Research Article Journal of Volume 9:1, 2020 DOI: 10.37421/jme.2020.9.549 Material Sciences & Engineering

ISSN: 2169-0022 Open Access The Assembly and Classification of the Elements Using the Roberts-Janet Nuclear

John O Roberts*

Researcher, Former Open University Tutor, UK

Abstract A framework and surprisingly coherent analysis of the elements is presented using the Roberts-Janet table derived by inverting the Periodic Table coupled with the Quantum Mechanical Table established using the mathematics of the Standard Model and groups U (1) x S U (2) x S U (3). Having already identified in previous articles a one to one mapping between the two tables, this article seeks to consolidate such a framework to include by presenting the appearance of the highly stable numbers of and – magic numbers within the – as a consequence of the framework itself. The article also seeks to illustrate similarities between the structure of individual elements in condensed (Periodic Table) and the structure of neutrons and protons in during fusion (Nucleosynthesis) and its possible extension to the Standard Model and beyond. changes together with suitable boundary conditions to the hypothesis that all elements ultimately become metallic. Keywords: Periodic table • • Spectral energy •

Historic and Current Framework to the Saxon-Woods model a reasonable agreement with observed binding energies is obtained. The Periodic Table crystallized in 1869 via Dmitri Mendeleev from Configurations of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 protons and neutrons the experimental and theoretical discoveries of new elements and the separately give rise to larger binding energies, spherical configurations and recognition of simple underlying trends during the 19th century. Arrhenius absorption cross-sections up to two orders of magnitude less than subsequently suggested a local ordering and self-assembly mechanism other nuclei with similar masses. These were labelled magic numbers by of positive and negative illustrated by the presence of , . The first three numbers are created by the 1s state (n = 1, l carbonate, sulphate, hydroxide and ammonium compounds. Following the = 0) which can contain up to 2 neutrons or protons followed by the 1p state discovery of the inert by Ramsey the table was extended to include which can contain up to 6 neutrons or protons giving 8 and the 1d and 2s an extra column though the position of hydrogen remained and still remains being close enough to overlap with each other to form the next shell of 2 + a source of debate within chemists. Seaborg not only extended the table by 6 + 10 + 2 which is the number 20, the next . discovering numerous transuranic elements and several isotopes but also developed the concept of the Actinides, similar to the set of Lanthanides, At this point spin-orbit coupling between the orbital angular momentum above them within the table. The issue of how to construct a sequential and spin angular momentum comes into play. In Condensed Matter the sequence of atomic numbers throughout the table, having been observed origin is magnetic and the effect small requiring a minor correction. In the initially in theory by van den Broek and established experimentally by case of nuclear binding, the effect is about 20 times larger and is a property Moseley, remains to this day. Janet addressed the issue with his Left Step of the nuclear potential itself with a term proportional to L.S (orbital angular Periodic Table but the properties, particularly of hydrogen and , momentum and spin angular momentum). A feature of this type of coupling known at the time excluded any acceptance in general. though is that states with higher j have lower energy. essential in quantitative calculations remains an enigma/anomaly as to its The result is that the f (7/2) state containing 8 states overall arising role in any underlying fundamental mechanism; despite the introduction of from the next shell forms a separate shell itself giving 28 as the next magic the concept of isotopes and a prediction of a particle – the neutron – by number. Subsequent shells of 50, 82 and 126 appear to be structured Soddy and its subsequent discovery by Chadwick in 1932. Mendeleev in similarly where the highest j value of the next n value of quantum states the original construction of the table had to superimpose the significance of overlaps the previous n value of states, completing the shell and creating over and above that of mass number. the stability of the magic numbers. This is the classical Nuclear Shell The Nuclear Shell Model was proposed by Dmitry Ivanenko in 1932 Model at work. In this model the question as to why two sets of magic and developed independently by Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Eugene Paul numbers appear independently one for neutrons and one for protons and Wigner and J Hans D Jensen in 1949. It envisages each neutron/ in what order remains unanswered. The assertion that magic numbers in themselves universally create a stable configuration has to be tempered to be moving in some potential and describes the energy levels in terms of 10 56 quantum numbers n, l, j similar to the wavefunctions of individual by the transient existence of He and Ni and maybe other doubly magic as classified in Condensed Matter since both neutrons and protons nuclear configurations. Topology, quantum confinement and the fact that together with electrons are . When the potential is approximated neutrons and protons are composite particles that can oscillate between fermionic and bosonic states may play a role in whatever space/time/ *Address for Correspondence: John O Roberts, Researcher, Former Open geometric evolves to accommodate such variations. University Tutor, UK, E-mail: [email protected] The Standard Model developed in the 1970’s as the result of discoveries Copyright: © 2020 Roberts JO. This is an open-access article distributed of large numbers or a zoo of elementary particles. Quarks was a name under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits coined by Gell-Mann having proposed the Eightfold Way; a method to unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the organise hadrons along with Yuval Ne’eman in 1961. Subsequent theories original author and source are credited. by Weinberg, ‘t Hooft and others combined with experiments led to the Received 03 April 2020; Accepted 20 April 2020; Published 25 April 2020 discovery of three generations of quarks; to the prediction of Z, W, and Roberts OJ J Material Sci Eng , Volume 9:1, 2020

Higgs with their discoveries in 1983(Z, W) and 2012(Higgs) and condensed matter and 10-18 to 10-20 m for plasma where the strong and weak to the merger of the electromagnetic and weak forces at high energies. forces began to couple with the electromagnetic force. The all-pervasive Another parameter – colour – extended the range of particles via quantum force of mysteriously yet inevitably remained poised to act. One of chromodynamics following the appearance of a three-part structure for the the pairs of zeros generated by such sequences could be interpreted as a proton in Rutherford-type experiments. Other groups of particles include cut-off point for electrons in the condensed matter phase while the other leptons – electrons, and tau with their cousins; the electronic would be an infinite separation of protons/nuclei in the plasma phase caused , muonic neutrino and tau neutrino. All particles have their own anti- by the recycling of material from previous supernovae. Classifications of particle within a mathematical framework of U (1) x S U (2) x S U (3) supernovae came and went – the patterns within the table were dominant. symmetry. Any such table appeared not to require mass number in its structure. This was only an average value of all the isotopes of a particular element at The theory lays out; six quarks, six leptons, four force carriers for the any one time. It must surely change in the 40th, 50th or even higher order four forces in and the Higgs . Particles are now thought to be decimal place constantly as proceeded. The idea of excitations of interacting fields within quantum field theory. different ratios of isotopes for each element being created unique to each confirmed the intuitive leap to omit mass number from the table. Questions The question of the source of radioactivity itself coupled with the range of time-scales for half-life for each radioactive nucleus remained an open one. • Why do have mass and can mix – oscillate from one Such was the intensity of thought in the 2011-2015 linking the type to another? idea of proton-proton interactions to produce neutrons or electron capture • What is Dark Matter? Does it exist? Does it require further particles to produce neutrons – a change of an up quark to a down quark with a or is it a property of gravity? myriad of possible outcomes illustrated by Feynman diagrams that the role of nucleosynthesis was overlooked. The Standard Model and beyond • Why is there so little anti-matter in the ? became the final destination. Magic numbers were considered but their role • Why is the Universe accelerating – if at all? at that time was not identified such was the thrust towards higher energies – second, third generation quarks and the newly discovered Higgs particle. • Having confirmed the existence of gravitational waves, what is a and its applications to particle physics entered the arena. By graviton’s characteristics? 2015 the mind had reached a confusion of infinities similar to the explosion • What is the source of space-time? of ideas in that initial moment of 2010. 2 • Does time play other roles in the quantization of space-time? The role of the second set of 2 in the two columns of 2n was still unresolved though the idea of extending group number to create a • Is time part of the space geometric? consecutive pattern of atomic number was steadily becoming apparent. The Periodic Table (Condensed Matter), The Nuclear Shell Model Enter the work of and the Left Step Periodic Table of 1929. (Nucleosynthesis) and The Standard Model (Particle Physics and Here was someone-else who had addressed this issue and implied hydrogen Cosmology) are compartmentalised yet linked through electrons; protons and helium might be metallic and belong in groups 1 and 2. Such a concept and neutrons; quarks, bosons and neutrinos. Can they be integrated in such appeared outrageous in 1929. Combining the inversion of the table with a way that could merge them into one framework that might lead to quantum the columns Roberts named the table The Roberts-Janet Nuclear Periodic field theory and gravity being unified? Different research groups have now Table in 2016 when he published Those Infinities and The Periodic Table established several nuclei with pear-shaped structures alongside the more through York Publishing Services [1] in 2016 and proceeded to prepare an familiar spherical and oval configurations. As energies increase toward the abstract for a journal in March 2017. Would it be rigorous enough to be Planck scale topologies and gauge groups may need to be developed to accepted? (Table 1). ten dimensions to allow quantum states to fold and unravel as a pathway between space-time and quantum field theory – So eloquently articulated The Emergence of the Quantum Mechan- in Beyond the Standard Model by Gordon Kane and replied to by Edouard Brezin in the journal 2576-4403 March 1 2019. ical Table

In Roberts’ mind there was no conflict between the Roberts-Janet The Emergence of the Roberts-Janet table and the Periodic Table. The first was an underlying mechanism that Nuclear Periodic Table began to explain how Periodic Tables of different abundances of isotopes and elements could be produced by the varying constituents and boundary In 2010 Roberts began to analyse the patterns within the Periodic Table conditions of temperature and pressure etc. within each supernova giving itself. The sequence of numbers in the s, p, d, f states gave a classical rise to unique Periodic Tables for each individual supernova. Following the arithmetic progression with first term 2 and common difference 4 resulting publication of Proposed link between the Periodic Table and the Standard in a sum to n terms of 2n2 for each term in the series. The periodicity of Model [2] in July 2017, a conference on Particle Physics and Cosmology at the shell structure 2, 8, 18, 32 followed the pattern of 2n2 but how the San Antonio occurred in November 2017. Here one of the speakers Claud 2 repeating pattern of 8, 18, 32 arose could not be explained other than by the Daviau stated that the 2n structure consisted of two components n (n+1) requirement of two such columns of 2n2 purely from a mathematical point and n (n-1). These had been suggested by De Broglie and Dirac in the of view. Suppose the whole table was inverted to accommodate spatial 1930’s. This immediately gave Roberts the insight for the source of the variation relative to the nucleus for gradually increasing atomic numbers. two columns he was seeking. His persistence in reconciling the repeating The two columns could be extended beyond zero and into negative patterns within the Periodic Table itself prevented him seeing a structure values of n. Could such a series have any scientific interpretation? Initially of periodicity n(n+1) for protons and compactness n(n-1) for neutrons until he thought of plasma prior to fusion in which the electric field would be November 2019 – despite clear advice from conferences at Potsdam, Boston repulsive compared to the attractive mode of electrons occupying states and elsewhere that n(n+1) was periodic and n(n-1) was compactness. surrounding the nucleus in condensed matter (Periodic Table).The counter- In Condensed Matter one column led the other but in Plasma it was intuitive consequence of such a structure would be that as n became more reversed where the second column led the first. Since n(n+1) generates 2, negative the states became closer and closer together as the nucleus was 6, 12, 20 etc. for increasing n starting at n=1; n(n-1) generates 0, 2, 6, 12, 20 approached. Scales of magnitude began to appear as 10-6 to 10-10 m for etc. for increasing n starting at n=1. Oscillations between these states could

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Table 1. Roberts – Janet Nuclear Periodic Table. Limits to Quantum Energy States of Electrons ↑ ↑ Period11 2216h242 2437g260 2618f274 2759d284 28510p290 29111s292 2(6)2 Period10 1716g188 1897f202 2038d212 2139p218 21910s220 2(5)2 Period 9 1215g138 1396f152 1537d162 1638p168 1699s170 2(5)2 Period 8 895f102 1036d112 1137p118 1198s120 2(4)2 Electron States Period 7 574f70 715d80 816p86 877s88 2(4)2 Occupied Period 6 by 394d48 495p54 556s56 2(3)2

Outside 3d 4p 5s 2 Period 5 21 30 31 36 37 38 2(3) Period 4 133p18 194s20 2(2)2 Period 3 52p10 113s12 2(2)2 Period 2 32s4 2(1)2 ← ∞ 51 - 72 33 - 50 19 - 32 09-18 03-08 01-02 GROUP Period 1 11s2 2(1)2 Zero Positive Electric Potential 2(0)2 Infinite Negative Electric Potential 2(0)2 Reservoir Energy 2 2(-1)2 States occupied 2 2(-1)2 By Protons in 6 2 2(-2)2 Plasma Prior to 6 2 2(-2)2 Fusion 10 6 2 2(-3)2 10 6 2 2(-3)2 14 10 6 2 2(-4)2 14 10 6 2 2(-4)2 18 14 10 6 2 2(-5)2 18 14 10 6 2 2(-5)2 ∞ ∞ ↓ ↓ ∞ ∞ achieve not only repeating 8, 18, 32 but also that of a repeating pattern of 2. as a – reflect light, conduct electricity and create a magnetic field. This was illustrated in the Roberts-Janet Nuclear Periodic Table. There was This metallic property was implied in the position of hydrogen and helium in in fact a one to one mapping between the two tables as the n(n-1) states both the Roberts-Janet and Quantum Mechanical Tables. The decision was became the lead column for n = -1 and increasingly negative values of n taken to publish Roberts’ second article “Implications of the link between followed one integer behind by the n(n+1) states. the Periodic Table and the Standard Model” [3] On March 31 2018 after peer review. Since neither position nor energy was defined in the table, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle precluded precise solutions leaving the table’s The focus now switched to the ordering of the energy states within structure reliant on empirical values of energy for individual elements the Periodic Table. During presentations at several conferences in 2018 and energies for different layers within plasma during fusion. There was the realization dawned that the Quantum Mechanical Table was creating a also no specific spatial structure – it could vary though the trend was framework and the Roberts-Janet Table was indicating how in space-time, for larger nuclei to have outer electrons configured further away from energy/geometric science conformed and adapted to such a structure. the nucleus. This could explain why the table – a mere two-dimensional Reflection, following digestion of concepts such as Cooper pairings, BCS representation – was beginning to imply 3 spatial, one time (a stable state theory of , nuclear magic numbers, local reversal of time/ being time independent) and energy, giving at least five dimensions if not entropy, oscillations between fermionic states for odd numbers of electrons, more to describe such a framework. There was now a connection with the protons, neutrons and bosonic states for even numbers of such particles structure of the Condensed Matter phase of the table and the destination together with radioactivity revealed a more detailed landscape within the of the Standard Model resulting from group symmetries but by passing the tables as follows. Nuclear Shell Model (Nucleosynthesis). The total energy of electrons in condensed matter has to include To paraphrase Shakespeare , potential and kinetic energies, magnetic moment, lamb shift, angular momentum, spin orbitals and any internal “Vaulting intellect, which overleaps itself and falls on the other side” interactions including entropy as the atomic number increases and the (Table 2). cloud of electrons becomes ever more complex. Enter fate/destiny/synchronicity whatever you want to call it. On March An analogy is the murmuration of thousands of starlings prior to st 1 2018 NASA announced publicly that as a result of the mission to roosting. Research models indicate that provided the starlings monitor the the central core of Jupiter consisted of metallic hydrogen. Here was speed and direction of their seven nearest neighbours no collisions occur experimental evidence as to conditions that could make hydrogen behave similar to the electrons in the first three shells of the Periodic Table which is

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Table 2. Quantum Mechanical Table. 2n2 = n(n+1) +n(n-1) TABLE n(n+1) n(n-1) 22 18 14 10 6 2 22 18 14 10 6 2 42 30 n = 6 18 14 10 6 2 18 14 10 6 2 30 20 n = 5 14 10 6 2 14 10 6 2 20 12 n = 4 10 6 2 10 6 2 12 6 n = 3 6 2 6 2 6 2 n = 2 2 2 2 0 n = 1 0 0 0 0 n = 0 2 2 0 2 n = -1 6 2 6 2 2 6 n = -2 10 6 2 10 6 2 6 12 n = -3 14 10 6 2 14 10 6 2 12 20 n = -4 18 14 10 6 2 18 14 10 6 2 20 30 n = -5 22 18 14 10 6 2 22 18 14 10 6 2 30 42 n = -6 why a stable set of eight was discovered by Mendeleev originally. Once you separation and the more negative values of their first ionization levels. A extend beyond group 8 in the Roberts-Janet table the situation becomes similar overlapping occurs between the 5s and 4d states. At the beginning ever more complex – hence the need for electron functional theory of the f states with element 57 the number of states is prescribed as 14 as applied to atoms and to describe the properties of different in the Quantum Mechanical table. This time there is an overlap between materials. One indicator of how fields change for individual elements is the the 4f and 5d states at the beginning of the set of 14 states. Increasing first ionization which only deals with the outermost electron. The relativistic effects now begin to operate in the form of a spatial realignment number of energy states in condensed matter is prescribed by the Quantum known as the Lanthanide contraction. When this set is filled at element 70 Mechanical table. As you increase the atomic number the corresponding all the electrons at that point are 4f and the first decreases electrons occupy the appropriate states, the energy associated with each (becomes more negative) and the door is shut as it were ready for the next of these states changes as the interaction/shielding of the electron cloud set of states to be filled as the atomic number increases again with the between the nucleus comes into play. So much so that having filled the 4s corresponding increase in electron states. state the 3d state now overlaps so there is an interchange between them The way in which the outer electrons for the Lanthanides fill initially as the 3d is being filled. As completion of this state is approached the first does not depend on the label attached by chemists to the state of 14 in ionization energy decreases (becomes more negative) and all the electrons the quantum mechanical table. The overlap is again empirical. As the state in the last atomic number for that state belong in precisely that state. It is as fills the more the electrons correspond to that state; until at the very last if order, entropy increases locally shutting down that state so that when the member they all fill with that state and order is established by the first atomic number increases to the next value a new prescribed state begins to ionization energy decreasing to close off the 14 states ready for the next to be occupied. The result is the 4s state is filled before the 3d state but the 4s begin to be filled by element 71. Looking in more detail at the structure of is ionised before the 3d state [4]. the 14 states itself it should be noted at element 64 the ionization energy To help visualize such a picture it must be remembered that electrons decreases significantly indicating a sub-set of 8 states followed by another are oscillations of a field with particle properties associated such as sub-set of 6 states. angular momentum, spin, kinetic energy. The total energy of each state This is an indicator of a similar structure created by spin-orbit coupling can change depending on the local environment of the cloud of surrounding in the plasma/fusion phase of the lower half of both the roberts-janet and electrons whether in individual elements as in the Periodic Table or the ever quantum mechanical tables later in the article. increasingly complex structure of molecules. The electron is no longer a particle in a box stacked on fixed shelves. Such a model to a diversity In the case of the Actinides there is an overlap of the 5f and 6d states of chemical pathways – all empirical – presented by inorganic, organic, viral but the values of the first ionization levels vary considerably more within the structure of the 14 states compared with the Lanthanides. At element mutation, biomedical disciplines, high temperature superconductivity where 96 the first ionization level is just lower than 95 despite elements 90, 92, 93 to navigate causality becomes increasingly difficult producing a myriad of and 94 being lower. This implies that the sub-set of 8 is hardly established. outcomes from almost identical initial conditions. The periodic pattern and sub-set of 6 is firmly re-established from elements Continuing with the energy states in condensed matter there is no 97 to 102 where all the ionization energies show a consistent decrease. As overlap between the 4s and 3d with the p states because of their physical atomic numbers increase beyond 118 will such a structure become drowned

Page 4 of 6 Roberts OJ J Material Sci Eng , Volume 9:1, 2020 by increasing overlaps of states, relativistic effects such as contraction? Cooper pairings of electrons in superconductivity. The result of these even Yet could periodicity be preserved at the very end of each state by for sub-set combinations creates local magic numbers within nuclei for both example element 138 consisting of 18 5g electrons? It should be noted that neutrons and protons yet to be assigned a physical role. This could involve an examination of all completed quantum states shows a lowering of first local higher , longer half-life than neighbouring elements. As ionization energy at the end of every prescribed state from elements 2 to atomic number increases beyond 82 there could be increasing overlaps of 102 without exception [5]. states due to spin orbit coupling when again causality becomes ever more increasingly difficult to navigate as was the case with the first ionization The is at best a very specialised case for low atomic energies in the top half of the Roberts- Janet table particularly for elements numbers as is the case for the concept of half-filled sub-shells. Hund’s rule 89 and above. appears to be unaffected within this larger more general picture of energy states. It should be noted that the p states or 6 prescribed states in the Radioactivity appears to be a function of configuration and quantum mechanical table consist of a sub-set of 2 and another of 4 while entropy. As the configuration of neutrons and protons is constantly changing, the d state or set of 10 prescribed states in the quantum mechanical table similar to the murmuration of starlings prior to roosting, this in itself does consist of a sub-set of 6 and another of 4. These are all even numbers not trigger the discrete change in the number of neutrons or protons known similar to a subset of energy states within plasma during fusion shown in as radioactivity. Only certain specific combinations within the nucleus will the lower halves of the Roberts-Janet and Quantum Mechanical tables trigger such a change. The probability of such a configuration within the discussed later in the article. It would appear to be no coincidence that set of total combinations for that nucleus will determine the rate of decay all the magic numbers of the Nuclear Shell Model are themselves even and therefore the half-life. Depending on the type of of whichever numbers; as is the abundance of elements with even atomic numbers element is being considered the outcome will be the conventional pathways greater than elements of odd atomic numbers in the Universe by a factor of of alpha, beta gamma etc observed in decay chains. Stable nuclei produce approximately ten (Table 3). many configurations none of which trigger any decay. The table lists the structure of the quantum states within the Quantum The implication of such decays is that the particular nucleus has Mechanical table, the separation into clusters of neutrons and protons and become too ordered as a result of the boundary conditions imposed within the production of the first seven magic numbers. For illustration purposes the producing it and by radioactive decay is losing entropy to head the next three magic numbers are shown below assuming the same pattern towards stability via one or several decay processes within the chain to of energy states applies. Since neutrons are the lead the examples are achieve this with each new nucleus created in such a chain having its given for n as applied to neutrons or the n(n-1) sequence. The first column own configurations some of which trigger an ejection of neutrons/protons/ of numbers indicates the total number of states for a given value of n. These electrons or other particles with their own unique half-life – hence such are followed in the first set of brackets by the associated sub-set of states a variation in half-life values. Three pathways have been identified comprising the whole number of states. The final bracket for each n value in nucleosynthesis; r, s and p processes dependent on temperature, indicates the resultant magic number. From n=-4 for neutrons and n=-5 for pressure, energy density and number of critical isotopes with magnetic and protons there is a second set of brackets containing first another bracket gravitational fields [7]. Increased ordering and a local increase in entropy consisting of the least energetic states for that particular n value that via appears at first sight to breach the laws of thermodynamics. As proposed by spin orbit coupling attach to the previous states creating the next magic Maxwell and Boltzmann thermodynamics was statistical and macroscopic number. The remaining numbers outside that bracket but still within the beyond the orders of magnitude for the confinement of neutrons/protons/ second bracket contribute to the next magic number completed by the next quarks and other elementary particles. Increasingly information entropy is n value. Simple arithmetic should illustrate this result precisely [6]. seen as a component in quantum fluctuations at orders of magnitude of neutrons/protons – 10-18m. Von Neumann suggested measuring one part n(n-1) of a quantum system would create sufficient quantum noise for all the n=-8 -8(-9) 72 {30,22,14,6} ({16}14,12,10,8,6,4,2) {184} probabilistic nature to be lost, whereas Luders argued that some properties of the particles could remain undecided while others became clear. This n=-9 -9(-10) 90 {34,26,18,10,2} ({18}16,14,12,10,8,6,4,2) {258} latter theory appears to be verified in a recent experiment in n=-10 -10(-11) 110 {38,30,22,14,6} (Fabian Porkorny University of Stockholm). A transition of an electron from ({20}18,16,14,12,10,8,6,4,2) {350} one state to another in a took a millionth of a second. The change was an unfolding one as if the transition from complete uncertainty Pairings of neutrons and protons appear to play a role similar to the into a specific orbit is one of increasing probability rather than a sudden

Table 3. States for Periodicity and Compactness from the Quantum Mechanical Table. Table of States for Periodicity and Compactness from the Quantum Mechanical Table Periodicity n(n+1) Protons Compactness n(n-1) Neutrons n=5 30 {18,10,2} (10,8,6,4,2) 20 {14,6} (8,6,4,2) n=4 20 {14,6} (8,6,4,2) 12 {10,2} (6,4,2) n=3 12 {10,2} (6,4,2) 6 {6} (4,2) n=2 6 {6} (4,2) 2 {2} (2) n=1 2 {2} (2) 0 {0} (0) Phase change n=0 0 {0} (0) 0 {0} (0) Phase change n=-1 0 {0} (0) 2 {2} (2) {2} n=-2 2 {2} (2) {2} 6 {6} (4,2) {8} n=-3 6 {6} (4,2) {8} 12 {10,2} (6,4,2) {20} n=-4 12 {10,2} (6,4,2) {20} 20 {14,6} ({8}6,4,2) {28} n=-5 20 {14,6} ({8}6,4,2) {28} 30 {18,10,2} ({10}8,6,4,2) {50} n=-6 30 {18,10,2} ({10}8,6,4,2) {50} 42 {22,14,6} ({12}10,8,6,4,2) {82} n=-7 42 {22,14,6} ({12}10,8,6,4,2) {82} 56 {26,18,10,2} (14}12,10,8,6,4,2) {126} n=-8 56 {26,18,10,2} ({14}12,10,8,6,4,2) {126}6

Page 5 of 6 Roberts OJ J Material Sci Eng , Volume 9:1, 2020 transition – some properties are left unaffected. Electron quantum jumps are In the quest for fusion energy avoiding the extremely high temperatures a “gradual eruption of a volcano” rather than a switch similar to what Luders of conventional fusion methods, the technique of targeting a proposed rather than von Neumann. Yet when one considers this increased nucleus with hydrogen nuclei controlled by extremely high energy probability when viewed inside the nucleus regarding radioactivity it would appears to be the most practical. Patents taken out in , America appear that “the volcano has exploded producing separate particles” so not and Japan by HB11 University of New South Wales Australia indicates a only is the energy considerably greater due to quantum confinement but the growing confidence in such a method. Just as China is planning to build a time scale will also be considerably shorter though nowhere near the Planck collider 3 to 4 times larger than CERN which is itself planning to become scale order of magnitude. The blowing off of the top of the volcano as it were an anti-matter/Higgs boson factory there could be another future role for would again be more akin to a switch. Darmstadt, Dubna, Oak Ridge and RIKEN – that of boron factories to meet the ever-growing demand for boron should the Australian technique prove In a study by Or Hen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, of the successful. structure of the core of a there appears to be a transition in the strong . At large distances the strong force attracts neutrons to protons; at small distances the force becomes indiscriminate – interactions Conclusion occur not just to attract a proton to a neutron but also repel or push apart pairs of neutrons. At the core of the neutron star a repulsive force between Imagine the structure of the Roberts-Janet table being viewed from the neutrons appears to prevent the core collapsing on itself. In the core zeros in both directions. It is as if one were at the top of Mount Everest neutrons and protons can be modelled independently without the need for on a perfectly calm sunny day. The peaks of mountains stretch in every more complex interactions between quarks and gluons, their composite direction – one way shows the atoms individually – the other the structure parts, using the Argonne V18 model. Neutron stars could be viewed as of the nucleus and their magic numbers. In recent studies of the benzene a state of condensed matter. As the energy density increases does , when the accompanying wavefunctions of the 42 electrons radioactivity become inhibited prior to or as the weak force merges with are analysed in 126 dimensions (n, l, j quantum numbers) the structure the electromagnetic? Neutron stars would then appear not to have reached appears that some electrons with spin up form double bonds while those the transition phase of cascading quarks to second and third generations with spin down form single bonds (Timothy Schmidt, excellence in exciton within the experimental conditions at CERN. This would be the region at the science and UNSW Sydney Australia). The recently discovered d star base of both the Roberts-Janet and Quantum Mechanical Tables with the hexaquark may be a candidate for Dark Matter (Journal of Physics G: conditions at CERN heading further below the tables again – a quark gluon Nuclear and Particle Physics). What lies between, below and beyond the soup phase. peaks represents molecular , catalysis, biology, gene therapy, Has the energy density/quantum confinement in neutron stars reached immunology, material science and high temperature superconductivity in a stage of stability where radioactivity has switched off completely only to one direction and the nuclear shell model, magic numbers, radioactivity, a be reactivated by a neutron star/neutron star/black hole collision? Here quark gluon soup, particle physics and an ever increasingly granular space, fragments of low atomic number nuclei could be engulfed by an almost time, cosmology and gravity in the other? This is the present vision inspired infinite number of neutrons leading to a generating atomic by the original vision of Charles Janet who could be regarded as the father numbers of an almost infinite value before order is re-established by further of multi-disciplinary science and a serious candidate to be named after proton decay and a return to the ranges of atomic number observed in element 120, a limit he placed on the Periodic Table with the knowledge he or the . This extends the Roberts-Janet Table at the had at the time. top and the Periodic Table in principle to an infinite value in the Universe; Registration of both the Roberts-Janet and Quantum Mechanical yet confined on the by the configurations of existing combinations Tables with the IUPAC must surely warrant serious consideration alongside of isotopes to maybe the magic number of 126 protons and 184 neutrons. the Periodic Table; as science seeks to acknowledge the role of in an age of artificial intelligence, improving sensitivity and an Space to Think – Again increasingly interconnected interdisciplinary understanding of Nature.

The doubly magic isotope , 28 neutrons 28 protons, appears at References the watershed of binding energies between fusion and fission. It appears to play little if any role as it is part of a plateau in the peak of binding energies 1. John O. Roberts. “Those Infinities and the Periodic Table.” YPD Books (2016). of the elements – not so much an island but a continent of stability. 2. John O. Roberts. “Proposed Link between the Periodic Table and the Standard To the chemists the Periodic Table conjures up the view of Model.” J Material Sci Eng 6 (2017): 1-2. and non-metals whereas the astrophysicists/nucleosynthesis scientists 3. John O. Roberts. “Implications of the Link between the Periodic Table and the envisage all elements except hydrogen and helium as being metals. The Standard Model.” J Material Sci Eng 7 (2018): 1-7. Roberts-Janet table coupled with the Quantum Mechanical table implies 4. Soumitra, Das. “Order of filling of 3d and 4s orbitals in Transition Metals.” that all elements, given the appropriate conditions of temperature and YouTube (2014). pressure, have a phase where they become metallic. Confirmation by NASA in 2018 of the existence of metallic hydrogen in the core of Jupiter leads 5. “The elements of the Periodic Table sorted by ionization energy.” Lenntech. to the suggestion of a second probe to . The first probe established 6. Nuclear Shell Model. Chapter 5. the existence of severe lightning strikes within Saturn possibly initiated by that appears to result in an mechanism of 7. Meyer, Bradley S. “The r-, s-, p- Processes in Nucleosynthesis.” Annual Review 32 (1994): 153-90. metallic production in the core in a phase prior to fusion as in the . {Please note the position of helium in the Roberts-Janet table next to the 8. Stevenson, David J. “Metallic helium in massive .” PNAS 105 (2008): zeros and immediately above the fusion states in the lower half of the table} 11035-11036. A second probe could maybe detect metallic helium as Saturn appears to be the most likely candidate within the Solar System for such material. How to cite this article: John O Roberts. The Assembly and Classification of Quantum mechanics predicts that in other planetary systems given the the Elements Using the Roberts-Janet Nuclear Periodic Table. J Material Sci appropriate temperature and pressure metallic helium does exist [8]. Eng 9 (2020) doi: 10.37421/jme.2020.9.549

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