[June-July,'37 on the island of Panay in the Philip- cisterns, from which the natives se- pines and was apparently the direct cured their drinking water, were con- result of a heavy rainfall which washed taminated, resulting in an epidemic down into a central stream a very of several thousand cases. considerable amount of cholera cul- As an interesting sidelight on this ture from the excreta of a group of particular epidemic: although there carriers. This rainfall, having first were large numbers of Chinese living washed large amounts of cholera cul- in the district, practically no cases ture into the stream, caused the occurred among them due to their tea flooding of a very considerable ter- drinking propensity and the fact that rain due to the over-flow of the main they never drank raw water.* stream, so that hundreds of thousands •See: Victor Heiser, "An American Doctor's of small ditches, wells and ground Odyssey." Deaths During the Heat Wave of July, 1936 at Detroit CLARENCE J. ROOT In Charge, U. S. Weather Bureau, Detroit, Michigan (Manuscript received August, 1936) During the general heat wave that have been secured. The number of occurred in July, 1936, the maximum persons with fatal diseases whose temperature at Detroit exceeded 100° death was merely hastened by the F on seven consecutive days, heat are not included as "heat deaths" to 14, inclusive. In the previous his- —those cases in which the heat was tory of the Detroit Weather Bureau diagnosed as the primary cause. station, 1871 to 1935, 100° or higher Detroit proper has a population of has occurred only seven times, but in about 1,500,000, but there are ap- 1936 this number was equaled in a proximately 400,000 additional resi- single week! The previous occur- dents in the satellite and enclave rences were: one each in 1878, 1887, cities and villages that comprise 1918, 1931, and 1933; in 1934 there "Greater Detroit." Data shown in were two, but in different months. the tables are for the municipality of Through the courtesy of the Detroit Detroit only, however. Department of Health, Dr. Henry F. The unprecedented character of Vaughan, Commissioner, and Mr. G. this hot wave at Detroit may be in- Arthur Blakeslee, Director, Bureau of dicated by the fact that whereas the Vital Statistics, the statistics on average number of heat deaths per deaths during the 1936 heat wave year from 1920 to 1935 was about


The Weather Elements and Deaths at Detroit, -16, 1936 Temperatures Relative Aver. Sun- DurL Temps., Hrs.> No. Deaths Ratio: in °F. Dept. Humidity Wind V. shine Dry Bulb Wet B. by All Heat Date Max. Min. Mean Norm. Max. Noon 10a-7p Hours 90° 100° 68° Heat Causes All 7 89° 55 35 9.3 15.1 0 0 0 0 45 0% 8 104° 72° 88° + 16° 50 37 5.9 15.1 11 5 7 2 41 5 9 102 75 88 + 16 44 27 8.2 15.1 12 7 1 8 66 10 10 102 77 90 + 18 42 31 10.9 14.0 12 6 4 18 90 20 11 101 77 89 + 17 46 30 6.2 14.0 12 1 6 35 120 29 12 100 76 88 + 16 57 37 8.9 15.0 12 1 8 67 126 53 13 102 73 88 + 16 64 34 7.1 14.7 12 4 4 70 130 54 14 104 69 86 + 14 47 28 11.8 9.8 7 4 1 67 108 62 15 87 57 34 8.6 10.7 0 0 0 17 45 38 16 90 — 47 28 6.5 12.0 0 0 0 6 49 12

Unauthenticated | Downloaded 09/29/21 06:15 PM UTC 17 (ranging from 0 in 1920 to 40 in TABLE II 1931) in 1936 there were 304 heat HEAT DEATHS, DETROIT, BY AGE AND deaths up to July 23rd. The week SEX AND COLOR, 1936, THROUGH ending , 1936, accounted for Age Total Males Females White Negro by far the most of this excess, and Under 1 yr. 14 10 4 11 3 even the number of deaths from all 1-4 1 1 — 1 — 5-9 — causes was for that week 204% above 10-14 — the preceding five-year average! 15-19 1 1 — 1 20-29 3 2 1 1 2 The weather conditions and death 30-44 33 23 10 28 5 45-54 54 49 5 50 4 statistics are presented in the accom- 55-64 48 32 16 47 1 panying tables and reveal their tragic 65-74 63 23 40 61 2 75 and over 78 54 24 72 6 facts at a glance. Total 295 195 100 272 23


HEAT DEATHS BY OCCUPATION, DETROIT , 1936, THROUGH JULY 17 Estimated Heat %, Deaths '% , Deaths of Occupation Tot. Employed* Deaths* of Employed Tot. Deaths Gardeners and Farmers 1730 3 .173 1.02 Bakers 2340 2 .086 .68 Builders and Carpenters 15200 4 .0026 1.36 Foreman 10475 2 .0019 .068 Laborers (unspecified) 30200 23 .0762 7,8 Machinists and Die Setters 47900 6 .0013 2.3 Moulders 1430 3 .210 1.02 Painters 13200 4 .0031 1.36 Patternmakers 1610 1 .062 .34 Steam fitters 4775 1 .002 .34 Cigar makers 1430 1 .007 .34 Auto factory workers 108800 16 .0015 5.45 Brewery workers 2500 2 .008 .68 Teamsters and store deliverymen 3590 2 .0056 .68 Railroad workers 3910 1 .0026 .34 Retailers and salesman (stores) 35800 2 .00056 .68 U. S. Government official 510 1 .196 .34 Other Public service 25000 5 .002 1.70 Writers and Editors 585 2 .342 .34 Clergymen 985 3 .306 1.02 Physicians 2020 1 .005 .34 Teachers 9425 2 .0021 .68 Janitor and porters 9125 4 .0044 1.36 Real Estate agent 6225 1 .0161 .34 Cooks and waiters 7200 2 .0028 .68 Housewives and housekeepers no data [500,000?] 66 [.0013] ? [22.4?] Clerks (not in stores) 41700 2 .0048 .68 Retired 55 18.65 None given 78 26.40 Total [1,500,000=Pop.] 295 [.0197] •Dr. Vaughan advises that these figures are else not given at all; they are thus very ap- very unsatisfactory because in so many cases proximate but appear to be reasonable and the occupations are ambiguously specified or illuminating to our purpose.—C. J. R.

On the Causes of Deaths from Heat at Detroit, July, 1936 The statistics submitted by Mr. heat are characteristic in climates Root (above) speak so eloquently of with hot summers (or spells) and cold the terrible impact which a heat wave or cool winters, including both tem- with sustained temperatures above perate and sub-tropical climates, pre- 100 °F at only moderate humidities sumably owing to the failure of rapid can make upon a dense population physiological and cultural adjustment unused to working and living under to the heat after cooler weather. Dr. such conditions, that further descrip- C. A. Mills has attempted to explain tion of the effects is hardly necessary. the physiological maladjustment as As Shattuck (op. cit., Feb. BULLE- due to insufficient adrenal gland act- TIN, p. 57) has shown, deaths from ivity that results from sudden cur-

Unauthenticated | Downloaded 09/29/21 06:15 PM UTC tailment of body-heat production when the degree of heat and humidity re- hot weather (espec. with low cooling mained about the same from one day power) sets in. Those who cannot to the next; this suggests that the adequately suppress their metabolism heat deaths are a function of the in the summer heat are likely to duration of the heat,3 but only up to suffer heat-stroke, particularly men, a certain point perhaps, for after the and those whose adrenal suppression fifth hot day (12th) their curve is over-done are apt to heat exhaus- leveled out. The "all deaths" in- tion, espec. in women. The adrenal creased till the 13th, and then fell loss also causes lowered blood pressure off markedly before the heat wave (common in summer), hypertonicity was yet broken, while the heat deaths of the gastro-enteric musculature with remained constant till the 14th. Once consequent vomiting and diarrhea, the heat was broken by the invasion weakness, subnormal temperature, of cooler air both heat and "all" etc.; whereas the lowered metabolism deaths dropped precipitously. The lessens resistance to infection, which distribution of the heat deaths by apparently may explain the high inci- occupation, age, sex, and color is dence of mortality from acute ap- about what Shattuck (op. cit.) found. pendicitis in the central U. S. in sum- The course of the deaths does not mer.1 If this reasoning be acceptable it run closely parallel to any of the fits in well with the circumstances of weather elements on Table I, al- this Detroit type of heat-death epi- though the number of hours with the demic. The exact etiology of the dif- wet bulb 68° or above probably has ferent forms of heat stroke and ex- the most direct bearing. The humidi- haustion, however, is still not clearly ty, temperature and wind do not work understood (C/., Shattuck, op. cit.). independently of one another in de- Also Arnold has shown that the sum- termining the conditions of human mer gastric complaints may be due to comfort. A number of formulae for the effect of heat with low cooling combining them have been proposed, power in raising body temperature of which the cooling power (or kata) enough to increase bacterial activity of L. Hill is probably the best. In in the gastro-enteric system.2 Peter- Table IV I have derived some of son notes that in a heat these indices from the 1:35 PM ob- wave, deaths were more numer- servations (which Mr. Root has kindly ous among the short stocky (pyknic) furnished me) for the days of the type of person, which cannot lose heat wave for comparison. This hour body heat so well owing to fat depots. is near the hottest time of the day The Detroit figures bring out some and the results can not be taken as interesting relations for reflection. typical for the daylight hours as a Deaths from heat and from all causes whole, yet in view of the fact that rose together as the maximum tem- the observations are from the top of peratures surpassed about 100°, but a building and the conditions on the "all deaths" responded more quickly sunny streets and indoors must have during the first few days of heat, in- been much worse from insolation or dicating that persons with chronic *See the note under "Notes" in this BULLE- diseases or otherwise sick or weak- TIN, p. 243, on "Air Conditioning in Hospi- ened are possibly more sensitive to tals" for further reference to this. 2Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., v 24, 1927, pp. the heat. As the heat wave wore on 832-35. the proportion of heat deaths to "all 3Shattuck also noted this relation from his deaths" steadily increased, although study of deaths during a heat wave (Cf. Feb., BULL., p. 57-9.)

Unauthenticated | Downloaded 09/29/21 06:15 PM UTC poor ventilation, the l:35p wea. bur. doubtedly influenced by unsuitable readings may not be far from the clothing and exercise which raise the average for the period from 10a to body heat and lower the effective 7p; Table I indicates this is a reason- cooling power. The skin temperatures, able assumption. The nights of this heat and water losses from skin and spell were not in themselves terribly lungs, solar radiation to the skin, oppressive but too warm and moist blood pressure, etc., should also be to offset the accumulated exhaustion considered if possible in physiological- and discomfort of the days. meteorological analysis of these heat All values in Table IV are in metric effects, but were not available in this units. The Equivalent Temperature case. is t + 2e (Prott's theorem, cf. Met. All of the above indices show that Zts.f 1922, p. 267) and measures the July 8-14 was a severe period, but heat content of the air. The Physio- the cooling powers throw the most logical Saturation-Deficit is the sat- light on the deaths. Dry C. P. less uration vapor pressure at 36.5 °C than 5.0 is always disagreeably hot, (blood temp.) less the actual vapor and zero or below is dangerous unless pressure. The cooling power is pref- the body sweats, when decided cool- erably read with a kata-thermometer ing sets in as the Table shows. The or better still a Dorno frigorimeter wet C. P.s of 38-60 are "mild" or (cf.: Mo. Wea, Rev1925, p. 423; "cool", so that those exposed to full 1926, p. 39) but may be evaluated wind but in the shade on these days from the weather observations by the found it bearable. Yet most people formulas: Dry C. P. (when body is in the city were protected from most not sweating) = (o.22 + 0.25v73) of the wind or else in the open sun (36.5—t); Wet C. P. (sweating) = where the direct radiation largely (0.22 + 0.25v2/3) (123.7—2.038e—t). offset the wet C. P. The wet C. P. These give C. P. in mgreal/cmVsec, with zero wind was below 15, which and are the latest revisions of HilPs with temperatures over 98 °F is always formulae as given by Dorno ("Das very oppressive and likely to bring Klima von Agra," 1934). The values heat stroke in the sun or heat exhaus- in the table were read off roughly tion in the shade. Undoubtedly this ex- from the nomograms for C. P. by plains the many deaths among indoor Gradstein (Met. Zts., Sept. 1935, p. .factory workers, laborers, store clerks, 340). The Physiological Evaporation housewives, retired "shut-ins", gar- in mm/24 hrs. is Knoche's "Austrock- deners and carpenters (Table III). nungswert" for man, here taken from These C. P. conditions, however, in- Gradstein's nomogram (op. cit.) as creased deaths from all causes only the formula is very complicated, but after prevailing two days, and hence the -14 values seem fictitiously not critical if of short duration. high. The cooling powers were also Why the heat deaths were still ab- evaluated for zero wind velocity to normally high on the 15th after the give an idea of conditions in closed weather by all measures became com- places. The cooling power of Hill fortable is not clear, unless they re- does not include effects of radiation, present cases contracted on the 14th hence gives only shade conditions. which died by the 15th. The reduced Moreover this cooling power is com- sunshine due to clouds and the higher puted for a body unclothed and at wet C. P. due to wind may have been rest; many of the deaths were un- the reason for the relatively fewer "all

Unauthenticated | Downloaded 09/29/21 06:15 PM UTC deaths" on the 14th, especially among tion of the worst hours was consider- outdoor workers, though indoor condi- ably less on the 14th than previous tions remained very trying; the dura- days, too.—R. G. Stone, Aug. 3, 1937. TABLE IV

Physiological Weather Conditions at Detroit from the 1:35 PM Observations, July 7-16, 1936

. . Cooling: C. P., . — Thermometer % £ £ % g g Q Power O Wind ft g W W^IffiH^ WW ft Qt! 2 • 'B> o fc % > Dr y Dr v We t We t V

Abs . ] a

Phys . ft H Phys . : z/l

30.0° 18.6° 32 10.2 747 4.5 .1 Ci 9.7 50° 36 5.5 67 1.3 17 82 8.5 38.2 25.4 35 18.0 742 2.7 0 16.3 74 28 0 38 0 13 100 15.1 38.1 22.8 26 12.7 744 4.5 0 12.1 63 33 0 48 0 14 570 10.6 38.1 23.8 30 14.6 743 4.0 .1 Cu 13.9 67 31 0 49 0 13 460 12.2 r .2 Ci 1 11 37.1 23.2 30 14.1 742 4.0 13.2 65 32 0 53 0 14 320 11.8 12 37.1 24.4 35 16.2 743 3.6 .4 Ci 15.4 68 30 0 49 0 13 350 13.6 13 38.2 22.7 25 12.7 743 2.2 .7 Cist 11.7 63 33 0 40 0 14 410 10.6 14 39.5 24.4 29 15.1 740 6.7 Cu^f 14.5 69 31 0 62 0 12 680 12.7 15 29.6 18.3 33 10.2 743 3.6 !3 Cist 9.8 49 36 6.4 60 1.5 17 60 8.5 16 28.7 16.1 25 7.9 743 2.2 .5 Ci 7.1 44 38 5.7 52 1.5 18 50 6.5

The Meeting of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences Meteorology occupied two of the 9 sent up a radio-meteorograph attached sessions of the annual meeting of the to two balloons, from the roof of the Institute held at Columbia University, Pupin Physics Laboratories, the per- January 27-29. The first session was sonnel of which were very kindly devoted largely to radio-meteoro- cooperative, llvdrogen was supplied graphs and included a demonstration by the 1J. S. Wea. Bur. The last ascent. J. D. Akermann and Jean signal was obtained at 5.5 km, when Piecard, University of Minnesota, de- apparently the radio-meteorograph scribed "Upper-Air Study by Means had gone so far as to be at an angle of Balloons and the Radio-meteoro- too low for its signals to reach the graph". Their radio-meteorograph antenna over the copper sheaved ob- was on display. Among its features servatory dome of the laboratory. were individual contacts for the dif- O. C. Maier and L. Wood, Califor- ferent divisions of temperature, rela- nia Inst, of Technology, presented tive humidity, and pressure. There- "The GALCIT Radio-Meteorograph". fore each element had a closely fitting This instrument is featured by a row of individual pointers that were transmitter on 1.7m and tiny-celled successively raised as the metal helix, lead and sulphuric acid storage bat- mounted on a wooden spool, turned tery. A double-ended contacting arm under them by clockwork. For the sweeps over the temperature, pres- accurate division of pressure at high sure, humidity, and time contacts altitude, a small mercurial barometer, twice each minute. into the tube of which contacting H. Diamond, W. S. Hinman, Jr., wires are inserted, is employed. and F. W. Dunmore, Nat. Bur. of K. O. Lange, Blue Hill Obsy., de- Standards, described aA Radio-Mete- scribed "Aerological Soundings With orograph System with Special Aero- the Harvard Radio-Meteorograph", in nautical Applications". This was es- which he summarized the paper he sentially the paper presented at the presented at the Atlantic City meet- Atlantic City meeting, published in ing, and added a discussion of the full in the March Bulletin. ascent made at that time. At the The meteorological session on the conclusion of his paper, Dr. Lange next morning included seven papers and assistants with Mr. A. Rehbock of a wide range of interest. L. A. of the Dewey and Almy Chemical Co.. Stevens, U, S. Wea. Bur., showed

Unauthenticated | Downloaded 09/29/21 06:15 PM UTC