1 BORAX: BORON 2 PALLADIUM (native) 3 : 4 GRAPHITE: CARBON : SILICON 5 Chemical formula: Pd Chemical formula: (Fe,Mn)WO Chemical formula: C Chemical formula: SiO Chemical Formula: Na 2B4O7 · 10H 2O 4 2 An of boron, and Palladium is used in smartphone The stability and high melting temperature of Graphite conducts electricity and is The processor in a smartphone, the 'brain' that is used to make the strong electrical circuits and contacts. tungsten means that it can be used in smartphones heat resistant. It is used as a negative can respond to instructions, is made from thin permanent magnets used in the Palladium can be found in its for electrical connections and to act as a heat sink,to electrode in smartphone rechargeable layers of silicon.Amixture of predominantlys ilica elemental form or alloyed with absorb and redistribute excessive heat. Wolframite speakers, and in the batteries. Graphite is a naturally occurring allotrope (SiO 2) with alumina (Al 2O3) is also used to vibration unit of a smartphone. other group (e.g. and are the most important for of carbon which can be found in metamorphic rocks, manufacture smartphone screens. Boron is extracted from borate platinum and iridium) or with iron. Palladium is largely tungsten. Wolframite is considered to be a conflict igneous rocks and in meteorites. produces ions are embedded into the minerals such as borax and obtained as a by-product of and . due to unethical mining practices in the Democratic Republic almost all of the 's graphite, with smaller crystalline structure of the glass to strengthen colemanite.Turkey and USA are the and South currently produce most of the of Congo. The top producers of tungsten are China (with more than quantities coming from . the screen. Silicon is largely sourced from largest producers of boron. world's palladium. 80% of the production), and Russia. quartzite or quartz sand. China is by far the world's largest producer of silicon, followed by Russia and Norway. 14 : MONAZITE: RARE EARTH ELEMENTS 6 Chemical formula: Be 3Al 2(SiO 3)6 Beryllium is used to make make battery 2 Chemical formula: (Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO 4,SiO 4) contacts and electrical connectors in 3 The mineral monazite is extremely important as a source of smartphones. Beryllium is extracted rare earth elements (REE) - elements from the from beryl and bertrandite with group of the periodic table,plus and scandium.REEs the current leading producers being are used in small amounts in smartphone electrical circuitry, USA,China and Mozambique. vibration units, speakers, glass polishing and to make the 6 vivid colours in smartphone displays. As well as monazite, 14 1 bastnäsite is another economically important s ource of REEs. 13 : 4 Currently more than 90% of the world's REEs come from 3 5 China. Chemical formula: (Zn,Fe) S Zinc is used in smartphone circuit boards and when alloyed with can increase the strength of : 7 smartphone cases.Almost 95% of all zinc we use comes Chemical formula: Sn from sphalerite ore. Sphalerite is particularly important Tin is used in smartphones for soldering different as it often contains trace amounts of and components together. Tin is also used with the Indium and gallium are used in smartphone silicon processors to adjust 11 7 element indium to make indium tin , a very thin, electrical conductivity and indium is also used to make the screen touch transparent and electrically conductive material used to make sensitive.Most of the world's sphalerite comes from China, andAustralia. smartphone .The most important source of tin is 13 from the ore mineral cassiterite found in hydrothermal veins and alluvial placer deposits.The current leading producers of 12 CHALOCOPYRITE : COPPER tin are China, and Myanmar.

Chemical formula :CuFeS 2 Copper's high electrical and heat conductivity make it ideal for use in 12 8 10 the electrical wiring of a smartphone. is the most 9 (native) 8 important ore mineral for copper, but copper can also be found in Chemical formula: Au minerals like and as well as in its elemental form. Tiny amounts of gold are used in Chile,Peru and China are currently the largest producers of copper. smartphone circuit boards as gold is a very stable element and a conductor of electricity. Gold is usually found in its elemental form in alluvial placer deposits or associated with hydrothermal veins. The current leading producers of gold are China, and the USA.

11 : 10 SPODUMENE : LITHIUM : ALUMINIUM 9 Chemical formula: (Fe , Mn )Ta O BAUXITE : ALUMINIUMChemical formula: Al(OH) or AlO(OH) 2 6 Chemical formula: LiAl(SiO 3)2 3 Tantalum is used to manufacture the anodes in smartphone Lithium is used in lithium-ion batteries, the rechargeable Aluminium is one of the most abundant elements capacitors, the components that store electrical charge. batteries found in smartphones and mostinformation other electronic found in a smartphone. It's in the outer case, battery Tantalum is extracted from the minerals tantalite, devices.Lithium can be extracted from lithium chloride salts case,circuit board,glass screen and even in the Elements needed to make an average smartphone and .The current leading producers of tantalum are found in brine pools.Most of the world's lithium brines come as Al 2O3 - a synthetic sapphire glass which is the Democratic Republic of Congo, and . The from Chile and Argentina.The minerals spodumene,petalite almost as hard as . Almost all aluminium we Did you know that your smartphone is a mine of precious metals and rare mining of tantalum has caused extensive social and and are also commercially viable sources. use comes from bauxite ore. Currently Australia , China elements? In fact, the average smartphone uses 75 out of the 81 stable (non- environmental problems in the Democratic Republic of Congo Australia is the current leading producer of spodumene. and Brazil are the leading producers of bauxite. radioactive) elements in the periodic table, 62 of which are metals.All elements and is recognised as a conflict mineral. in a smartphone,both rare and abundant,come from minerals,usually from metal ores, which must be located, extracted, processed and refined. A small, but growing, proportion of smartphone metals come from metal . With an ever increasing demand for smartphones and concerns over supply security as well as environmental and social issues, innovative technologies are required to source and extract minerals and to use them more efficiently. Mineral production data obtained from Brown,T.J et al.World Mineral MINERALS IN A SMARTPHONE Production 2012-16. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.