emerge Spider flower is a prolific self-seeder. of walkways, see the sidebar on page 23.) the instant snow melts. I have seen many It turns out the soil conditions in my garden striking silver variations, plants with dark were not conducive to encouraging proper for the seeds of some plants. crisply dotted leaves and huge purple-blue I’d already noticed that many native plants readily germinate in moss and learned flowers hinting of the cultivar ‘Blue Ensign’ from Pennsylvania landscape designer Larry Weaner that others only proliferate in dis- in their family history, and a few with pure turbed soil or gravel. Ian Caton, a horticulturist who works with Weaner, adds that white blooms. They nestle into pockets in plants with small seeds that need light to germinate require thin substrates free of mossy boulders with wild Christmas litter. Because my garden is covered with mulch and disturbed only by careless and poke up through mats of Phlox footsteps on stepping stones or is shaded by plants that stabilize steep slopes, these stolonifera. I the wimpy seedlings seeds don’t have what they need to germinate. Although I don’t have this option, gar- and let the best do their thing. deners on flatter ground could forgo mulch or try mulching with sand or fine gravel, making sure to pull weeds that appear to create disturbance and reduce competition (Helleborus spp.) for the seedlings of the desired plants. Besides boxwood, hellebores are the only Furthermore, most of the annuals and tender perennials we grow come from dark green presence in my South and Central America, Mediterranean areas, or Africa. In northern climes, they that deer don’t devour. The finely-cut char- need the heat absorbed and radiated by stone to get going. The soil in my garden treuse leaves of stinking hellebores (Helle- just takes too long to warm up. Northern gardeners will have better luck with warm- borus foetidus) emerge in December and climate plants with gravel mulch, at the edge of gravel paths, between stones or blossoms of the same shade open in Feb- dry-laid bricks in areas that get full sun. I have my eye on cracks in the southwest- ruary. In late spring, I cut back rangy old facing driveway that sprout heat-loving weeds and an occasional seedling from last plants and let younger ones take over. I also year’s containers. A little pickaxe work to enlarge cracks where nobody drives and remove seedlings that stray beyond the gar- some fine gravel might work wonders. —K.B. den’s boundaries.

Virginia Bluebells (Mertensia virginica) The small blue or blue-pink, bell-shaped ( spp.) Despite the fact that they die back to the flowers of this North American woodland There are over 2,000 species in the genus ground by early summer, Virginia blue- native last several weeks, after which time Euphorbia; some are noxious weeds, oth- bells are perfect for naturalizing in wood- the plants begin to go dormant—not a ers are well-behaved, self-perpetuating gar- ed areas. Small rounded leaves tinged a pretty sight. Plants grow two feet tall and den citizens in the right conditions. Nan dusky purple emerge with the early spring a foot wide and produce zillions of seeds. Sterman, a low-water gardening expert, au- bulbs. “The next thing you notice,” says Taking a cue from the cycle of growth in thor, and designer in Encinitas, California, garden writer Carole Ottesen, who has its natural habitat, Ottesen plants ferns and grows Euphorbia rigida, a fleshy blue- Virginia bluebells popping up everywhere tall perennials that emerge as the Virginia green-leaved evergreen sprawler, and E. in her Maryland garden, “is they turn a re- bluebells’ decline, engulfing the mess. She characias ssp. wulfenii, a taller, more shrub- markable pale green color, and then—all controls the spread of the bluebells by like plant with chartreuse flowers and con- of a sudden—the plants are in bloom.” pulling out most of their seedlings. trasting deep green foliage in her small

July / August 2011 23 . From a handful of each, she now has dozens, thanks to self-sowing. “They went from being a little feature in the garden to being the background,” says Sterman. “They’re like a carpet and every- thing else is like rose sprinkled across the carpet.” She also notes that the foliage is fabulous from the end of May until De- cember, when flowering begins. The seedlings are easy enough to pull, but it’s a good idea to wear gloves and cover arms and legs when weeding or deadheading to protect skin from the caustic milky .

Golden Lace (Patrinia scabiosifolia) Despite its see-through, open framework, golden lace still packs a punch. Roger Gossler, of Gossler Farms Nursery in Springfield, Oregon, says “you can plant all kinds of things behind it and still see them.” Compact basal foliage keeps its good looks all season and turns dusky pur- ple in fall. Seven-foot-tall, red-tinted stems bear large panicles of long-lasting mus- tard-yellow flowers. “We’ve had it for 25 years. Seedlings move around but stay within about a 30-by-150-foot space, and unwanted plants are very easy to pull out,” says Gossler. “They give great late-season color when a lot of things are quiet after the big flush of summer color.”

Beardtongues ( spp.) Denver Botanic Gardens’ Water-Smart Garden bursts with colorful flowering plants that require poor, dry, gravelly soil. Panayoti Kelaidis, director of outreach and senior curator, highly recommends beardtongues—especially desert beard- tongue (Penstemon pseudospectablis) and scarlet bugler (P. barbatus). Both are na- tive to the southwest and attract hum- mingbirds. Desert beardtongue grows to three feet tall and produces spikes of tubular red flowers above large, toothed, gray-green leaves. Growing two to three feet tall, scarlet bugler’s tubular red flow- ers feature yellow hairs on the lower lip.

Jewels of Opar ( paniculatum) horticulturist Felder Rush- ing, co-author of Passalong Plants, is a fan of easy-to-grow, old-fashioned, plain green jewels of Opar. This two- Top: Euphorbia rigida softens the edges of a walkway in Nan Sterman’s California garden. foot-tall, fleshy-leaved relative of por- Above: At Denver Botanic Gardens, red-flowering desert beardtongue and scarlet bugler tulaca produces airy sprays of pink share a bed with a variety of colorful, drought-tolerant plants in the Water-Smart Garden. flowers resembling baby’s breath. “It’s a

24 the American Gardener FAVORITE SELF-SOWERS FOR EVERY REGION I asked garden experts from different parts of the country to recommend self-sowing plants that are particularly suited to their regions, and here are their favorites. —K.B.

SOUTH CENTRAL (woodland sage), S. transylvanica Mirabilis jalapa (four o’clock) Steve Owens, owner of Bustani Plant Farm (Transylvanian sage) frutescens and P. frutescens in Stillwater, Oklahoma, suggests: bombyciferum, syn. ‘Atropurpurea’ (beefsteak plant, shiso) V. broussa (Turkish mullein), Zinnia elegans (zinnia) Ceratotheca triloba V. roripifolium (roripa mullein) (South African foxglove) CALIFORNIA Collinsia violacea (blue-eyed Mary) NORTHEAST Landscaper designer and author Nan Ster- carolinianum Bob Hyland, owner of Loomis Creek Nurs- man of Encinitas, California, likes: (Carolina larkspur) ery in Hudson, New York, recommends Euphorbia marginata, syn. E. variegata these plants for the gravelly, edgy transitions Clarkia spp. (snow on the mountain) from paths/walkways to garden beds: aestivalis var. flavovirens (California poppy) (prairie gaillardia, blanket flower) ‘Hot Biscuits’ Hunnemannia fumariifolia (Mexican Tetragonotheca ludoviciana grandiflora, syn. D. ambigua poppy) ( nerveray) (yellow foxglove), D. lutea (small odoratus (sweet ) tenuiloba, syn. yellow foxglove) somniferum ( seed poppy) tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy) Eschscholzia californica bonariensis (Brazilian verbena) (California poppy) MIDWEST glandulifera Gene E. Bush, owner of Munchkin Nurs- MOUNTAINS/SOUTHWEST (Himalayan balsam) ery & Gardens, LLC, in Depauw, Indi- Panayoti Kelaidis, director of outreach and perenne (blue ) ana, offers the following top reseeders for senior curator at the Denver Botanic Gar- damascena (love-in-a-mist) Midwestern shade gardens: dens recommends: Papaver atlanticum (Atlas or Atlantic poppy) americana, syn. Aquilegia chrysantha (yellow columbine) argentea (silver sage), S. pratensis americana (American bugbane) Bukiniczia cabulica (variegated statice) (meadow clary) Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit), Collomia grandiflora (grand collomia) (nettle-leaved mullein) A. dracontium (dragon root) Eremurus spp. (desert candle, foxtail lily) canadense (Canadian ginger) Eschscholzia californica DEEP SOUTH Athyrium niponicum (Japanese painted (California poppy) Some favorite reseeders of Mississippi horti- ) Eriogonum umbellatum culturist and author Felder Rushing are: spp. (sulphur-flower buckwheat) Delphinium exaltatum (tall larkspur), Penstemon barbatus (scarlet bugler), Celosia cristata (cockscomb) D. tricorne (dwarf larkspur) P. pseudospectabilis (desert beard- Cleome hassleriana (spider flower) (spotted tongue), P. strictus (Rocky Mountain Cosmos bipinnatus (cosmos), geranium), G. phaeum ‘Samobor’ penstemon, stiff beard-tongue) C. sulphureus (orange cosmos) (mourning widow geranium) campanularia ajacis (larkspur) Helleborus foetidus (stinking ) (California bluebell) tinctoria (Plains coreopsis) Spigelia marilandica (Indian pink) Salvia ✕sylvestris, syn. S. deserta (globe ) (wood poppy) great texture plant for pots and shaded standing on its toes, with flowers taller,” simply dump a thick layer of mulch and borders,” says Rushing. “I’ve never seen he says. “In Oklahoma, it blooms around walk away miss all the fun. All you need to a single insect or disease on it, and it 4 to 5 p.m., so it greets you at the end of do is learn to recognize the seedlings, needs little or no water.” the work day.” In the wild, it grows in which often look very different from ma- Less familiar native large-flowered rock sandy, shallow soil over rock, so Owen ture plants, give them some space, then pink (T. calycinum) is listed as rare and en- uses it in raised beds and rock walls where see what beautiful surprises pop up in dangered at its extreme northeastern range there’s good drainage. your garden.  in Illinois. But Steve Owens, owner of Bustani Plant Farm in Stillwater, Okla- LESS CONTROL, MORE ENJOYMENT Karen Bussolini is a photographer, freelance homa, describes it as easy to grow and heat Self-sowing plants are for observant peo- writer, and garden coach based in South tolerant. “It’s very short, four inches if it’s ple who are open to change. Those who Kent, Connecticut.

July / August 2011 25 26 American Gardens Bugbanes American Gardens Bugbanes the American Gardener for for BY RICHARDHAWKE BY RICHARDHAWKE

UGBANES ARE delightful deni - These statuesque, late-season bloomers brighten up shade and zens of shady woodlands, where Btheir late-season flowers and lush, woodland gardens at a time when little else is flowering. fine-textured foliage enliven the shadows. They are big perennials—many are three clematis, hellebores, anemones, delphini- pleasant or offensive depending on the to four feet tall, some reach nearly seven ums, and globeflowers (Trollius spp.). On species and the observer, and they attract feet when in bloom. close inspection, the familial resemblance a great number of pollinators. The Previously known as Cimicifuga, the 28 can be seen in the boss of white, cream, or are typically dry pods, which are orna- or so species of bugbanes have been reclas- pink-tinged and the petallike mental in their own right. sified into the genus Actaea, which already , which often fall away upon open- In colder regions, the autumnal blooms contained doll’s eyes or white baneberry ing. True petals may be absent or reduced of most species may come almost too late (A. pachypoda) and red baneberry (A. to cupped nectaries; this often helps dis- in some years. But bugbanes are valued as rubra). The change has not been univer- tinguish one species from the next. much for their leaves as for their distinctive sally accepted, however, so if you look for floral displays; their handsome, fernlike fo- bugbanes in a reference or at a nursery, MORE THAN JUST A PRETTY FLOWER liage provides an attractive backdrop to check both genera. They also go by a vari- Bugbanes grow from thick, slow-spread- ferns and lower-growing, shade-loving ety of common names, including black co- ing to form dense mounds of basal perennials throughout summer. Their ter- hosh, snakeroot, and fairy candles. (For leaves with flowering stems rising well nately compound leaves—that is, each leaf more about Actaea classification and above. Unlike baneberries, which bloom is divided multiple times into groups of nomenclature see “Bugbane ,” in spring and early summer, most bug- three—impart a fine, lacy aspect to the leaf page 31). banes bloom in fall—September and Oc- as a whole. The quantity and shape of the Bugbanes hail from a broad geograph- tober in the Chicago area, where I live leaflets vary by species. ical range in North America, , and (for more about baneberries, see the web . Several attractive species are native to special linked to this article on the AHS MIDWEST EVALUATION Beginning in 2000, the Chicago Botan- ic Garden (CBG) established a trial to evaluate and compare 18 different Actaea species. As the garden’s manager of plant evaluations, I observed their ornamental qualities, cultural adaptability, disease and pest problems, and winter hardiness. The bugbanes grew in beds partially shaded by mature and . In the sixth year of the trial, the felling of a large red oak plunged much of the trial beds into full sun. Keeping the site moist enough be- came a challenge, so the plants suffered in the unrelenting sunlight. Many plants per- formed admirably in the following years despite the less-than-favorable conditions, but this incident affirmed that bugbanes should never be allowed to dry out. Among the plants that stood out in the trial were , A. dahurica, A. japonica, and A. simplex, along with its purple-leaved cultivars. (For information Above: A relative of bugbane, doll’s eyes (Actaea pachypodia), bears ornamental, but poisonous on selections suited for other regions of . Opposite: Actaea racemosa blooms in midsummer, earlier than other native bugbanes. the country, see “Regional Recommenda- tions,” page 29.) the United States, but the purple-leaved website at www.ahs.org). Black cohosh selections of branched bugbane (A. sim- (Actaea racemosa) is an exception; it is the TOP PERFORMERS plex)—indigenous to China, Japan, earliest bugbane to bloom in our area, Stately black cohosh, (Actaea racemosa, , and —are probably the most with flowers appearing in July. USDA Hardiness Zones 3–8, AHS Heat popular bugbanes in gardens today. The pearl-shaped, often short-stalked Zones 8–1) is native to northern , Individual flowers of Actaea are not as flower buds are borne on elongated south to Georgia, and west to bold or colorful as many of their buttercup spikes above the foliage. The fluffy flow- and . Providing a striking focal

family () relatives, such as ers often exude a fragrance that may be point in shade gardens and woodlands, it

July / August 2011 27 28 bronze, orgreen rimmedinred; suchvari- maplelike inoutline.Amongourplants, the new leavesthe new rangedfrom glossygreen to other bugbanes.Its silvery trial garden. ers standingtallinour required tokeeptheflow- large size, nostakingwas ability canbeexpectedfrom aseed-grown of three largeleaflets, eachlobedand green leaves are composed asimplerleafthan sports japonica, its fullglory. Despite its will ensure thatitattains and wide.Moist, richsoil mound uptofourfeettall leaves formarobust Its bigandboldgreen most fullyshadedgarden. bountiful even inanal- lightly fragrantflowers are tall inSeptember. The stems toalmostseven feet shoulders above otherbug- 3–8, 8–1)risesheadand bane (A.dahurica, the height. adding anextratwofeetto garden, withflower spires five feetwideinourtrial Black cohoshaveraged three feettalland The green leaves are deeplycutanddivid- blossoms soarskyward on banes. Longspires ofwhite ed intomultiplegroups ofthree leaflets. disagreeable, yet othersfinditpleasant. time. To methefetidodorofflower is taking three years toflower forthefirst cohosh wasabitofshybloomerforus, arrow-straight andtwisted.Black orcurved w and August; theflower stalksmaybe features sparkling candelabrasofcreamy species. Japanese bugbaneformsalow fo- liar mound,typicallyaboutafoottallwith- out flowers andtwo-and-a-half feetwide. buds onstemstothree feettallbeginning White flowers openfrom globosepink in earlytomid-September. Surprisingly, bust than plants in partial shade. bust thanplantsinpartial plants we grew infullsunwere more ro- branched bugbane (A.simplex, 8–1) have surpassedallother bugbanesin hite flowersstemsinJuly ontall,wiry Japanese bugbane(A. Titanic dahurianbug- The purple-leaved cultivars of the American Gardener Zones 4–8,8–1) Zones Zones 4–8, purple-leaved selectionsinthetrial.Leaf ‘Atro purpurea’, were thegreenest ofthe off undercultivar names. ly, inferiorseedlingsare sometimespassed sure theirtraitsremain unfortunate- true; must bepropagated by tissueculture toen- leaves. Thenamedcultivars ofA.simplex for seed-grown selectionswithpurple greenery. Atropurpurea Group isacatchall v popularity. Theirlacy, purpleleaves pro- color rangedfrom dark green withpurple margins toentirely purple,buttheirstems with pinksepalsopenedfrom purplebuds were alwaysdeepwine-red. Whiteflowers our purple-leaved selections,reaching five were by farthetallestandmostrobust of in mid-September tomid-October. They feet tallandalmostthree feetwide. Norfolk, thedark- Connecticut, istruly AnnofHillsidehis wifeMary Gardens in Fredthe latenurseryman McGourty and Actaea dahurica reach sevenfeettallwheninbloom. ide strikingcontrastwithsurrounding The plantswe originallyreceived as ‘Hillside Black Beauty’, introduced by is anAsianspeciesthatcan name, theflowers are actuallywhite but chocolaty-purple leaves. Despite the stems. clusters topthethree-and-a-half-foot-tall liage. Small whiteflowers inbottlebrush cifuga, the manresponsible forreclassifying Cimi- eries inCanby, Oregon. lection introduced by Terra Nova Nurs- as darkly colored. ‘Black Negligee’ isase- bust than‘Hillside Black Beauty’ butnot three feetwide,it wasdecidedlymore ro- range ataboutfourfeettallandnearly purple stems.Near thetopendofsize tember intoearlyOctober. flowers withpinksepalsfrom earlySep- flowerGently curved spikesbearwhite most years itwasconsiderablysmaller. flowers andtwofeetwide,althoughin its peakitwasaboutfourfeettallwith some oftheothercultivars inourtrial.At shade. However, itwasnotasrobust as a est ofall.It isintenselypurpleinfullsun nd retains mostofitspurpleinfull ‘Pink Spike’ isanewer cultivar with ‘James Compton’, namedinhonorof The differences between thepurple- features lighterbronze-purple fo- cally borneonarching white flowers were prolifi- Beginning inSeptember, deeppurple. to asultry its earlyyears butmatured mix ofgreen andpurplein ‘Black Negligee’ were a stems. cause ofthepurple-red pink from adistancebe- clusters offlowers appear white, scimitar-shaped October anditsfragrant, blooms inSeptember and Like theothers,‘Brunette’ er than‘James Compton’. ‘Black Negligee’ butdark- much thesamecoloras developed. ‘Brunette’ is stronger purplecoloring until thethird year when Atropurpurea Group) purpurea’ (alsoknown as guishable from ‘Atro - this group. It was indistin- cultivar in was theshortest tall withflowers, ‘Brunette’ plex leaved cultivars ofA.sim- The lacyleaves of are subtle.At three feet

REGIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS The results of our trials at the Chicago Botanic Garden are most helpful for selecting and growing bugbanes for the Midwest, so I asked experts from other parts of the country to offer some perspective on growing bugbanes in their regions. —R.H.

NORTHEAST the southern edge of their range, and our Thomas E. Clark, collections and warm nights are believed to be the lim- grounds manager at the Polly Hill Ar- iting factor,” she says. “The best of the boretum in Martha’s , Massa- bunch is A. racemosa. Planted in well- chusetts, reports that a wide range of drained soil amended with organic mat- bugbanes perform well in the Northeast. ter and sited with morning sun, it can “So long as they have consistent mois- become a sizeable clump and even self- ture throughout the growing season, the seed on occasion.” foliage—a primary asset of most—re- mains full and healthy,” says Clark. MOUNTAIN WEST Among his favorites is Japanese Ebi Kondo, senior horticulturist at bugbane (A. japonica), which he likes Denver Botanic Gardens, favors A. to combine with thunbergii and matsumurae ‘White Pearl’, which Tricyrtis ‘Sinonome’. “I value the bold, “grows beautifully with white flower maplelike leaves, which hold up well spikes every year in the shady part of into the fall, and the September-to-Oc- our Rock .”Another fa- tober bloom time,” he says. Clark rec- vorite of his is A. racemosa. “I have ommends two native species: A. seen black cohosh grow happily in racemosa, “whose midsummer candles Actaea rubra shade gardens around Denver,” he are indispensable for illuminating the says, “but I do not recommend it for woodland edge,” and the less vigorous, the eastern plain or higher elevations and sometimes hard-to-find, Ap- since the climate is too severe.” For palachian bugbane (A. rubifolia, syn. A. these areas, Kondo instead recom- cordifolia), a three-foot-tall, late-sum- mends spring-to-early summer- bloom- mer- blooming species native to scat- ing red baneberry (A. rubra), “which is tered woodland locations from the a native of montane and subalpine lower Midwest south into Alabama. areas of Colorado. It produces white Clark also likes A. simplex Atropur- flowers followed by reddish in purea Group “for its vigor and stalwart late August and September.” nature. The late-season flowers make a great combination emerging amongst PACIFIC NORTHWEST the fruit-laden branches of Rizaniño “Riz” Reyes, owner of RHR dilatatum, mingling with the indigo Horticulture & Landwave Gardens in blooms of climbing monkshood (Aconi- Shoreline, Washington, has observed tum sinomontanum), and softened by that the purple-leaved selections of A. the feathery plumes of Calamagrostis Actaea matsumurae simplex are by far the most popular brachytricha—simply sumptuous!” ‘White Pearl’ bugbanes in the Pacific Northwest. “‘Hillside Black Beauty’ is the over- SOUTHEAST whelming favorite with the darkest, , owner of Plant Delights longest-lasting foliage color and good Nursery in Raleigh, , is vigor,” says Reyes. “‘Brunette’ and an outspoken critic of the bugbane tax- ‘Black Negligee’ are robust but incon- onomic reclassification. “We don’t fol- sistent in maintaining their dark leaves. low the ridiculous combining of Actaea ‘James Compton’ has a shorter habit and Cimicifuga,” he says. Among and holds its color well, making it a Avent’s recommendations for the worthy candidate for containers for Southeast are the native Appalachian Paula Refi, a and both its foliage and flowers.” He notes bugbane and black cohosh (A. race- member of the Georgia that all have sweet-scented, late-sum- mosa, syn. C. racemosa). “Japanese Association, finds that other than a cou- mer flowers followed by ornamental bugbane is another favorite that is fan- ple of native species, bugbanes are not seedheads that can be used for dried tastic here,” he adds. common in Georgia gardens. “We sit at floral arrangements. 

July / August 2011 29 Resources Gardening with Woodland Plants by Karan Junker. Timber Press, Port- land Oregon, 2007. Growing and Propagating Wildflowers of the United States and Canada by William Cullina. Houghton Mifflin, New York, New York, 2000. Making the Most of Shade: How to Plan, Plant, and Grow a Fabulous Garden that Lightens up the Shadows by Larry Hodgson. Rodale Books, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, 2005.

Sources Big Dipper Farm, Black Diamond, WA. (360) 886-8253. www.bigdipperfarm.com. Digging Dog Nursery, Albion, CA. (707) 937-1130. www.diggingdognursery.com. Lazy S’s Farm & Nursery, Barbours - ville, VA. www.lazyssfarm.com. Romence Gardens & , Grand Rapids, MI. (616) 451-8214. www.romencegardens.com. look pink due to the deep purple buds and stems. The serrated leaves form a mound up to two-and-a-half feet tall and one-and-a-half feet wide, with flower spires rising to just over three feet tall. ‘Chocoholic’ is the new kid on the block and is just starting its trial at the CBG. With one year under its belt, the future looks promising for this introduc- tion from the Netherlands. It boasts deep purple-black leaves, pink flowers that eventually fade to white, and a smaller size than ‘Hillside Black Beauty’ or ‘James Compton’. ‘Prichard’s Giant’ represents the Like all cultivars of Actaea simplex, the flowers of ‘Hillside Black Beauty’ are sweetly scented. greener side of A. simplex. There is no hint of purple here—just green stems be challenging, however, where summer although most of the plants in our trial and leaves. ‘Prichard’s Giant’ is a robust nights are very warm; plants may be stunt- tolerated our alkaline soils. Few insect plant to four feet tall in flower and two- ed and flower sparsely. pests or diseases bother bugbanes. and-a-half feet wide. Deliciously fragrant Keeping bugbanes healthy and happy Bugbanes are slow-growing and can white flowers crown the lofty stems in requires little beyond correct placement. take three or more years to flower for the September and October. All prefer moist, but not wet, well- first time. The wiry stems are usually drained soil in light to dappled shade. sturdy enough to support the flowers, GROWING REQUIREMENTS Morning sun is beneficial to the purple- but staking may be needed at peak Most Actaea species grow successfully in leaved selections. Sunny locations are ac- bloom, particularly after rainstorms. If USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 7 or 8, with ceptable if consistent moisture is needed, stake each flower stalk individu-

many cold hardy to Zone 3. Bugbanes can provided. Neutral to acidic soils are ideal, ally to preserve the plant’s gracefulness.

30 the American Gardener BUGBANE TAXONOMY Until 1998, bugbanes were classified as members of the genus Cimicifuga. But taxonomists like to keep us on our toes, sometimes moving plants from one genus to another or inventing new tongue- twisting botanical names. In 1998, taxonomists reclassified Cimicifuga based on DNA analysis and fruit structure, lumping all species into Actaea. Actaea racemosa is the genetic link between the two groups because its fruit is intermediate between the fleshy berries of Actaea and the dry capsules of the former Cimicifuga. Botanical and common names are often helpful in describing plant traits, acknowledging historical or cultural uses, or indicat- ing native . When classified as Cimicifuga, the common name of bugbane made sense because in translation, cimex means “a bug” and fugo means “to drive away,” referring to the use of some species to repel biting insects. Actaea is likely derived from the Greek word for “elder ,” a nod to the resemblance of its leaves to elderberries (Sambucus spp.). Fairy candles is a whimsi- cal common name that describes the frothy plumes; whereas, snakeroot, another common name for black cohosh, refers to its use by Native Americans as an antidote to snake bites. In fact, black cohosh has a long history of medicinal use for a variety of ailments. Although some horticulturists have not embraced the nomenclatural change from Cimicifuga to Actaea, it seems to be gaining fairly wide acceptance in nursery catalogs and gardening references. —R.H.

Left: The fall blooms of Actaea simplex ‘Atropurpurea’ complement the red fruit of Viburnum dilatatum. Above: The dark foliage of A. simplex ‘Brunette’ provides a lush backdrop for plumes of ‘Visions in Pink’ intermingled with Tricyrtis ‘Sinonome’.

DESIGN TIPS heucheras, hellebores, , hostas, of the Mississippi River where black co- Bugbane’s size, elegant flowers, and lush, and cranesbills (Geranium spp.). The pur- hosh does not grow naturally. lacy leaves all show off well at the wood- ple-leaved selections also make striking For me, this sublime display rein- land edge. In a mixed border—especial- container plants. forced that bugbanes are surprisingly ly at the back—its height adds a dramatic During a visit to Boerner Botanical adaptable. With a wide variety of native element, particularly when in bloom, Gardens in Hales Corners, Wisconsin, I and non-native species to choose from, and the leaves provide a lush background observed a lush planting of black cohosh these plants are an excellent way to for lower-growing plants. nestled in the shade of a grove of paper brighten shade gardens in most regions Bugbanes pair well with other strong- birches, their airy spires of white flowers of the country.  ly vertical plants or contrast nicely with echoing the crisp white trunks of the trees rounder, softer shapes. Great garden part- in an enchanting midsummer spectacle. It Richard Hawke is manager of plant evalu- ners include fall-blooming anemones, was a brilliant sight to be sure—especially ations at the Chicago Botanic Garden in

.Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum spp.), ferns, since Wisconsin is one of the few states east Glencoe, Illinois ְֲֲֲִִִִֶֶֶ֧֤֦֥֣֪֤֦֣֮֯֯֬֠֠֫֬֠֡֯֠֠֩֨֯

July / August 2011 31 32 ferring tothemas“toxic” tootherplants. Theophrastus, who lived from 372 to 285 trees onthegrowth ofnearby plants,re- recorded the negative impactofwalnut tree. You figured theywouldappreciate choice totuckbeneathamajesticwalnut forlife! petual struggle After all,whatturmoilcouldbegoingon scholar andnaturalistPliny theElder ternal variations, andeachspecieshasde- are constantlyadjustinginresponse toex- Despite theirpassive appearances,plants SURVIVALAN EDGETO have gonewrong? Like manyothergar- thendie.Whatcouldpossibly ly struggle, carefully, onlytowatchthemmysterious- spring foliage.You plantedtheshrubs complement thefresh green ofthe tree’s the shade,andblossoms’ colorwould deceptively languidlandscapeisaper- turmoil, indeed:Within thatlushand bees, andsensuallyswayingtrees? What amid thewaftingfragrances,buzzing B W For some,thisisthechemicaladvantage veloped “edge.” waystogive itasurvival used chemicalwarfare toprevent compe- allelopathy. Thewalnuttree has,ineffect, biochemical defensive process known as deners, youtheeffectsofa have observed The International AllelopathySociety de- plant physiologistHans Molisch in1937. ing), thistermwascoinedby German words of allelopathy. Derived from theGreek tition forprecious nutrientsandwater. fines itas“any process involving secondary living thinghasuponanother.” metabolites produced by plants,microor- ganisms, viruses, andfungithatinfluence ganisms, viruses, ply stated,“the biochemicalimpactone tural andbiologicalsystems”—more sim- the growth anddevelopment ofagricul- history. In the firstcentury at bay. chemical defense,tokeepcompetitors Certain plantsuseallelopathy, aformof . C Perhaps azaleasseemedtheperfect Allelopathy documentationhasarich ., noted the inhibitory effectsofpig- ., notedtheinhibitory the American Gardener allelo frenetic demandsoflife. gardens asretreats from the E TENDTO (mutual) andpathy BY KATHRYNLUNDJOHNSON perceive our B . C ., Roman (suffer- background, itsgrowthisinhibitedamongtheblackwalnutsin theforeground. Washington, garden.Opposite:Whilehoneysucklegrowswildbeneath thetulippoplarsin Above: Juglone-tolerantplantsthrivebeneathamassiveblack treeinthisFerndale, as moisture ornutrients,from theenvi- moval orreduction ofsomefactor, such chemical process thatinvolves there- interference. Competitionis a non- Allelopathy andcompetitionare formsof INTERFERENCE CHEMICAL and maintainhealthiergardens andlawns. ble toallelopathicdamagehelpsuscreate what plantsare responsible fororsuscepti- ing theprocess ofallelopathyandknowing gardener? In fact,quitealot!Understand- vances inhistory. considered oneofthemajormedicalad- pathic chemicalthatattacksbacteriais fungus serendipitous discovery in1928thatthe “exhausts” thesoil.AlexanderFleming’s weed onalfalfaandwrote thatchickpea lopathy forWeed Control,” page35). synthetic herbicides(see“Tapping Alle - control, potentially reducing theuseof Furthermore, research indicatesthatsome allelopathic plantsmaybeutilized forweed So whatdoesallelopathymeantothe Penicillium Plant Wars produces anallelo- volatilization, leaching,and/orexudation. receivers. For example,theymayinhibit The affectedorganismisthe“receiver.” chemical isreferred toasthe“conveyor.” ganism. Theorganismproducing the affecting eithertheplantormicroor- or between plantsandmicroorganisms, ganism tomicroorganism, planttoplant, pathic interactionsmayoccurmicroor- compounds totheenvironment. Allelo- addition ofachemicalcompoundor ronment, whileallelopathyinvolves the hydro juglone which, whenexposedto tree produce thenon-toxic chemical an allelopathicconveyor. ofthe Allparts occur intheblackwalnut(Juglansnigra), All three methodsofchemicalrelease CONVEYOR WALNUT: APOTENT BLACK veyor inanyorallofthree ways:through ofaplantandcanleave thecon- any part germination. Thetoxins maybepresent in andrespiration, orprevent the uptakeofwaterandnutrients,impair Allelotoxins impairthelifeprocesses of

and Turf Defense

ing symptoms such as leaf wilting, puck- ering, drooping or twisting, and yellow- ing. are particularly susceptible and may live for only one or two months post contact. (For more information on this, see the web special “Black Walnut Toxicity” linked to this article on the AHS website, www.ahs.org.) Juglone is also toxic to some animals, notably horses, which are at high risk for laminitis, or “founder,” when black wal- or butternut shavings are included in their bedding material. Horses can also be affected when exposed to the of these trees or if they consume the nuts. MORE CHEMICAL AGGRESSORS Other allelopathic trees include maples, oaks, , cottonwoods, black , hackberry, and sassafras. But trees are not the only allelopathic plants. Rhododendrons, elderberries, , laurels, Kentucky bluegrass, bracken ferns, and the exotic invasives garlic () and spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) also employ chemicals to impair the growth of plants in their vicinities (for a list of more allelopathic plants see the chart on page 34). Allelopathy occurs in some plants, too. For example, the residue of broccoli has a persistent toxic effect on subsequent cabbage family planted in the same plot. And have you ever noticed that only sunflowers seem to thrive under your feeder? Allelotoxins strike again! The oxygen, is converted to an allelotoxin may extend far beyond its drip line, plants residue from sunflower seeds contains called juglone. Volatilization occurs when that are sensitive to juglone can be affect- chemicals that affect many plants. There is this compound escapes from tree parts via ed for more than a tree-height’s distance no need to call a halt to feeding your feath- stomata (microscopic openings in leaves) from the tree. Plants attempting to grow ered friends; instead, rake up the hulls reg- and lenticels (air vents in the bark) and ul- beneath the tree’s canopy receive a triple- ularly to discourage the toxins from timately permeate the soil. Leaching is a whammy of toxins from leaching, exuda- building up in the soil. The hulls may be passive process whereby juglone is liber- tion, and volatilization. used in compost, since the toxin concen- ated from decomposing leaves, twigs, Juglone affects many plants, including trations are broken down by heat and mi- roots, bark, and other plant material. pine, birch, and trees; rhododen- croorganisms during the composting Rainwater—or a garden sprinkler—ex- drons and azaleas; and members of the process. Alternatively, you can avoid the pedites the leaching process. Exudation nightshade family, including tomatoes, toxins completely by using hull-less sun- occurs when the tree releases juglone , potatoes, and green peppers. flower seeds or blends that do not contain

through its roots. Since the tree’s roots All respond to varying degrees, display- whole seeds.

July / August 2011 33 34 With allthischemicalwarfare going on DAMAGEMINIMIZING THEGARDEN IN of Georgia, Athens. “Some microorgan- andtreeforestry healthattheUniversity Kim Coder, professor ofcommunity them intonon-damagingforms,”says using themforenergyortransforming pathic attackby breaking uptoxins and bacteria, respond quicklytoanallelo- healthy microbial activity. less damaging.Lightersoils,too,promote colate deeperintothesoilwhere theyare soils allow thetoxins tooxidize andper- while lighter, aerated,andwell-drained soils trapandholdtoxins forlongperiods, and thepresence ofmicrobes. Heavy clay soil composition,temperature, aeration, ins in thesoil is influenced by drainage, The concentrationandmovement oftox- FACTORS MITIGATING its vulnerability.” stress ofthereceiver intensifies,sodoes effects ofallelo toxins,” saysCoder. “As plants are susceptible tothe particularly in isenvironmental stress. “Stressed ing areceiver’s reaction toanallelotox- then leavingthetoxin behind.” isms, however, canfacilitate therelease of non-toxic components ofthechemicals, allelochemicals intothesoilby utilizing OTHER COMMONALLELOPATHIC CONVEYORSANDRECEIVERS Allelopathic Conveyors fragrant redsumac Sassafras oaks hackberries Manzanita elderberry Bracken fern Red fescue Sugar Perennial Kentucky bluegrass Junipers rhododendrons Black cherry goldenrods Asters “Many organisms,such asfungiand Another important factorinfluenc- Another important the American Gardener (Quercus (Symphyotrichum (Juniperus () (Sambucus racemosa), (Arctostaphylos ( (Festuca rubra) (Celtis (Prunus serotina) (Acer saccharum) (Pteridium aquilinum), (Lolium perenne) spp.) (Rhododendron (Rhus aromatica) spp.), and (Poa pratensis) spp.) spp.) spp.) and spp.), spp.) , and glone, forexample, includelilacs Plantstheir chemicals. tolerateju- that allelopathic plantswiththose tolerantof practical option.Thisinvolves combining online resources are abundant. specific toyour geographicalarea, and information aboutallelopathicplants tension officecanoftenprovide you with conveyors. Your localCooperative Ex- vulnerable plantsneartheirallelopathic vious solutionistoavoid growing imizeour plants?One thedamage to ob- in ourgardens, whatcan we dotomin- Boxelder Douglas Flowering dogwood Grasses andherbs White American elm Azaleas Red pine (Acer saccharum), Receivers Tulip poplar Grasses Companion plantingisaviable and ( (Rhododendron (Acer negundo), (Pinus resinosa), (Pseudotsuga menziesii) (Liriodendron tulipifera) (Liriodendron (), () spp.), forsythias,floweringdogwood black cherry () (Cornus spp.), forsythias,floweringdogwood silver maple red maple yellow birch ( (Prunus serotina) (Prunus , yews , redpine (Acer rubrum) (Acer (), () ( spp.), beebalms hostas, ,coralbells spp.), easternredbuds (Cercis canadensis), susceptible toallelopathic injury. So when both trees andturf, makingthemmore moisture andnutrientscancreate stress on vice versa. Additionally, competitionfor to theeffectsofallelopathictrees—and grown incontainers without damage. conveyor. Vulnerable plantscanoftenbe from agarden containinganallelopathic tible plantsneedn’t beentirely excluded and hollyhocks to out-competesurroundingvegetation. (Centaurea maculosa), (Alliaria petiolata), Some invasiveweedssuchasgarlicmustard A number of turf grassesareA numberofturf vulnerable (Pinus resinosa), spp.) (Cornus florida) (Cornus (Alcea rosea). Andsuscep- left, and spotted knapweed andspotted left, (Monarda spp.), asters, (Cornus florida) (Cornus above, useallelopathy sugar maple (Heuchera

ְְְְְְְֱֱֱֳֳֳִִֵֵֵֶָ֪֦֪֤֣֪֤֪֥֤֦֣֧֭֭֮֮֬֠֠֠֩֫֠֡֫֠֠֨ TAPPING ALLELOPATHY FOR Allelopathic plants have a positive side too. Some may provide alternatives to synthetic herbicides. Corn meal, a natural byproduct of the corn wet-milling process, contains allelo- pathic chemicals that inhibit seed ger- mination. It is used as a pre-emergent , but because of its signifi- cant nitrogen content, doubles as a . Recent studies have ex- plored the use of allelopathic turf- grasses as weed suppressants along highways and roadsides, and incorpo- rating allelopathic plants to inhibit the growth of trees near power lines, thus reducing the need for pruning or ap- plying synthetic herbicides, both ex- pensive processes. Field studies have shown the ad- vantages of including allelotoxins in in- Eastern redbud is one of several plants that tolerate toxins produced by the black walnut. tegrated weed management programs. Eric Westra, a soil and crop sciences planning your landscape, allow adequate microbial activity, which promotes the de- graduate student at Colorado State space between trees and lawn, establishing struction of many toxins. University in Fort Collins, explains, the lawn well beyond the trees’ drip lines. Because allelochemicals persist in the “When allelopathic plants, such as rye, In an existing landscape, substitute toler- residues of the plants that produce them, mustard, hairy vetch, and red clover, plants for vulnerable turf beneath thoroughly compost the residues in an ac- are used as cover crops, toxins are re- trees, or replace the turf with a porous tive pile—one that is turned regularly and leased from the decaying plant mater- mulch such as bark chips. kept moist. This will neutralize the toxins. ial and diffuse into the soil. The use of Since healthy, robust plants are less vul- If you’re not sure whether the composting allelopathic species as natural herbi- nerable to allelotoxin damage than those is complete, test it by planting a seedling of cides in some cropping systems could that are weak, keep your plants stress-free. a receiver plant in the pile to see if it thrives. ultimately reduce the dependency on Make sure their moisture, , and And use allelopathic plants as mulch only synthetic herbicides.” other cultural needs are met. And adding if your goal is to suppress a receiver. However, there are challenges that organic matter or sand to improve hinder widespread use of allelopathy in drainage helps hasten the percolation of COMPROMISES WITH NATURE . “Unlike synthetic herbi- allelopathic chemicals deeper into the soil An awareness of allelopathic relation- cides, allelopathic plants may be in- where they can do less harm. Proper ships among plants may help you avoid consistent in their production and re- drainage also encourages oxygen-loving or diagnose perplexing problems in your lease of chemicals, leading to landscape. But if you suspect that a tree unpredictable results,” says Westra. “In in your yard is an allelopathic conveyor addition, the allelopathic crop must be Resources and a likely culprit for nearby plant grown, something that large-scale farm- Allelopathy: How Plants Suppress health problems, resist the temptation to ers might not want to take on.” Other Plants by James J. Ferguson cut it down. Even if you were to remove What is the future of allelopathic and Bala Rathinasabapathi. it, its allelochemicals would remain in the weed control? “While allelopathy http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs186. soil for some time to come. Instead, keep shows promise in greenhouse and Black Walnut Toxicity, Michigan State in mind the benefits of a tree: shade, oxy- field trials, incorporating it into crop University Department of Horticul- gen, reduction of carbon dioxide, and farming to replace synthetic herbi- ture. http://web1.msue.msu. food and shelter for birds and other cides is not cost effective or practi- edu/msue/iac/greentip/blackwal.htm. wildlife, and look for tolerant plants to cal,”Westra acknowledges. The ap- Reaching for the Sun: How Plants Work replace those that were damaged.  proach could be realistic, however, for by John King. Cambridge University small-scale growers, such as organic Press, United Kingdom, 1997. Kathryn Lund Johnson is a freelance writer or specialty farmers.” —K.L.J.

.ֳִִַ֢֤֪֤֥֪֧֠֠֫ based in Midland, Michiganֱֳִֵָ֧֤֭֮֮֮֠֩֨֠

July / August 2011 35 36 genum, research andeventually confirmedthese plants were nubi- actuallyDelosperma was smitten,soIdidalittlemore plant family(Mesembryanthemaceae is picturesquely down aslope. and-a-half across, tumbling gether toformamataboutfoot- end, theseplantshadgrown to- most plastictexture. By summer’s a succulentthathadanunusual,al- pots containedbrightgreen tuftsof mum speciesBasutoland.” The pots labeled“Mesembryanthe- this one-acre spacewere three small Soon theplantswere studdedwith April ofthefollowing year, the mat leaves were stillturgid.By mid- spectacularly, butthechubby At firstIthoughttheyhaddied turned adeep, glowing purple-red. emerald green, butinwinterthey thousands ofplantsIusedtofill Rock AlpineGarden. Amongthe in 1980asthecuratorofnew arrived atDenver BotanicGardens (DBG) The genusDelosperma ANDADAPTABLE ALPINES ATTRACTIVE once againturnedbrightgreen. L translates to“of theclouds,”whichI’m sure reveal iridescentyellow flowers. I now called , butyou maystill the oldername forthisfamily, which is hundreds ofbuds thatopenedto alludes totheplant’s loftynative homein the mountainsofSouth Africa. W D e i The summercolorwasabright t l o h the American Gardener s

ice plant(Delosperma the time,Ihadnever grown ahardy IKE MOST p b a hardy iceplant.Its speciesname e r Hardy IcePlants i r l m l i a a n a t r

e American gardeners at f l

o s t w is part oftheice is part a e r t r i s n spp.) whenI

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g Delosperma nubigenum garden designedbyConniCross. boulders inthisLongIsland,NewYork,rock plants, distributedinthewild from Saudi horticulture over decades. thelastfew the attentionofmainstream American tains manyothergenerathathave drawn This largeandintriguingfamilycon- see iceplantsreferred toas“mesembs”). though onlyafractionofthespecies are in tipofSouthArabia tothevery Africa.Al- the Rocky Mountain region and have be- have becometop-sellinggroundcovers in cultivation, selectionsofhardy iceplants h

o s There are about150speciesofhardy ice m e a e s

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g n a d r d - c e o n v s e . dums, butgenerally formeven thicker Hardy resemble iceplantssuperficially se- ANDCOMPANIONS CULTURE province ofNorth America! will grow stateand injustaboutevery ty, Isuspectthere isahardy iceplantthat ical Garden. Given thiswideadaptabili- ofagreenpart roof attheAtlanta Botan- well asin gardens inMichigan, andas garden centersinPortland, Oregon, as come across D. promise forgardens intemperate regions. in sunny, warmareas ofthecountry. come indispensableforthoseofuswholive r i n Yet, hardy iceplantsalsoholdgreat g

s west toNew England. AndIhave gardens from thePacific North- in Calgary, Canada,as well asin basuticum weeks inspring. region, where theybloomforafew native tothedrierWestern Cape the othergenerainfamilyare growing season,whereas mostof bloom throughout muchofthe Africa, mosthardy iceplants ofSouthsummer rainfallparts ing asmostofthemdofrom the summer rainandhumidity. Com- and even thrive in— with South Africa,andthus tolerate— range intemperatesoutheastern the Drakensbergs, a mountain many hardy iceplantshailfrom factoristhat Another important will grow inUSDAZones 4and5. its coldhardiness—many species genus from othersinthefamilyis One traitthatdistinguishesthis u c In mytravels, Ihave seenD. c u BY PANAYOTIKELAIDIS l e Mesa Verde n ‘Gold Nugget’ thriving t s

i n

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e thriving in

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ֵֶָֺֹֹֻ֤֯֠֨֠֨ Above: Quick-spreading, magenta-flowered Delosperma ‘John Proffitt’ makes an excellent edging plant, adding a layer of color beneath the hot-pink blooms of desert beardtongue (Penstemon pseudospectabilis), yellow sulphur buckwheat (Eriogonum umbellatum), and other drought-tolerant plants in this mixed border. Left: Delosperma ‘Carlile Pink’ is prized for the pearly pink hue of its flowers.

mats that offer greater weed suppression. In nature, hardy ice plants almost always grow among rocks, so they can offer the same sort of spectacle in the rock garden as spring workhorses such as pinks (Dianthus spp.), phlox, alyssum, or Aubrieta spp., but with the advantage of a much longer sea- son of bloom. They are often used as edg- ings in front of borders, in rock gardens, and in rock walls. And a number are good options for living roofs or walls. You may assume, because they are suc- culent, that hardy ice plants are drought tolerant; this is true to a point. can endure surprisingly dry condi- tions, but remember that these plants are native to high mountains rather than

desert. The Drakensberg mountains often

July / August 2011 37 38 mostly insummer. Winters intheregion, receive 30ormore inchesofrainayear, however, are dry. Consequently, awell- drained site is vital, and during dry spells, drained siteisvital,andduringdry these plantsappreciate deepwatering. most anysoil,provided thesiteisnever waterlogged, butinwetter climatesaslope Most iceplants require fullsun,butinre- and atopdressing ofgravel isbeneficial. gions withextendedperiodsof triple-digit temperatures orinZone 6orwarmer, give spring isidealfor iceplants,givingthem them alittleshade. fig). Ifyoucallthem“iceplants”in a verytastyfruitthatresembleslittle of thecommonspeciesthereproduces are referringto! people willnotunderstandwhatyou the nationwheremostofthemgrow, (Afrikaans for“smallfig”becauseone “mesembs” oroften“vygies” Africa, wheretheyaresimplycalled common nameisnotusedinSouth way inNorthAmericaandBritain.This family overtime. name wasextendedtoanyplantinthe Delosperma (and inalessobviouswayevenonsome occurs onothermembersofthefamily its commonname.Thisphenomenon its leavesresembleicecrystals,hence century. Thecrystallineexudationson be widelygrowningardensthe19th one ofthefirsticeplantfamilyto crystallinum DIFFERENT PLACES DIFFERENT NAMESIN ing icelikeexudationsonitsleaves. Mesembryanthemum crystallinumshow- In Colorado,iceplantscangrow inal- I have foundthatplanting inearly Ice plantsareonlyreferredtothis the American Gardener such asD.cooperi).The —P.K. was plant’s low-growing foliage.Itisoneofthebestwhite-flowered hardyiceplantsin cultivation. In fullbloom,the daisylikeflowersofDelospermabasuticum ‘White Nugget’almost obscurethe

time to establish well before the summer heat arrives. However, you can plant them throughout most of the growing season and expect good results if fresh transplants are kept well-watered. Under ideal conditions, some of the larger sorts like D. cooperi can spread al- most a foot or more a year. Half that is more typical, and the tiny tufted ice plants and smaller species are small and slow- growing enough to make well-behaved additions to a rock garden. If they are properly sited, ice plants can last for many years. In fact, I have had a few clumps persist for more than two decades in the same spot! If the soil is over- ly fertile, they tend to spread quickly and often do not last as long. These plants can easily be rooted from cuttings, and they do fairly well if you want to dig up small pieces to plant elsewhere—provided they are given a bit of shade and kept from dry- ing out while they reestablish. As for pests and diseases, they are fairly problem-free. Collectors may be tempted to set aside beds of ice plants by themselves, and cer- tainly one selection massed together can make a spectacle of color, but I prefer to tuck them in here and there among taller plants. For example, spring bulbs can provide color weeks before the ice plants bloom. Other drought tolerant plants, including , buckwheats (Eri- ogonum spp.), mints (Agastache spp.), and provide a fab- ulous foil for the bright colors, and a con- trast in foliage texture, not to mention blooming later in the season when the ice plants are not as floriferous. BEST BETS FOR GARDENS Unfortunately, the nomenclature of this genus is still rather muddled, and many plants are being sold under incorrect names. Until a researcher takes on the chal- lenge of bringing some order to this genus, we’ll do the best we can with what we have. As noted earlier, the first hardy ice plant to gain wide currency in the United States was Delosperma nubigenum. ‘Lesotho’, which covers itself with yellow daisylike flowers in spring, is likely a sterile hybrid, as it has never been known to produce seed. It has been successfully grown into USDA Zone 4, especially in drier areas of Plant Select® has introduced several hardy ice plants to the garden world, such as Mesa the country. It loves summer moisture and ® Verde , top, and Delosperma floribundum, above. Both bloom all summer long. can grow up to 25 inches across.

July / August 2011 39 Delosperma cooperi has become a gar- den mainstay all over America. It produces 30-inch, dark blue-green mats with an al- most constant succession of bright purple to magenta two-inch flowers all summer. It is reliably hardy only to Zone 6 and warmer, but it grows well in Zone 5 in the drier parts of western states. Higher alti- tude forms have recently been introduced that promise much greater cold tolerance, and its first hybrids are emerging. Among these is Delosperma ‘Kelaidis’ (often sold under the trademarked name, Mesa Verde), a striking hybrid that popped up at Denver Botanic Gardens in some test beds

Sources High Country Gardens, Santa Fe, NM. (800) 925-9387. www.highcountry gardens.com. Laporte Avenue Nursery, Fort Collins, CO. (970) 472-0017. www.laporteavenuenursery.com. Plant Delights, Raleigh, NC. (919) 772-4794. www.plantdelights.com. Siskiyou Rare Plant Nursery, Talent, OR. (541) 535-7103. www.siskiyou rareplantnursery.com. Resources Hardy Succulents by Gwen Moore Kelaidis. Storey Publishing, North Adams, Massachusetts, 2008. distributed it as Sphalmanthus sp. My mis- Rocky Mountain region. The first plant North American Rock Garden Society, take is immortalized in the of introduced by this program was D. flori- www.nargs.org. this miniature gem: D. sphalmanthoides. It bundum, an almost shrubby, pink-and- Sunset’s Western Garden Book. forms dense, six- to eight-inch clumps of white-flowered species I collected in the Sunset Publishing, Menlo Park, tubular, blue, tufted foliage that is com- plains just west of the Drakensbergs. California, 2007. pletely obscured in early spring with shin- Trademarked Starburst , it has petals with ing hot-pink flowers. It is hardy to Zone 5. an almost metallic sheen and blooms all Delosperma ‘Carlile Pink’ produces the summer. Although it is listed as hardy to I managed at the time. It appears to be a purest pink flowers of any hardy ice plant. Zone 5, I have found that it is not reliably cross between a yellow-flowered species Its habit is very compact, making dense hardy in this zone. and D. cooperi. Its iridescent flowers are mats up to a foot across. It blooms heavily Delosperma ‘John Proffitt’ (Table salmon-pink with hints of orange. in June with repeat bloom till frost. Bill Mountain ) is a selection of a species from Delosperma basuticum ‘Gold Nugget’ Adams, owner of Sunscapes Rare Plant the eastern face of the southern Drakens- is a clump-former that grows up to a foot Nursery in Pueblo, Colorado, where this bergs with tremendous vigor—spreading wide and produces two-inch yellow flow- plant appeared 10 years ago, has found this two feet in three years—and vibrant ma- ers with a white eye in very early spring. to be the hardiest ice plant he has grown. genta flowers. It has an especially attrac- Hardy to USDA Zone 4, it has overwin- He notes that it has survived in pots out- tive winter habit and color and seems tered as far north as Canada, and at 8,000 doors where other species perished. particularly well adapted to gardens in the feet in the Colorado Rockies. There is also A few other spectacular ice plants are eastern states to Zone 4. the white-flowered selection, ‘White gaining wide currency through Plant Se- ‘John Proffitt’ has produced a sport Nugget’. You may see these both listed as lect —a cooperative program between with remarkable pale lilac-colored flowers varieties of D. congestum as well. Denver Botanic Gardens and Colorado that has subsequently been introduced by Another stunning Delosperma was State University designed to research, test, Plant Select as ‘Lavender Ice’. This is the

ֳֵֶֶֺ֯֠־identified only after I had propagated and and market new plants suitable for the closest hue to blue among hardy ice ְְְְְִֵֵֶֶֶֶֶֶֶַַַַַַָֺֹֹֺֺֺֹֺֺֹּֽ֣֧֤֣֧֮֮֯֠֨֬֠֨֫֠֬֠֩֠֫֨֫֠֬֠֬֠֠֨

40 the American Gardener plants, strikingly different than the other species and cultivars currently available. Delosperma dyeri, which can spread up to 18 inches and is hardy to Zone 5, has possibly the most true red flowers of any hardy ice plant. A selection of this species has been introduced as Red Mountain!, and although it is not quite as tough or Top: Delosperma sphalmanthoides is a compact species that resembles a sea anemone when fast-spreading as the common yellow- or in bloom. Above: Next to red corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas), yellow-flowered D. nubigenum purple-flowered ice plants, it does extend ‘Lesotho’ drapes over a wall while D. cooperi on the ground below it sports purplish-pink blooms. the color palette for the genus. Opposite: Red Mountain™ is one of the most red-flowered cultivars of hardy ice plant available. In 2012, Plant Select will introduce a new ice plant that has startling orange- more than three decades now, yet when- garden, or forming a small-scale ground- and-purple bicolored flowers. This selec- ever I see the first flowers open each cover on a hill, hardy ice plants seem to tion from South Africa is known as spring, I am astonished once again by bring a bit of the South African veldt into ‘Poo1F’, trademarked as Fire Spinner. It the intensity of their color and the the garden. If you have never grown ice appears to be one of the most vigorous of shimmering iridescence of their petals. plants, I hope you will give them a try. Per- all, with mats spreading over 24 inches in As the flowers close in the evening, I am haps you will come to appreciate them as just two years. Flowering is concentrated equally enthralled by the colorful stain- much as I do.  in late spring and early summer and is ing on the undersides of their petals— truly show-stopping. these are plants that seem to pulse and Panayoti Kelaidis is senior curator and di- breathe and dream. rector of outreach at the Denver Botanic A TASTE OF SOUTH AFRICA Whether they are tucked in the front Gardens in Colorado. He is currently work- I have been growing hardy ice plants for of a border, spilling over rocks in a rock ing on a book about ice plants.

July / August 2011 41 42 by Scott Aker Dealing with Drought with Dealing ply ofwaterthroughout the growing season vegetables and fruits needaconsistentsup- vegetables andfruits community waterrestrictions. have anabundant andexuberantgarden ing exorbitant waterbills,orviolating without wateringaround theclock,pay- and wateringsystems,it’s stillpossibleto Let’s firstconsider theediblegarden. Most ANDPRIORITIZING RATIONING and treat water. ergy andotherresources usedtopump gin adaptingourgardening practicesto of us,nomatterwhere we live, needtobe- G and groundwater, butinreducing theen- instreams, reserves lakes, diminishing the are notonlyinpreserving conservation water. The environmental benefitsof thatmostprecious ofresources—conserve perate regions of theUnited States, Iun- by beingstrategic withplantingschemes water conservation placeonagarden.water conservation But derstand thelimitationsdrought and Having gardened inbotharidandtem- the American Gardener deners, onethingisforsure: All see whatthefuture holdsforgar- AZING INTO the crystal ballto the crystal cope beautifullywithdrought, whileoth- ciently deliver waterwhere needed. together and in areas that tend to dry out together andinareas thattendtodry idea togroup thosethatneedmore water When plantingyour garden, it’s agood ers require aconsistentsupplyofmoisture. Or invest inadripirrigationsystemtoeffi- plantings toyour favorite, must-have crops. as tomatoesorbeans,considerlimitingyour of goingwithoutwater-thirstyplantssuch returns. If you can’t bearthethought or coolseasoncrops intheirplacewhenthe plants, plantogrow somequick-maturing tion. If thedrought does insomeofyour day—early morning—toreduce evapora- water loss.Water ofthe inthecoolest part ganic mulchwillprotect thesoilfrom excess to ensure goodyields.Athicklayer ofor- left by plantskilledby drought. Divide thoseandusethemtofillingaps timesandrecoverdry quicklyafterwards. plants thatmaintainthemselves through last. In prolonged droughts, notethose annuals andperennials, soit is agood vestment inbothtimeand moneythan When itcomestoperennials, some Trees are andshrubs more ofanin- G ARDEN C SOLUTIONS way tocheckthe depthofwaterpenetra- at leasteightinches intothesoil.Aneasy half houruntilthewaterreaches off every timer tocycle your wateringsystemonand into thesoil.To avoid thisproblem, usea off beforemay poolorrun itcanpercolate again fortwoorthree weeks. thoroughly, you maynothave towater temperature extremes. Plus, ifyou water of shallow roots thatdon’t copeaswell with low wateringencouragesthedevelopment pending onyour soiltype.Frequent, shal- od ofseveral hoursorevendays,de- afew order ofseveral inchesofwaterover aperi- and thorough watering—somethingonthe garden willbenefitmost from infrequent thingtorememberimportant isthatyour ficiency ofyour outdoorwaterusage,the to evaporation orrunoff. To increase theef- irrigation, andasmuchhalfofthatislost least 30percent oftheirwateroutdoorsfor Agency, typicalsuburbanhouseholdsuseat According totheEnvironmental Protection EVERY DROP COUNTS installing dripirrigationsystems. water-retaining gelstothesoilmix,and using self-wateringcontainers,adding ficiency ofcontainerplantings,including are anumberofwaystoimprove theef- greater volume ofwaterisneeded.There surrounding parched soil,soamuch the sameplantswillbedrawnawayby garden, waterappliedtothesoilaround rates orisusedby theplants.In the tainer willstayinthatsoiluntilitevapo- water you applytothesoilincon- tables. Theadvantage here isthatany annuals, ,perennials, andeven vege - greater needthanmore establishedones. plantedwoodyplantswillhavenewly a drought stress. Andofcourse,younger or hibit themostdrasticoutward signsof though thesewoodyplantsmaynotex- idea tobudgetsomewaterforthem,even With heavyorcompactedsoil,water Finally, considerusingcontainersfor

tion is to stab a screwdriver into the dry spells. Be sure to place your barrels as ground. It will slide easily through moist high as possible so that gravity can deliv- WORLD’S #1 TOP soil but will encounter resistance when the er the water to thirsty plants at a lower PLANT SUPPLY tip reaches dry soil. ele vation in your garden. Soaker hoses If you have an automated watering sys- offer an easy way to mete out moisture to PLANT #1HEALTH EXTRA LIFE tem, be sure to set it to come on during the plants only where it is needed, at their Greatest Guarantee-Offer PROOF Ever SINCE 1940, unchallenged, $5,000. GUARANTEED to be overnight hours, when less water will be root zones. In some regions of the coun- World CHAMPION lost to evaporation. The problem with try, “graywater”—waste water from laun- #1 Activator, #1 Trans/ #1 Extra #1 REVIVER, , GROWER, most automated systems is that they are dry, dishwashing, and bathing—can be WORLD’S FAIR SCIENCE-MEDAL-WINNING #1 Perfecter TM TM programmed to water the entire yard daily recycled into the garden. VI ® 50 IN for a short period of time. If you are in- So embrace drought as a creative chal- ONE vesting in a new irrigation system, select lenge. You can keep the most important VITAMINS-HORMONES USED BY U.S. –– FERTILIZER GUARANTEED Departments of –– As Advertised in –– POLLUTING BioUSABLES AGRICULTURE, ARMY, NON TM Better Homes & Gardens one that will allow you to set up different parts of your garden going by setting your NAVY, AIR. Etc. TO ADD TO FERTILIZING for growing Landscape Architecture ALSO BY STATES, Horticulture CITIES, COUNTIES, DOUBLE MONEY-BACK UNIVERSITIES zones. That way, you can conserve water priorities and using water carefully. And RECOMMENDED TOP VALUE BY EXPERTS OF TV, RADIO, BOOKS, EXTREME Concentration MAGAZINES, Drop-A-CupTM or CONFERENCES Dozens Drop-A-GalTM by reducing the frequency or even cutting when the rain returns, you will appreciate OF THE off individual zones if you need to. Also, it all the more.  WORLD’S SCIENCE & INDUSTRY ONLY GOLD MEDAL set up your system to water a given zone WORLD’S FAIR 1940 g science ADD to any fertilizinTM • 50 INSTANT BioUSABLES XES NORMAL PURE COMPLE for a longer period of time, with a week or Scott Aker is a Washington, D.C.-based • From Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygenls MIRACLES natural organic crysta while • Save plants from waitingm IN EACH trying to make the“like” it. more before the zone is watered again. horticulturist. For 10 years, he wrote the Unique. Nothing is DROP! • –– SEE TO BELIEVE TER plants HEALTHIER, FAS Use rain barrels and cisterns to harvest “Digging In” gardening column for The BEAUTY and CROP yieldADDED TO 21 FERTILIZERS by 21 Growers

YOU CAN rainwater that you can use later during Washington Post. ORDER PINT, QUART, GALLON, Billions–PROVEN or DRUM B A L A N C E D ORIGINAL Gardening &A with Scott Aker ADDED TO 18 FERTILIZERS, by 18 Growers DWINDLING DAFFODILS This year, only two out of about 18 of my daffodil bulbs bloomed. They are in their third year, and though they grow under trees, they get sun until the trees leaf out. NEARLY 1000 BOOKS, CONFERENCES, RECOMMENDED BY MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, TVs, RADIOS While they tolerate light shade, daffodils bloom best in full sun. It’s very important to USED BY maintain the foliage as long as possible. Some daffodils don’t go dormant until the mid- FIVE U.S. DEPARTMENTS TO HELP WIN WORLD WAR II OF GOVERNMENTS, STATE UNIVERSITIES, LEADING dle of July, and the slow yellowing of the leaves may drive tidy-minded gardeners to braid THOUSANDS , BOTANICAL GARDENS, PARKS SYSTEMS U.S. STATES and CITIES IN MULTIPLE-DRUMS LOTS the foliage or remove it entirely. If bulbs don’t have adequate time to manufacture car- FLOWERING PLANTS SHOW WINNERS – “everywhere” HEALTHY, TOXICS-FREE GROWERS bohydrates, flower buds will not set. Apply some fertilizer or compost around the UNIQUE. Far easier plant success bulbs in spring and early fall. Different tree species cast different amounts of shade. Daf- fodils will generally prosper under trees that create dappled shade, such as white oaks or tulip poplars, but will gradually die out in the dense shade of trees like beeches or maples. Try moving the bulbs to a sunnier location after the foliage goes dormant. A SPOTTY MYSTERY I live in Upstate New York and have a small tree (Jacaranda mimosi- folia) that grows outdoors in summer and grows in my greenhouse in winter. In the spring, when it really gets growing, the main trunk starts to get dots of clear, white, or crystalline material on the green growth; eventually the stems growing from the main trunk are coated with a crystalline material. Last year, the bottom leaves where this happened dropped off. If left alone, this substance eventually 11 XMAS TREES 17 HYDROSEEDING 22 12 REFORESTATION 18 LANDSCAPING COMPETITIONS 13 19 PROPAGATION 23 INTERIORSCAPING dries out and turns brown. Do you know what might be causing this? 14 FIELD CROPS 20 ANTI-EROSION 24 CUT FLOWERS 15 BONSAI 21 ENVIRONMENTAL 25 WEATHER DAMAGE 16 CULTURE IMPROVEMENT 26 WATER GARDENS I don’t think the symptoms you describe can be attributed to any pest or disease - AT CONSCIENTIOUS PLANT DEALERS WORLDWIDE ism. It’s likely that the change in humidity, sunlight, and soil moisture encountered in Used, tipped to, and supplied by thousands of conscientious plant-selling firms. On every continent, without salesmen. the move from indoors to outdoors may be causing cells in the stems to burst. This hap- “just as good,” false, cheaply made, pens when the moisture taken up by the roots far exceeds that lost by the foliage. Sap REFUSE unbalancing substitutes – often 991/2% water. may exude from the burst cells and carbohydrates in the sap may crystallize to form the NOTHING IS AT ALL “LIKE” deposits that you see. do not appreciate excess moisture in general, so avoid 50 VITAMINS-HORMONES overwatering the tree, particularly before it starts growing rapidly in spring. —S.A. V Made in U.S.A. by VITAMIN INSTITUTE I E-mail your gardening questions to Scott Aker at [email protected] 12610 Saticoy Street South, North Hollywood, CA 91605 Website www.superthrive.com

July / August 2011 43 44 by Karan Davis Cutler Flavorful Fennel minded aboutpH,from slightlyacidicto slightly alkaline,butadamantaboutneed- How you grow fenneldependsonwhere GROWING GUIDELINES accurately, a prominent placeinthelineup. Or, more is nolongerabig-leagueherbalremedy. stop hiccups,andward offwitches,fennel Once toutedasabletorestore eyesight, your interests tothingsmedicinal. run I blue-green leaves, stems,flowers, seeds, vulgare), is common,orsweet, fennel(Foeniculum fennels. Most familiartohomegardeners water onlyduringextended droughts. ing well-drained soil. you are andwhichtypeyou grow. Allva- brellalike clusters andattractahostof um- held insix-inchterminal,inverted (). Theirtinyyellow flowers are All fennelsare ofthecarrot family part scent andflavor. which have bronze-hued foliage.Third is vars ofF. vulgare, and pollen.Second are ornamentalculti- ’s, anditgrowsdoes. muchlikecelery covered thrive” inhisNew-Englands Dis- Rarities cluded inhislistof“Garden …as do North America,oneJohn Josselyn in- Europe, fennelwasanearlyimmigrantto vege table foritsbulb. Allhave ananiselike var. Florence fennel,orfinocchio(F. vulgare rieties prefer full sun.Theyare broad- spread tothree feet. happy withaverage soilandneedextra They grow fourtosixfeettallandmay beneficial insects. need support inawindysite.Plants can need support In thegarden, however, itstilldeserves A native ofAsiaMinor andsouthern Common andornamentalfennels are etable. Maybe threat, aquadruple if threat: anherb, anornamental,aveg- N SPORTSLINGO, azoricum), the American Gardener (1672). Its leaves looklike feathery a culinary herbgrowna culinary forits they deserve, forthere aredeserve, three which iscultivated asa called copperfennels, fennel isatriple Top: Commonfennel hasmanyculinaryuses.Above: ‘Rubrum’isanornamentalselection. OERW HARVEST HOMEGROWN C leaves andstemswhilethebulbisform- and arrest bulbgrowth. You canharvest cause premature flowering, orbolting, peratures over 75degrees Fahrenheit feet andcanbeset10to12inchesapart. compost tea.Plants reach twotothree mid-season doseoffishemulsionor good-size bulbs.Andtheybenefitfrom a even moisture, andcoolweather toform organicallyrichsoil, Plants needfertile, nual or, inmildclimates,asabiennial. gardeners treat Florence fennelasanan- and bronze typesmay revert togreen. parent butmanywillbelessflavorful, dictable. Some will be identicaltotheir their self-sown offspring are unpre- are “weedy reseeders,” whichmeansthat nels afinechoiceforherbaceousborders. form, andheightmakeeitherofthesefen- to flavor foods.Thedelicateleaves, upright cold regions. offennelcanbeused Allparts they are commonlygrown asannualsin Drought, root disturbance,andtem- Because plantsare pulledatharvest, In USDAZone 6andwarmer, fennels Both are perennials, short-lived but

Thanks to its horde of pollinators and to Sources animals that spread its seeds, fennel nat- Johnny’s Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME. (877) 564-6697. uralizes easily—too easily in parts of www.johnnyseeds.com. Washington, Oregon, and California, Richters Herbs, Goodwood Ontario, Canada. (800) 668-4372. www.richters.com. where it has “noxious weed” status. Gar- The Well-Sweep Farm, Port Murray, NJ. (908) 852-5390. deners in other mild-weather states www.wellsweep.com. should check with local authorities to see if fennel is problematic. If so, remove flower heads on common and ornamen- Resources tal fennel plants before they set seeds. American Horticultural Society Homegrown Harvest: A Season-by-Season Guide to a Florence fennel does not naturalize. Sustainable , Rita Pelczar, editor in chief. Mitchell Beazley/Octo- Despite claims to the contrary, fennel pus, New York, New York, 2010. does not cross-pollinate with dill or other Burpee–The Complete Vegetable & Herb Gardener: A Guide to Growing Your Garden members of the carrot family. From com- Organically by Karan Davis Cutler. Wiley, New York, New York, 1997. mercial growers Francesco DeBaggio of Virginia and Rose Marie Nichols McGee of Oregon to Delaware State University re- ing, but removing too many will check which are red-bronze, and the purple- search professor Art Tucker, herb experts bulb development. If flower stalks form, bronze ‘Purpurescens’ and ‘Smokey’. all agree that it doesn’t happen. Any change remove them. Florence fennel The biggest difference in flavor or appearance over time is due to between cultivars is not flavor but the fennels crossing with each other, not with GETTING STARTED shape of the bulb (elongated or round) and another genus. Start plants indoors a month before your pedigree (OP or hybrid). OP ‘Zefa Fino’ last-frost date in individual pots and has elongated bulbs and is the standard by ENJOYING THE HARVEST transplant while they are small to avoid which other finocchios are judged. Other Fennel is now a trendy ingredient in up- disturbing their taproots. Or sow com- scale restaurants, which would have mon or ornamental fennels outdoors pleased Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that after the last-frost date. Gardeners with he preferred Florence fennel “to every other mild winters can sow into late summer. vegetable, or to any fruit.” Chefs mine all Sow seeds a quarter-inch deep and cover. parts of the plant—from the seeds, which They will germinate in seven to 10 days are technically fruit—to the bulbs, which in 65-degree-Fahrenheit soil. Plants flower are actually the plant’s fleshy leaf base. about 90 days from sowing. Mature plant Leaves and stems from common and stems become woody, so it’s helpful to ornamental fennels can be harvested make successive plantings. throughout the garden season; refrigerate Timing is more complicated for Flo- in plastic bags for three to five days. To har- rence fennel, which bolts in hot weather. vest the pungent seeds, which can be used Where summers are cool, sow in early to flavor meat and baked goods, cut entire spring for summer harvest and in mid- flower heads as soon as the seeds begin to summer for a fall harvest. Where sum- turn brown and store in a paper bag. Once mers are hot, start fennel in midsummer ripe, the seeds will shake loose. Store in an for a fall harvest; in frost-free regions, sow airtight container in a cool, dark place for in late summer or early fall for a spring up to six months. harvest. The time from sowing seeds out- Florence fennel—which is often sold doors to harvest is 90 to 120 days, 70 to as “anise” in produce departments—can 95 days from transplanting. be used raw in salads, or baked, boiled, Harvest Florence fennel bulbs when they are braised, caramelized, fried, grilled, mari- RECOMMENDED VARIETIES about three inches across. nated, roasted, sautéed, and simmered. Common fennel Despite informal Harvest bulbs when they are about three names like “Italian” or “Roman,” you’re elongated choices include hybrids ‘Solaris’, inches across, before the plant sends up a buying seeds of Foeniculum vulgare. ‘Victorio’, and ‘Trieste’. Round-bulb flower stalk. Either pull the plant or cut ‘Grosfruchtiger’, an open-pollinated choices include OPs ‘Perfection’ and just below the bulb. Remove tops and (OP) selection, is the only variety widely ‘Romy’ and hybrids ‘Orion’ and ‘Rondo’. store in plastic bags in the refrigerator for sold and is similar to the species. up to five days.  Ornamental fennel These have slightly PESTS AND DISEASES less flavor and scent than common fennel. Diseases and pests rarely trouble fennel, Vermont resident Karan Davis Cutler blogs for

.Selections include ‘Bronze’ and ‘Rubrum’, but in some places it can be a pest itself. The Christian Science Monitor ְֳֳ֣֣֣֥֦֪֣֦֭֮֨֠

July / August 2011 45 46 ‘Villa RomaScarlet’sweetpea ‘Villa RomaScarlet’sweetpea marylandica ranks: the joined stand-outs two the bestofeachyear. For 2011, mental plants,awards itsGold Medal to tion thattestsandpromotesorna- new Fleuroselect, aninternationalorganiza- VARIETIESFLOWER INTERNATIONALLY ACCLAIMED compact plants. a sweet peaboastingdeepred bloomson odoratusLathyrus double, reddish-orangetruly flowers; and first disease-resistant zinniacultivar with Phantom petunia Phantom petunia Horticultural News and Research Important to American Gardeners the American Gardener Double Zahara ‘Villa Roma‘Villa Scarlet’ is # Fire is the Fire Zinnia Texas, visit around thecountry. agencies searchers andconservation an onlinedatabaseaccessibleto otherre- arezen scientistobservations collectedin , cogongrass this work involves thefederally listed of contributions among theimportant $71,000 inlaborcosts. data collection,savinganestimated more during of tions hours 4,000 than they’ve notedmore than12,000observa- 1,100 in the last five years. Together the trainingofparticipants—more than son Wildflower CenterinAustin oversees Bird Lady the organizations, tion John- governmental, academic,andconserva- “Texas-sized partnership”of numerous State tokeeptrackofinvasive plants. army ofvolunteers allover theLoneStar of Texas, whichhasmobilized a small gram thatismakingheadlinesInvaders er patterns.One highlysuccessfulpro- from migratingbirds tochanging weath- ing scientistscollectdataoneverything by help- efforts impact onconservation Ordinary citizens canhave atremendous TEXAS IN SPECIES SCIENCE TAKESCITIZEN ONINVASIVE al information. black flowers withavibrantyellow star. tom dazzledjudgeswithitsdark, nearly show-stopping andone-of-a-kind,Phan- “wowoff-the-charts factor.” Described as breeding by varieties spotlighting withan recognizes exceptional innovation inplant spread further. Additionally, alltheciti- cylindrica) vice stafftoremove itbefore itcould infested regionTexas enabled Ser- Simply Beautiful nia introduction from Ball Horticultural’s FleuroStar Award toPhantom,petu- anew GARDENER To learnmore aboutInvaders of According totheWildflower Center, While theprogram istheproduct ofa Visit Additionally, Fleuroselect gave itsnew www.fleuroselect.com . Areported sightinginanun- C www.texasinvasives.org. ∀ NOTEBOOK ’S line. Thisdistinction o addition- for (Imperata tension in Chatsworth, Newtension inChatsworth, Jersey. Research andCranberry Blueberry &Ex- search Marucci Center for Service lashock attheUSDA’s AgriculturalRe- says research plantpathologistJames Po- grown andaffectsallcultivated species,” occurs “almost blueberriesare everywhere celebrations ismummyberry, adiseasethat But onethingthatcanputadamperon ing withpeakseasonforthissummerfruit. July month, coincid- is national blueberry BLUEBERRIES DISEASE-RESISTANT BEST released intotheatmosphere. ers efficientlycanreduce thenitrous oxide bon tothesoil,andusingnitrogen fertiliz- returnlike mulchingandcomposting car- as row crops isaplus.Also,simpletasks heavily onemission-producing machinery that ornamentalhorticulture doesn’t rely as large quantitiesofcarbon.Andthefact andperennialsshrubs, themselves capture media bothgointothegarden. Trees, of carbontothesoilwhenplantand containers are carbonrichandreturn a lot bark andotherwood-basedmediainplant resulted inthisconclusion.First, thepine- research journal published intheFebruary 2011issueofthe According tothereport Prior andhis team ers, butit’s nicetohave sciencebehindit. ishardlythe earth flashforgarden- anews right now itlookslike it’s asink.” whether it’s acarbonsourcea sink,and or Auburn, Alabama.“We wantedtolookat vice National Soil DynamicsLabin of Agriculture’s AgriculturalResearch Ser- ogist withtheUnited States Department bad guy?”saysSteve Prior, aplantphysiol- horticulture plays—isitagoodguyor culture specificallystackup? sector ofthisindustry, how doeshorti- trous oxide—around theworld,butasa gases—carbon dioxide, methane,andni- source ofclimate-changinggreenhouse Agriculture iswell-known asamajor FOOTPRINT CARBON HORTICULTURE’S The factthathorticulture isgoodfor “No onehasever determinedwhatrole HortScience, several factors

ֺ ִִַַַֹֺֹֻֻּּ֧֢֭֭֭֭֮֮֠֠֫֠֡֫ regulations for plants used in gardening and landscape design by adding a new category called “Not Authorized for Im- portation Pending Pest Risk Analysis,” or NAPPRA. Although it might seem like an inconsequential tweak, it adds another layer of protection for garden- ers and growers from pests and invasive plants and the economic and environ- mental damage they could do. The USDA’s Animal and Plant Health USDA researchers James Polaschock, left, Inspection Service will evaluate plants en- and Mark Ehlendfeldt examine blueberry tering the country for their invasive po- bushes to determine their resistance to tential, based on whether or not research disease, which shrivels and has deemed the species a pest carrier or a discolors fruit, above. pest itself. Potential threats are placed on the NAPPRA list, but this status can be Caused by the fungus Monilinia vac- to mummy berry, and ‘Brunswick’ ranked appealed with new scientific research cinii-corymbosi, the disease affects blueber- best for lowbush cultivars. While this re- demonstrating they are not invasive or ries in two phases: first it attacks the new search was aimed at helping commercial likely to carry destructive pests or diseases. growth and foliage, and then when fruit growers choose better varieties to cultivate, The idea behind this new regulation is to appears, it causes the berries to shrivel and home gardeners may also want to seek out keep out harmful pests and pathogens turn white until they appear mummified. these less susceptible options. species while allowing some flexibility. During a multi-year trial, Polashock and his colleagues evaluated scores of cultivars USDA MODIFIES REGULATIONS FOR MOTH-FREE MOVES to find the most resistant ones. IMPORTING NON-NATIVE PLANTS “Before you bust-a-move…BUST-A- Overall, among highbush cultivars Effective as of June 27, the USDA has MOTH!” So goes the slogan of a cam-

ֱֱֶֺֹֺֻּֽ֣֭֠ ְֱִִֶַַַַָָֹֻֻ֭֮֠֠֯֯֩֠֩֠֩֯ ְֱַַֺֹֺֹֹֺֻֻּּ֤֥֭֮֠֠֬֩֩֠֯֨֠֫ ִַֹֺֻֻּ֭֭֮֨֠֫ ‘Bluejay’ appeared to be the most resistant made a slight alteration to importation paign to raise awareness about the risk ofְֱֹֽ֭֫֩֠ ַַַֹ֥֯֬־ֱַַֹּ֪֦֭֮֯֠֠֩֯֯֠֠ ֺ ְֱַַֺֹֺֹֹֺֻֻּּ֤֥֭֮֠֠֬֩֩֠֯֨֠֫ ְֱִִֶַַַַָָֹֻֻ֭֮֠֠֯֯֩֠֩֠֩֯ ְֱֱֱִֶַֹֺֹֺֹֻֻֻּּֽֽ֣֭֭֭֭֮֠֩֫֠֫֠֨

It took just a few weeks for Laura’s flowers to thrive. { Plus 82 years of organic expertise. }

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July / August 2011 47 48

related toitsmission. ganizations andindividualswhohaveshownoutstandingachievement”infields tenance ofthequalitylife,” thePollinatorPartnershipbasedinSanFrancis- plant curatorattheCoastalMaineBotanicalGardensinBoothbay,whoreceived Each year,theGardenClubofAmerica(GCA)awards10nationalmedalsto“or- Garden ClubofAmerica’sNationalAwardWinners standards andethicalpracticesmyfatherwouldexpect.” van denBerg-Ohms.“Wewillcontinuetorunthethreecompanieswithhigh organization workstopromote andprotectNorthAmericanpollinatorsthe co, California,receivedthe CynthiaPrattLaughlinMedal.Thisnonprofit ers in1994,and2002,JohnScheepersKitchenGardenSeedswaslaunched. while participatingintheDutchresistanceduringWorldWarII.Afterwar, ing inhisfamily’sbulbfieldsandnurseries.Hestudiedornamentalhorticulture bulbs tobotanical,public,andprivategardensacrosstheUnitedStates. of hissix-decadecareer,heiscreditedwithsupplyingnearlyabillionflower Dutch bulbsmanJanOhmspassedawayinMayattheageof85.Overcourse In Memoriam:DutchBulbsmanJanOhms PLACESintheNEWS PEOPLE and essential roletheyplayinthe environment.

Knock Out Kris Jarantoski Kris Among thehonoreesthisyearisWilliamCullina,directorofhorticultureand “Our businessnotonlyrepresentsmyfather’slegacy,it’shisvision,”says For acomplete listofmedalwinners,visitwww.gcamerica.org. For its“outstandingachievement inenvironmentalprotectionandthemain- Born inConnecticuttoDutchparents,OhmsgrewuptheNetherlandswork- the American Gardener ® rose,which wasintroducedin2005. waukee, Wisconsin,whodevelopedthebest-selling of newroses”wasawardedtoWilliamJ.RadlerMil- achievement inroseculturethroughthepropagation gardens, andplantcollectionsoverthelast30years. world leaderinplantconservationresearch,teaching nition ofhiseffortstomakethispublicgardenintoa Chicago BotanicGardeninGlencoe,Illinois,recog- Jarantoski, executivevicepresidentanddirectorofthe winning booksonthesesubjects. plants andtheirpropagation,hehaswrittenfiveaward- ary achievement.AnexpertonNorthAmericannative the SarahChapmanFrancisAwardforoutstandingliter- The JaneRighterRoseMedalfor“outstanding The GCA’sDistinguishedServiceMedalwenttoKris Berg-Ohms becamepresidentofJohnScheep- John Scheepers.HisdaughterJo-Annevanden which hadbeenfoundedin1908byhisuncle, Scheepers mailorderflowerbulbcompany, fied intotheretailmarketbyacquiringJohn bulb catalogsoonafter.In1991,Ohmsdiversi- and launcheditswell-knownwholesaleflower necticut. Inthe1970s,heacquiredVanEngelen pany, JanS.Ohms,Inc.,inStamford,Con- Force, Ohmsfoundedhisownflowerbulbcom- economics. gree inlandscapearchitectureandagricultural University ofConnecticut,whereheearnedade- Ohms returnedtotheUnitedStatesattend

In the1950s,afterservinginU.S.Air

masses, above, that overwinter. that above, masses,

August, with females laying tan-colored tan-colored laying females with August,

months. Adult moths appear in July and July in appear moths Adult months.

feed voraciously on leaves for several for leaves on voraciously feed Top: 13 millionacres oftrees inoneseason. speciesandcandefoliateupto and shrub Gypsy mothsplaguemore than300tree them ifleaves are repeatedly stripped. order, weakening andeventually killing liage ofentire trees andbushesinshort a caterpillar, thisinsectcandevour thefo- quarantines andothercontrol measures. As corridordespiterigorous the northeast Europe, thispesthasspread throughout t spreading gypsymothsduringamove. In- visit moths andproper inspection techniques destroy anyeggmassesyou mayfind. side thatyou plantotakewithyou, and inspect anyhouseholditems stored out- fested state,you are required by lawto antined area and are moving toanon-in- game. Because ofthis,ifyou live inaquar- egg masses—anythingoutdoorsisfair about where they laytheirfuzzy-looking roduced toMassachusetts in1869from

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50 and adjustablewristclosureensureacomfortablefit. raking, staking,andotherheavychores.Theirstretchyback blisterswhiledigging, greatforpreventing ibility—they’re Garden Gloves dust, shopping bags,andmilkjugs,the attractivecom- be intensivelyplantedsoyou canproducequiteabitin option. Filledwithrichsoiland compost,araisedbedcan providing excellentgrippingability.Its nitrile-coated tokeepoutmoisture,while (www.greenlandgardener.com) limited area. this season.Ifyourspaceis limited, araisedbedisgood There’s stilltimetostartanewvegetableorflowergarden BEDSYSTEM RECYCLED RAISED offers lent directlytoyourskin,Sloggers ticks. Ifyou’drathernotapply—andreapply—insectrepel- Summer’s hereandsoaremosquitoes,chiggers,flies, OUTDOOR PROTECTION GARAGE GREEN (www.wellslamont.com) hands withgardeninggloves.WellsLamont their effectiveness. losing without 70times least at washed used fordogsaswellgardeners—canbe it getswindy.Thebandanas—whichcanbe chin strapthatkeepsthehatinplacewhen sun protection;Iparticularlyliketheleather Brimmed BraidedHat bonds theinsectrepellentpermethrintofabric.Its plies. Hereareafewproductsyoumaywanttostockinyourown“greengarage”orgardenshed. reports onproductsshehasfoundusefulorinnovativeinhergarden,withanemphasisearth-friendlyandsup- chores easier,,andmoreefficient?Howaboutgettingthescoopfromanothergardener?ContributingeditorRitaPelczar With somanytoolsandproductstochoosefrom,what’sagardenerdoselectthosethatwillmakeindooroutdoor Don’t forgettoprotectyourhard-working the American Gardener hats andbandanaswithInsectShield are verysturdy,durable,andprovidegoodflex- Greenland GardenerRaised Bed GardenKit also providesUPF50+ Garden Tips ® by RitaPelczar is madefromrecycledsaw- (www.sloggerstore.com) ™ are Ultra ComfortSuede ® technology, which Wide- that allowforbothhorizontalandverticalexpansion. semble andareavailableinarange ofsizesandcomponents posite hastheappearanceofwood.Thekitsareeasytoas- dens) cathedral bells choice to climb. I’m growing framework forthevineofyour cover adownspoutandprovide placed oneontopoftheotherto wide andthreefeetlong,thatare lar sections,eacheightinches kit consistsofthreesemi-circu- Valley spout Trellis the discover to pleased trance. Thisyear,however,Iwas porch—they detractfromtheen- spouts thatflankmyfront I haveneverlikedthedown- FORDOWNSPOUTS CAMOUFLAGE The HANDS-FREE GARDENING Homegrown Harvest lives inNorth Carolina. She istheeditor-in-chiefofAHS’s for editor A contributing the bagmakeforeasyemptying. inch-wide ringopeningandastraphandleatthebottomof vesting cropsfromaladder—likeapplesandhops.The10- your handsarestillfreetowork.It’salsohelpfulforhar- best ofall,both five gallons and holds morethan right orleftside.It worn oneitheryour to abeltandcanbe fabric bagattaches pulling weeds.The and blooms, ing plants, deadhead- herbaceous back pings whilecutting to collectyourclip- com) Gardener’s HollowLeg is ahandyway on mine. (www.leevalley.com). The available fromLee (Cobaea scan- (Cobaea (Mitchell Beazley/Octopus USA, 2010). The AmericanGardener Pelczar, Rita Down- (www.TheGardenersHollowLeg. 

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Recommendations for Your Gardening Library

Attracting Native Pollinators: Fifty Plants that Changed the Course of History Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies Bill Laws. Firefly Books, Buffalo, New York, 2010. 224 pages. Pub- Eric Mader, Matthew Shepherd, Mace Vaughan, Scott Hoffman Black, lisher’s price, hardcover: $29.95. and Gretchen LeBuhn. Storey Publishing, North Adams, Massachu- setts, 2011. 384 pages. Publisher’s price, softcover: $29.95. IS IT POSSIBLE that a mere 50 plants changed history? I won’t argue because this is a terrific book that will keep you on the edge IT IS well known that insects pollinate the majority of flower- of your seat. Zippy prose masks an ex- ing plants, but few of us realize that more than a third of our traordinary amount of spellbinding food supply results directly from such facts and anecdotes about these . Obviously it is in our own plants—among them crabapple, bam- self-interest to protect and encourage boo, and lavender—that humans enjoy pollinators, a task this comprehensive for seemingly limitless purposes, most- book takes seriously. ly taken for granted. Included are some Attracting Native Pollinators is pub- we also fear: opium poppy and coca lished under the auspices of the Xerces (that’s cocaine—not to be confused Society, which is dedicated to the pro- with cacao, or chocolate, also included). tection and understanding of inverte- For example, sunflowers started brates. Covering beetles, flies, wasps, their cultivated life among North and bees, this book is divided into four American Indians, but were improved in Russia when Stalin re- well-illustrated sections, the first of alized their many commercial potentials (mostly for cooking, which discusses the role of pollinators in broad terms, how pol- but also for life belts—its stem pith has “a lower specific gravi- lination is achieved, life histories of exemplary pollinators, and ty than ”). Yet sunflower’s ultimate fame came from Vin- factors influencing their decline and conservation both in nat- cent ’s golden flowers that “lifted his depression” as he ural and manmade environments. sought to capture their essence in the late 1800s. A century later, The second section is devoted to managing habitats for polli- the sale of one of his sunflower paintings set an art world record. nators ranging from homes, schools, farms, wildlife management Then there is the tale of the Peruvian Indians who used the areas, urban parks, and even green roofs. The third section is a bee bark of a tree they called “quina quina,” the source of quinine, to primer, pointing out that bees are the most important of all pol- treat malaria. Their discovery ultimately led to “fantastic fortunes” linators, discussing their biology, and illustrating dozens of species. for some, and a history of “love, deceit, corruption, and inter-gov- The authors admit—and truthfully so—that identifying bees is ernmental conspiracy,” that could rival “any work of fiction.” definitely not as easy as identifying birds, but they provide sever- In between these fascinating yarns, a serious conservationist’s al traits for at least telling them apart from wasps and flies. voice is unmistakable. For instance, author Bill Laws notes how The last section provides illustrated garden plans, regional “King ” was not only a mainstay of the slave trade in the plant lists, color photographs of -attracting plants, 18th and 19th centuries, but also led to forced migrations of Na- and a list of larval host plants for particular butterflies. There’s tive Americans who occupied the land. And while mid-19th cen- also an appendix that includes a glossary, index, and helpful re- tury America exported millions of bales per year, the growing sources for more information. methods were “killing the soil.” To this day, “more chemicals are Providing a thorough introduction to the interactions of sprayed on cotton than any other crop,” Laws writes. Cotton uses plants and their essential insect partners, Attracting Native Pol- less than three percent of farmed land but is treated with “a quar- linators is suitable for novices, advanced gardeners, and those ter of the world’s .” interested in the pursuit of sustainable horticulture or agricul- All the illustrations are from other works, but, honestly, I hard- ture. It also serves as an important reminder of how much we ly looked at them because the prose packed such a wallop. This depend upon the natural world for our own survival. book will mesmerize plant-lovers and non-gardeners alike.  —Eric Grissell —Linda Yang

Eric Grissell is a retired USDA entomologist and author of Insects Linda Yang is author of The City Gardener’s Handbook (Storey and Gardens as well as Bees, Wasps, and , The Indispensable Publishing), now in its 21st year of publication, and a former garden Role of Hymenoptera in Gardens (see page 54). writer for The New York Times.

52 the American Gardener ֱֱֵֵֶֶַֺֺֹֺֹֻֻֻּֿ֢֪֢֭֮֠֫֠֠ ֱֵֵֶֶֶַֺֺֺֺֻֻּֿ֥֢֪֢֭֭֭֭֠֩֩֠֯֬֠֠֩֠֨ ְֱֱֱֳֵֵֵֵָֺֺֹֺֻֻּ֭֭֭֭֩֠֯֩֬֯֠֫ ְֱֱֲֳֵֵֵֺֺֹֻֻּ֪֭֭֭֭֩֩֠֫֠֯֩֬

ֱֳֳֽ֪֥֭֩֩ ְֹֹֽ֭֭֭־ ֲֶֶֺֹ֪֭֠֩ ֳֶֺ֬

ֱ֤֧֣֭֮֫ ְ֢֤ ֤֥֤֤֪֣֤֭֬֬ ֥֬֫֩ ֦֤֮ ֢֤֧֣֢֪֩֬ ֦֧֣֢֦֭֮֮֮֫֬֯֨֯֬֨֡֯֩

“You’ll find step-by-step instructions for pruning, watering, “The book’s sumptuous tone, instructive photographs, propagating; information about all categories of plants… and detailed directions should give beginning gardeners the sections on organic techniques and recycling; and how to enthusiasm and confidence to get started and treat pests and disease…. Consider it a plant-lover’s mutual organizationally challenged old-timers a sigh of relief that fund—a little of this and little of that, in a dandy they won’t have to figure out what to do next.” investment.” —Publisher’s Weekly —Ginny Smith, Philadelphia Inquirer

• Learn how to plan and create • Advice on planning, setting an entire garden, from marking up, and designing your garden out the space to growing • Expert, earth-friendly delicious fruits and vegetables techniques for successfully • Ten easy-to-read chapters tell growing and harvesting herbs, you everything you need to fruits, and vegetables know about sowing, watering, • Suggestions on the best crop fertilizing, propagating, and varieties for different regions more • Handy charts for when to sow • More than 200 step-by-step seeds and harvest illustrations • More than 300 photographs Hardcover: $45 480 pages Hardcover: $32.50 304 pages

View an excerpt from Homegrown Harvest at .ְֵֶֺֹֻ֭֭֠֩֬֠ www.ahs.orgְֱֱִִֵֵֵֶֶֶֶֶֹֹֹֻֻ֦֭֭֮֠֠֩֠֠ ְֲֶֶֶֺֹֺ֣֤֪֣֣֯֩־־־ֱֱֲֶֶֺֺֻֽ֪֧֥֡֠֠֠֨ GARDENER’S BOOKS The Good, the Bad, and the Buggy

HEN I was a kid, creepy-crawlies of all sorts fascinated me. I was particularly fond of keeping earwigs, spiders, and man- Wtids as pets to watch them dispatch hapless victims. Today, I am happy to simply observe these creatures outdoors, busily going about their short lives. However, now that I’m a gardener, there are some that I am not so happy to find on my plants. Good or bad, bugs are part of any garden so it behooves us to learn more about them. Here are a few helpful books to check out.

Bees, Wasps, and Ants by entomolo- curious kids. Close-up color photographs throughout the book gist/gardener Eric Grissell (Timber Press, depict each bug in its various life stages from egg to adult. Even 2010, $27.95) is an introduction to the the baddies look beautiful, or at least interesting enough to stay myriad species of these insects and all they your bug-squashing impulses next time you encounter them. do in your garden. Even if you fancy your- You might even be inspired to purposely search these creatures self fairly well-versed in the affairs of these out, to see them in all their splendor for yourself. bugs, this book will give you new appreci- ation and a deeper understanding of their Speaking of baddies, Wicked Bugs by vital roles on this planet. I found the color Amy Stewart (Algonquin Books, 2011, plates especially riveting since many of $18.95) focuses on insects and other these insects are too small, quick, or in- arthropods on the more fiendish end of timidating for me to admire up close. the spectrum. While there is a section on garden pests, the book includes creatures The Secret Lives of Backyard Bugs by that nosh on everything from books to Judy Burris and Wayne Richards (Storey to humans themselves. Warning: Publishing, 2011, $14.95) delves further Not advised for the squeamish—the facts into the world of diminutive garden and anecdotes in this book are guaranteed denizens, spotlighting insects and spiders to give you the heebie-jeebies!  gardeners are likely to encounter. Large print and a simple layout will also entice —Viveka Neveln, Associate Editor


Offering hands-on, practical experience, internships are one of the Society’s most important educational programs. Internship opportunities available include positions in publications, horticulture, and education. For more information and application forms, visit the River Farm area of www.ahs.org or e-mail [email protected]

54 the American Gardener


Horticultural Events from Around the Country

NORTHEAST Botanical gardens and arboreta that participate Washington, D.C. (202) 245-4526. CT, MA, ME, NH, NY, RI, VT in AHS’s Reciprocal Admissions Program are www.usna.usda.gov. ֢֠֡ THROUGH NOV. 13. Native New identified with the ֢֠֡ symbol. Current AHS Yorkers. Exhibit. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. members showing a valid membership card are THROUGH OCT. 2. Green Genes: Mapping the Brooklyn, New York. (718) 623-7200. Plant World. Garden exhibit. U.S. Botanic eligible for free admission to the garden or www.bbg.org. Garden. Washington, D.C. (202) 225-8333. other benefits. Special events may not be www.usbg.gov. included; contact the host site for details or JULY 20–23. Nantucket Garden Festival. The Nantucket Lighthouse School. visit www.ahs.org/rap. JULY 30 & 31. Native Orchid Conference. Mt. Nantucket, Massachusetts. (508) 228- Cuba Center. Hockessin, Delaware. (302) 0427. www.nantucketgardenfestival.com. 239-4244. www.nativeorchidconference.org. shop. University of Massachusetts Extension ֢֠֡ JULY 28. Building Simple Water Landscape, Nursery, and . ֢֠֡ AUG. 6. Made in the Shade. Garden Features. Class and demonstration. New Amherst, Massachusetts. (413) 545-0895. crafts and activities. Morris Arboretum of the York Botanical Garden. Bronx, New York. www.umassgreeninfo.org. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, (718) 817-8700. www.nybg.org. Pennsylvania. (215) 247-5777. www.busi- Looking ahead ness-services.upenn.edu/arboretum. ֢֠֡ JULY 31. . Lecture. The Arnold SEPT. 10. Gathering of Gardeners: Fall .Arboretum of Harvard University. Boston, Symposium. Master Gardeners of Cornell ֢֠֡ AUG. 13. Butterfly Walk. Guided tour Massachusetts. (617) 524-1718. Cooperative Extension, Monroe County. New Jersey Botanical Garden. Ringwood, http://arboretum.harvard.edu. Rochester Museum & Science Center. New Jersey. (973) 962-9534. Rochester, New York. (585) 461-1000 www.njbg.org. .֢֠֡ AUG. 13. Hay Day Family Festival. The ext. 225. www.gatheringofgardeners.com -Fells Estate and Gardens. Newbury, New ֢֠֡ AUG. 27. Asters, Goldenrods, and Oth Hamp shire. (603) 763-4789. www.the- SEPT. 23–25. Common Ground Country Fair. er Composites. Field class. Adkins Arbore- fells.org. Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Asso- tum. Ridgely, Maryland. (410) 634-2847. ciation. Unity, Maine. (207) 568-4142. www.adkinsarboretum.org. .֢֠֡ AUG. 14. Native Plants and the Civil www.mofga.org War. Lecture. The New England Wildflower Looking ahead -Society. Garden in the . Framingham, ֢֠֡ SEPT. 10. Fall Gardening Festival. Vir MID-ATLANTIC Massachusetts. (508) 877-7630. ginia Beach Master Gardener Association. PA, NJ, VA, MD, DE, WV, DC www.newfs.org. Virginia Tech Agricultural Research Station. .֢֠֡ THROUGH AUG. 28. Becoming a Bon- Virginia Beach, Virginia. (757) 385-4769 AUG. 25. Grassy Weed Identification Work- sai. Exhibit. U.S. National Arboretum. www.vbmg.org.

International Master Gardeners Conference

AMID VIBRANT fall color, the International Master Gardener Conference will take place from October 11 to 14 in Charleston, West Virginia. With the theme, “Color It Green in a Wild and Wonderful Way,” the conference’s focus will be on sustain- ability, not only when it comes to gardening, but also in terms of the entire event, down to reducing and recycling the paper waste it generates and using local and fair trade produce in refreshments as much as possible. “It’s a real honor,” says Delores Barber, Master Gardener and conference co-chair, “to have gardening enthusiasts from all over come and experience a part of the country they might never have seen before and also to hear wonderful speakers.” Fea- tured speakers include Ball Horticultural CEO Anna Ball, green gardening guru Joe Lamp’l, and regional landscape design and conservation expert Rick Darke. Master gardeners and their guests can attend lectures and breakout sessions on everything from gardening techniques that increase biodiversity to dealing with weeds to gardening with native plants. There will also be a trade show and tours of local horticultural and cultural sites including Heritage Farm Museum and Village, the Huntington Museum of Art’s orchid con- servatory and , and a ginseng and medicinal plant garden at Left Fork Farm. For more information or to register, visit http://imgc.ext.wvu.edu. —Helen Thompson, Editorial Intern

56 the American Gardener .SEPT. 16 & 17. Heritage Harvest Festival. Mon- ֢֠֡ AUG. 20. Winterizing Your Beehive. (216) 721-1600. www.cbgarden.org ticello. Charlottesville, Virginia. (434) 984- Workshop. Smith-Gilbert Gardens. http://heritageharvestfestival.com. Kennesaw, Georgia. (770) 919-0248. ֢֠֡ JULY 23. Killers in Green: Carnivorous .9880 www.smithgilbertgardens.com. Plants of North America. Class. Fernwood ,֢֠֡ SEPT. 24. Fall Garden Festival. Botanical Garden & Nature Preserve. Niles Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. The Looking ahead Michigan. (269) 695-6491. www.fernwood .Philadelphia Navy Yard, Philadelphia, ֢֠֡ SEPT. 15. Preparing Gardens, Or- botanical.org Pennsylvania. (215) 988-8800. chards, Lawns & Landscapes For Winter. www.pennsylvaniahorticulturalsociety.org. Class. Boone County Extension Service Of- JULY 28. Pollinator Conservation Planning fice. Burlington, Kentucky. (859) 586- Workshop. The Xerces Society for Inverte- 6101. http://ces.ca.uky.edu/boone. brate Conservation. Walkerton, Indiana. SOUTHEAST (855) 232-6639. www.xerces.org. AL, FL, GA, KY, NC, SC, TN ֢֠֡ SEPT. 22. Fall for Hatcher. Garden ,JULY 27–30. The Cullowhee Native Plant walk. Hatcher Garden and Woodland ֢֠֡ AUG. 5. Garden Day 2011. Seminars Conference. Western Carolina University. Preserve. Spartanburg, . workshops, food, vendors. Michigan State Cullowhee, North Carolina. (828) 227- (864) 574-7724. www.hatchergarden.org. University Horticulture Gardens. East Lans- 7397. www.wcu.edu/5033.asp. ing, Michigan. (517) 355-5191 ext. 1359. .֢֠֡ SEPT. 24. Herb Day. Seminar, lunch, www.hrt.msu.edu -֢֠֡ JULY 30. Orchid Care 101. Class. outdoor activities. Mobile Botanical Gar Mounts Botanical Garden. West Palm dens. Mobile, Alabama. (251) 342-0555. AUG. 20 & 21. Flower Fest and Family Fun Beach, Florida. (561) 233-1757. www.mobilebotanicalgardens.org. Weekend. Flower show, activities, photo www.mounts.org. contest. Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Chaska, Minnesota. (952) 443-1400. NORTH CENTRAL .֢֠֡ AUG. 5. Planting to Support Winter www.arboretum.umn.edu IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, ND, NE, OH, SD, WI Migrants. Breakfast and lecture. .The State Botanical Garden of Georgia. ֢֠֡ THROUGH SEPT. 4. David Rogers’ ֢֠֡ AUG. 21. Birdscaping in the Midwest Athens, Georgia. (706) 542-1244. Big Bugs. Outdoor exhibit. Reiman Class. Olbrich Botanical Gardens. Madison, www.uga.edu/botgarden. Gardens. Ames, Iowa. (515) 294-2710. Wisconsin. (608) 246-4550. www.olbrich.org. www.reimangardens.iastate.edu. ֢֠֡ AUG. 19. Ikebana Floral Design. Class. ֢֠֡ AUG. 27 & 28. Heirloom Tomato .Memphis Botanic Garden. Memphis, ֢֠֡ THROUGH OCT. 1. For the Birds. Weekend. Chicago Botanic Garden Tennessee. (901) 576-4100. Outdoor birdhouse exhibit. Cleveland Glencoe, Illinois. (847) 835-5440. www.memphisbotanicgarden.com. Botanical Garden. Cleveland, . www.chicagobotanic.org/chef/tomato.

July / August 2011 57 Looking ahead ֢֠֡ SEPT. 9–11. Roadside Flower Sale. Southern Garden Restoration Conference Chicago Botanic Garden. Glencoe, Illinois. (847) 835-5440. www.chicagobotanic.org. STEP BACK into the 18th century and learn about the adventures of our country’s first naturalists, botanists, and gardeners who flocked to the south to explore and ֢֠֡ SEPT. 12 & 13. Urban Tree Growth Symposium. The International Society of Ar- study its flora and fauna. Taking place September 22 to 24 in Winston-Salem, North boriculture. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Carolina, the 18th Conference on Restoring Southern Gardens and Landscapes will Illinois. (630) 719-2468. www.masslabora- focus on the theme, “A New World: Naturalists and Artists in the American South.” tory.org/urbantreegrowth.htm. Jointly organized by Old Salem Museums and Gardens, Reynolda House Museum of American Art, and the Southern Garden History Society, the conference will take SOUTH CENTRAL a fascinating look at the impact of Colonial gardeners on the southern landscape. AR, KS, LA, MO, MS, OK, TX

-֢֠֡ THROUGH AUG. 21. Extreme Tree Houses. Outdoor exhibition. Missouri Botanical Garden. St. Louis, Missouri. (314) 577-5100. www.mobot.org.

֢֠֡ JULY 24. Tomato Fest. Botanical Garden of the Ozarks. Fayetteville, Arkansas. (479) 750-2620. www.bgozarks.org.

.֢֠֡ JULY 27. Pollinators in Lecture. Botanica, The Wichita Gardens. Wichita, Kansas. (316) 264-0448. www.botanica.org.

֢֠֡ JULY 30. Wildflower Identification and Ecology. Shaw Nature Reserve. Gray Summit, Missouri. (636) 451-3512. www.shawnature.org.

֢֠֡ AUG. 1. Gardening Green—Low Input/High Output. Lecture. Burden Horti- culture Society. Burden Center. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (225) 763-3990. www.burdenhorticulturesociety.com. Dressed in 18th-century-style attire, a reenactor tends a vegetable garden at Old Salem Museums and Gardens in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. AUG. 6. Fall Vegetable Gardening Workshop. Travis County Master Gardener’s Associa- Andrea Wulf, award-winning author of Brother Gardeners and Founding Gar- tion. Zilker Botanical Garden. Austin, Texas. (512) 477-8672. www.zilkergarden.org. deners, will be the conference’s keynote speaker, and several other experts will speak about the lives and work of early American gardeners, such as father and son AUG. 18–21. Nursery Landscape Expo. William and John Bartram. Participants will also have the opportunity to visit his- Texas Nursery & Landscape Association. toric Old Salem and tour local gardens. Dallas Convention Center. Dallas, Texas. “I think it’s just going to be amazing to look at these people who lived and trav- (800) 880-0343. www.nurserylandscape expo.org. eled in the south in the 18th and 19th centuries,” says Sally Gant, director of pro- grams and education at Old Salem Museums and Gardens. “They not only Looking ahead collected plants but sent them all over the world, so they were influencing gardens ”.֢֠֡ SEPT. 17 & 18. Cacti and Succulent not only in the south but everywhere Society Show and Sale. Tulsa Garden —Helen Thompson, Editorial Intern Center. Tulsa, Oklahoma. (918) 746-5125. www.tulsagardencenter.com.

AUG. 13. Edible Plants of the Sonoran (801) 585-0556. www.redbuttegarden.org. SOUTHWEST Desert. Class. Tucson Botanical Gardens. AZ, NM, CO, UT .Tucson, Arizona. (520) 326-9686. ֢֠֡ AUG. 27 & 28. African Violet Show JULY 29. Monsoon Madness Plant Sale. To- www.tucsonbotanical.org. BioPark Botanic Garden. Albuquerque, New hono Chul Park. Tucson, Arizona. (520) Mexico. (505) 768-5300. .www.tohonochulpark.org. ֢֠֡ AUG. 15. Sustainable Edible Gardens. www.cabq.gov/biopark .742-6455 Class. Desert Botanical Garden. Phoenix, AUG. 12. Southwestern Horticulture Annual Arizona. (480) 941-1225. www.dbg.org. Looking ahead Day of Education (SHADE). Arizona Nursery ֢֠֡ SEPT. 10. Putting Your Rose Garden .Association. The Renaissance Glendale. ֢֠֡ AUG. 20. Crenshaw, Casaba and to Bed. Lecture. Denver Botanic Gardens Glendale, Arizona. (480) 966-1610. Cantaloupe. Workshop. Red Butte Garden. Denver, Colorado. (720) 865-3500. http://azna.org/shade. The University of Utah. Salt Lake City, Utah. www.botanicgardens.org. ֢֪֤֪֥֪֧֣֧֤֤֣֦֣֤֭֮֮֮֫֬֯֠֠֠֬֡֨֠֨֬֨֬֠֡֩֠֡֫֩֬

58 the American Gardener -֢֠֡ SEPT. 23 & 24. Fall Bulb and Native AUG. 28–30. Plant Exploration and Importa- AUG. 25–27. Farwest Show. Oregon Associa Plant Sale. Red Butte Garden. The tion. Conference. American Public Gardens tion of Nurseries. Oregon Convention Center. University of Utah. Salt Lake City, Utah. Association. Quarryhill Botanical Garden. Portland, Oregon. (800) 342-6401. (801) 585-0556. www.redbuttegarden.org. Glen Ellen, California. (610) 708-3010. www.farwestshow.com. www.publicgardens.org. .֢֠֡ SEPT. 24. Harvest Festival. Produce AUG. 28. Fern Tables and Tiny Shade Gardens tastings, marketplace, children’s activities. Looking ahead Workshop. Joy Creek Nursery. Scappoose, The Gardens on Spring Creek. Fort Collins, SEPT. 3 & 4. Hawaiian Plumeria Festival. Oregon. (503) 543-7474. www.joycreek.com. Colorado. (970) 416-2486. www.fcgov.com/ Southern California Plumeria Society. horticulture/ events.php. Balboa Park. San Diego, California. Looking ahead www.plumeriafestival.com. SEPT. 10. Dugout Gulch Botanical Area Walk. Great Plains Native Plant Society. Black WEST COAST .֢֠֡ SEPT. 11 &12. Salvia Spectacular. Hills National Forest. Black Hills, Wyoming CA, NV, HI Plant sale. Fullerton Arboretum. (605) 745-1149. www.gpnps.org. .֢֠֡ THROUGH SEPT. 5. Exploring Trees Fullerton, California. (657) 278-3407 Inside and Out. Exhibit. The Gardens at the www.fullertonarboretum.org. CANADA Springs Preserve. Las Vegas, Nevada. (702) 822-7700. www.springspreserve.org. AUG. 12–SEPT. 25. Zimsculpt. Outdoor NORTHWEST sculpture exhibit. VanDusen Botanical AK, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY JULY 29. Kaimuki Orchid Society Show. Garden. Vancouver, British Columbia. .Kaimuki Orchid Society. Aina Haina Ele- ֢֠֡ AUG. 2. Annual Celebration. (604) 257-8335. www.vandusengarden.org mentary School. Honolulu, Hawaii. E-mail: Lecture. Bellevue Botanical Garden Society. [email protected] Bellevue, Washington. (425) 452-3755. ֢֠֡ AUG. 25. Ferns & Allies ID Workshop www.bellevuebotanical.org. Field class. Royal Botanical Gardens. .֢֠֡ AUG. 7. Geranium Lecture. South Hamilton, Ontario. (905) 527-1158 .Coast Botanic Garden. Palos Verdes Penin- ֢֠֡ AUG. 6 & 7. Mystical Garden Creatures. www.rbg.ca sula, California. (310) 544-1948. Flower show. Anchorage Garden Club. Alas- www.southcoastbotanicgarden.org. ka Botanical Garden. Anchorage, Alaska. Looking ahead (907) 770-3692. www.alaskabg.org. SEPT. 10. Arboretum Auxiliary Plant Sale. AUG. 18–21. American Dahlia Society University of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario. .National Show. Pacific Southwest Dahlia ֢֠֡ AUG. 20. Garden Walk. Cheyenne (519) 824-4120 ext. 52113 Conference. Santa Clara, California. Botanic Gardens. Cheyenne, Wyoming. www.uoguelph.ca/arboretum/Upcoming (415) 826-6214. www.ads2011.org. (307) 637-6458. www.botanic.org. events.htm. 

ִ֪֧֠ ֲֲִֺֹֹ֧֠֯ ִֹֹ֪֭֠֡֯֫ ֠־ֳִֵֶ֧֣ ִֶֹ֧֪֧֥֠֫֩ ֠־ֲֲ֧֦֫ ֲֶ֧֣֮֠֫ ֱֲֳִֵֶֶָֺֹֹֺֺֹֺּ֪֧֪֧֧֧֧֧֮֫֠֩֫֠֠֫֠֠֯֯֫֬֩֠־ֲֲֳִִִֵָֺֹֻֽ֧֪֧֯֠֫֬֯ ִִִֽ֭֠֯֯ ָֽ֪֧֧֠ ֵָֻ֠ ֹ֪֧֪֠֫֩֫ ֵָֻ֠֬ ֵָּ֠֫ ֵָ֤֠ ֺ֠ ֳִֵֶָָֹֹֹ֢֯֫֯֠֯֬ ִֶֹ֧֪֧֥֠֫֩֠־ְֱֲֲֲֲֲֳִֵֵֶֶָָֺֹֺּ֧֧֧֣֧֦֧֮֮֮֮֠֫֠֨֫֫֠֫֠֠֬֠֫֠֫֩֫ ָֹּ֢֠֫֩֯֫ ִ֪֧֠ ֠־ֲַֺֻ֧֯ ֠֡־ֳִֺֺ֫֠ ֵֺ֠ ֳֳֵָֺֺּ֧֩֫֯֯֯֩ ֹֿ֠־ֳִֵֶ֧֣ ֲִִִֵֶָֹֹֻ֢֪֧֪֧֭֫֫֠֯֩֠־ֵֺֹֹֹֻ֪֠֯֩֠֠־ֲֲֵֺ֪֧֧֣֠

Maryland 410.442.2310 Virginia 703.406.0802 Washington, D.C. 301.924.5400 www.chapelvalley.com


Most of the cultivated plants described in this issue are listed here with their pronunciations, USDA Plant Hardiness Zones, and AHS Plant Heat Zones. These zones suggest a range of locations where temperatures are appropriate—both in winter and summer—for growing each plant. While the zones are a good place to start in determining plant adaptability in your region, factors such as exposure, mois- ture, snow cover, and humidity also play an important role in plant survival. The zones tend to be conservative; plants may grow outside the ranges indicated. A USDA zone rating of 0–0 means that the plant is a true annual and completes its life cycle in a year or less.

A–D E–L Iris pseudacorus EYE-ris soo-DAK-or-us Aconitum sinomontanum ak-o-NY-tum Eriogonum allenii air-ee-OG-o-num (5–8, 8–3) sih-no-mon-TAN-um (USDA Zones 5–9, ah-LEN-ee-eye (4–9, 9–4) JOO-glanz NY-gruh AHS Zones 7–2) E. arborescens E. ar-bo-RES-enz (5–9, 9–5) Acorus gramineus AK-or-us grah-MIN-ee- (10–11, 11–8) J. regia J. REE-jee-uh (3–7, 7–1) us (6–9, 9–5) E. cinereum E. sih-nuh-REE-um Lobelia siphilitica lo-BEEL-yuh sih-fih- Actaea dahurica ak-TEE-uh duh-HOOR-ih- (7–10, 11–2) LIH-tih-kuh (4–7, 9–2) kuh (3–8, 8–1) E. corymbosum E. ko-rim-BO-sum M–Z A. japonica A. jah-PON-ih-kuh (4–8, 8–1) (4–9, 11–2) A. matsumurae A. mat-su-MUR-ee E. crocatum E. kro-KAY-tum (9–10, 10–9) Mertensia virginica mur-TEN-see-uh (3–8, 12–1) E. fasciculatum E. fas-sik-yew-LAY-tum vir-JIN-ih-kuh (3–8, 7–1) A. pachypoda A. pak-IH-po-duh (3–8, 8–1) (8–10, 10–8) Mesembryanthemum crystallinum A. racemosa A. ras-eh-MO-suh (3–8, 8–1) E. giganteum E. jy-GAN-tee-um mes-em-bry-ANTH-eh-mum A. rubifolia A. roo-bih-FOH-lee-uh (8–10, 10–7) kris-TAL-in-um (8–11, 10–2) (4–8, 12–1) E. grande var. rubescens E. GRAN-day Myosotis scorpioides my-o-SO-tis A. rubra A. ROO-bruh (4–8, 8–1) var. roo-BES-enz (8–11, 10–2) skor-pee-OY-deez (5–9, 9–5) A. simplex A. SIM-pleks ( 4–8, 8–1) E. latifolium E. lat-ih-FO-lee-um Patrinia scabiosifolia pah-trin-EE-uh A. spicata A. spy-KAY-tuh (4–8, 8–1) (8–11, 10–8) skay-bee-o-sih-FO-lee-uh (5–8, 8–5) Alcea rosea AL-see-uh ro-ZAY-uh E. kennedyi E. ken-nuh-DEE-eye Penstemon barbatus PEN-steh-mon (2–9, 9–2) (5–8, 8–5) bar-BAY-tus (4–9, 9–2) Allium thunbergii AL-ee-um thun-BER-jee- E. tomentosum E. toh-men-TOH-sum P. pseudospectabilis P. soo-doh-spek- eye (5–9, 9–5) (7–10, 11–7) TAB-ih-liss (5–10, 10–5) Astilboides tabularis uh-stil-BOY-deez E. umbellatum E. um-bel-LAY-tum Phlox divaricata FLOKS dih-vair-ih-KAY- tab-yew-LAIR-iss (5–7, 7–5) (5–8, 8–4) tuh (3–9, 8–1) Baccharis pilularis BAK-uh-riss E. umbellatum var. aureum E. um-bel-LAY- P. stolonifera P. sto-lon-IF-ur-uh pil-yew-LAIR-iss (8–10, 12–1) tum var. AW-ree-um (5–8, 8–4) (4–8, 8–1) Calamagrostis brachytricha kah-luh-mah- E. umbellatum var. humistratum japonica PRIM-yew-luh GROS-tiss brak-ih-TRY-kuh (5–9, 9–5) E. um-bel-LAY-tum var. hew-mih-STRAY- jah-PON-ih-kuh (4–8, 8–1) Centaurea cyanus sen-TAW-ree-uh tum (6–9, 8–4) Rudbeckia triloba rood-BEK-ee-uh SY-an-us (0–0, 7–1) E. umbellatum var. porteri E. um-bel-LAY- try-LO-buh (3–11, 12–1) Cercis canadensis SUR-siss kan-uh-DEN- tum var. PORT-ur-eye (4–8, 8–4) Silphium perfoliatum SIL-fee-um siss (4–9, 9–2) E. wrightii E. RITE-ee-eye (6–10, 10–6) per-fo-lee-AY-tum (4–9, 9–5) Chilopsis linearis ky-LOP-siss lih-nee- Euphorbia rigida yew-FOR-bee-uh Talinum calycinum tuh-LY-num YAR-iss (6–10, 10–6) RIH-jih-duh (7–11, 12–7) kal-ih-SY-num (5–9, 9–5) Corydalis lutea kuh-RID-uh-liss LEW-tee- E. characias ssp. wulfenii E. chuh-RAY- T. paniculatum T. pan-ik-yew-LAY-tum uh (5–8, 8–4) see-us ssp. wool-FEN-ee-eye (0–0, 12–10) Delosperma basuticum del-o-SPER-muh (7–10, 10–7) Viburnum dilatatum vy-BUR-num dih-luh- buh-SOO-tih-kum (6–8, 9–6) Foeniculum vulgare fee-NICK-yew-lum TAY-tum (5–8, 8–5) D. congestum D. kon-JES-tum (4–8, 8–4) vul-GAY-ree (4–9, 9–1) Viola tricolor VY-o-luh TRY-kul-ur D. cooperi D. KOO-per-eye (7–10, 10–7) F. vulgare var. azoricum F. vul-GAY-ree (3–9, 12–1) D. dyeri D. DYE-ur-eye (5–10, 10–5) var. ay-ZOAR-ih-kum (4–9, 9–1) D. floribundum D. flor-ih-BUN-dum Hakonechloa macra ha-kon-ee-KLO-uh (5–9, 9–6) MAK-ruh (5–9, 9–2) D. nubigenum D. noo-BIJ-en-um Helleborus foetidus hel-eh-BOR-us (6–9, 9–6) FEE-tih-dus (6–9, 9–6) D. sphalmanthoides D. sfal-man-THOY- Hesperis matronalis HES-pur-iss deez (5–8, 8–6) mah-tro-NAY-liss (4–9, 9–1)

60 the American Gardener GARDENC MARKET

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July / August 2011 61 62 Galer Anne by Desert WonderDesert Tree S spiky gray succulents, desert willowspiky graysucculents,desert last forallthearidsummerwheneven and native grassesgodormanttobeattheheat.Amidrabbitbrush tle as10inchesofwaterayear. and highoak–juniperwoodlandsonaslit- With afragrance akin tovioletsorvanilla ingly fast-grower, especiallywhenyoung. tive washes wonder plantthrivesin desert willow’sthe true creepertrumpet () family, not low, alsoknown as Despite itswillowlike wil- leaves, thedesert A TREE OF MANY VIRTUES , itsshowy flowers are deadringers able tohighelevations, thissouthwest-na- USDA Hardiness Zones 6to11andadapt- sized clusters,colorsrangefrom whitewith for accents, andlightdark purples. pale yellow throats, topinkwithdeepred long-throated blooms.The flat,winged For plant,thetree adesert isasurpris- Bees andhummingbirds love these Cattleya with desert willowwith desert trees explodingintowhite,pink,andpurplebloom.Thiswelcome show ofcolorwill TARTING IN the American Gardener orchids. Dangling inhand- Salix flor demimbre, late May,late arroyo thedry inbackofmyhouseAlbuquerque, New Mexico, isstudded clan. Growing in is ofthe (Chilopsis linearis) (Chilopsis resemble thoseof dry landscapes.Above:Itsfragrantflowers Left: Desertwillowisatough,versatiletreefor tivar named ‘Bubba’.) to Texas. (Texas even hasafavorite tallcul- embrace thistoughbeautyfrom California posts. Not surprisingly, xeric landscapers willow, fence for them used settlers and Americans usedtomakebows from desert ter, afterthetree hassheditsleaves. Native seeds feed avariety of birds during the win- LN NTESPOTLIGHT THE IN PLANT www.soonerplantfarm.com. (918) 453-0771. Sooner PlantFarm, 8509. listed onwebsite).(800)840- Litchfield Park,AZ.(Retailers are Mountain StatesWholesaleNursery, www.highcountrygardens.com. (800) 925-9387. High CountryGardens, Sources www.mswn.com. C Cattleya Park Hill,OK. almost looks like something from lookslikesomething almost thetropics. Santa Fe,NM. orchids. and paradeofhummingbirds. over so I,too,canenjoy the fragrantshade I’m alwaystemptedtoask himtomove willowbig desert duringhislunchhour. brarian reading a book onabenchunder summer, Ioftencomeacross ourlocalli- sent oppositeendsofthecolorspectrum. and deeppurplish-red ‘Burgundy’ repre- Cultivars suchaswhite-flowered ‘Hope’ breezes. winter in forth and back swing and podsthatrustle enjoy long,curving riod oftheplainoldseededspeciessoIcan May-to-Augustslightly shorter bloompe- extended bloomingseason.Iprefer the seedless cultivar, Timeless Beauty Fe, New Mexico, recommends another Gardens founderDavid Salman inSanta prolific pink-rose blooms. High Country field, Arizona, likesArt’s Seedless tain States WholesaleNursery inLitch- from seedorcuttings.Jeff Grass ofMoun- willoweries, desert iseasilypropagated ing smallpatios. shapeidealforshad- it assumesashrubby as asmalltree upto25feettall.Untrained, willowage. Desert togrow canbepruned moreinsect dam- towindand susceptible stimulates fastergrowth, makingthetree is well established.Do This notfertilize. high, withwateringoptionaloncethetree twoweeks whentemperaturesevery are Judith Phillips suggestsdeepwatering Gardener’s Guide soil andplentyofsun.In willowDesert requires sandy, well-drained ANDCULTIVARS CARE in Virginia and in New Mexico. Anne Galer isafreelance writerwhogardens Walking myarroyo thepathup inlate Widely available insouthwestern nurs- (Thomas Nelson,(Thomas 2005), New Mexico ִ ֵ , forits for its 

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