AMPHIBIANS AND by Willian-L E. Cook Columbia Greene Community College




This publication provides a reasonably extensive bibli- ography of the literature on predator/prey relationships among and birds. In addition, an index has been prepared that includes four lists which cross reference predator and prey . This index enables one to quickly find the citations relating to particular amphibians or birds. The lists, which follow this introduction and precede the bibliography, are titled: Birds that Eat Amphibians, Amphibians Eaten by Birds, Amphibians that Eat Birds, and Birds Eaten by Amphibians.

The organisms are listed phylogene t ically in the first column of the index. The interacting species and references are listed in the second and third columns alphabetically by the author's name. A "-" in the index indicates the inability to determine the identity of a predator or prey species either due to the unavailability of an article or ambiguity in the article itself.

The importance of a reference to predator/prey studies is three-fold. Birds seem to be a major selective force in the of some amphibians. An awareness of the details of the predator/prey relationship in these cases may help elucidate aspects of and even avian evolution. Secondly, in to understand the ecological niche, of an one needs to be cognizant of its range of food items and its potential enemies. Furthermore, efforts to secure legislation to protect various species must, if possible, be based on sound knowledge, not only of the abundance of these species, but also on their importance to other species.

It is clear that the literature is most voluminous in the reporting of birds feeding on amphibians. 70% of the articles listed fall into this category. Surprisingly perhaps, 7% of the articles discuss cases of amphibians eating birds. Some of the selections deal with studies of or cryptic coloration in amphibians as defenses against by birds (e.g., Brodie, Matthews). The use of poisons as a defense strategy appears in the literature as early as 1392 by Boulenger. Behavioral defenses are reported by at least two authors (e.g., Ewert, Sazima) and the evolution of defense strategies is discussed by Wooley.

Predation by birds is asserted to influence the evolution of community organization among (Jaeger) as well as the breeding location of (Roca). Techniques helpful in determining percent biomass in raptor diets (Steenhof) and raptor prey species abundance (Fitzner) are presented and VJendland shows hov; owl pellets can be used to study distribution. Finally, if anyone has ever doubted the commercial value of amphibians, Nair and Prabhu describe how frog wastes can be converted into little cakes to be used for chicken feed.

In the event that it would be desirable to elaborate on this inaugral compilation, I present the sources included thus far. The first few references were obtained from the text Biology of the Amphibians by Duellman and Trueb 1986 and from the files of Professor iMargaret M. Stewart. Two computer searches covering Biological Abstracts from 1975 to 1985 provided several more references. Copies of these articles were obtained and their bibliographies supplied further titles. The majority of the citations were, however, obtained by searching through the Zoological Record from 1864 to 1983.

I wish to thank Dr. Margaret M. Stewart of the State University of New York at Albany for her assistance and encouragement. Readers may send additions and corrections to William E. Cook, Columbia-Greene Community College, Box 1000, Hudson, New York 12534. INDICES



Tachybaptus ruficollis "" Collinge Podiceps grisegena "frog" Collinge Pelecanus ery throrhynchos "salamanders" Sidle Phalacrocorax carbo teraporaria Ponting Phalacrocorax auritus "frog" Ponting

Botaurus stellaris . " frog" Collinge Ixobrychus minutus "frog" Collinge Ardeola cinerea " tadpole" Collinge "far-eastern tree frog' Korotov Ardeola grayii Rana tigerina or Sarker melanostictus Bubulcus ibis Rana tigerina or Sarker Bufo melanostictus Siegfried Ciconia ciconia Rana sp. Rekas i Cygnus olor "frog" Collinge Anas platyrhynchos " frog" Collinge Bufo americanus Mueller(1980 Anas acuta " frog" Collinge Anas clypeata " frog" Collinge Anas strepera " frog" Collinge Aythya ferina "frog" Collinge Aythya fuligula "frog" Collinge Mergus albellus "frog" Collinge Milvus migrans " frog" Andrews Rana tigerina or Sarker Bufo melanostictus Haliastur indus Rana tigerina or Sarkur Bufo melanostictus Spilornis cheela Rana tigerina or Sarker Bufo melanostictus Geranospiza caerulescens Fritziana goeldii Bokerman "small " Jehl Circus aeruginosus Litoria aurea Baker-Gabb "frog" Collinge Circus cyaneus "frog" Collinge Bufo americanus Miller Circus pygargus "frog" Collinge Accipiter nisus " frog" Collinge Accipiter cooperii Bufo americanus Miller Buteogallus urubitinga Bufo marinus Beebe Bufo guttatus lineatus Bufo americanus Miller Buteo platypterus Bufo americanus Miller Bufo americanus Rosenf ield Rana sylvatica Rusch Buteo swainsoni Scaphiopus bombifrons Sexton Buteo jamaicensis Bufo americanus Miller Buteo buteo " frog" Collinge Rana temporaria Maguire Bombina borabina Zsolt Bufo bufo Bufo viridis Rana ridibunda Buteo regalis Rana pipiens Blair Aquila rapax Osborne Falco tinnunculus " frog" Collinge Falco sparverius Rana aurora Collopy(1983) Hyla regilla Falco vespertinus Rana arvalis Pererva Falco colurabarius Rana temporaria Rebecca Falco peregrinus "frog" Collinge Rana sp. Lindberg Falco rusticolus Rana sp. Lindberg Dendragapus canadensis Rana septentrional is Applegate Bonasa umbellus Bufo americanus Hale Rana sp. Gallus gallus ochrophaeu s Brandon( 1979) salamandra Horter Desmognathus spp. Howard(1971) Desmognathus sp. Howard(1973) cinereus viridesce ns " porphyriti cus " Desmognathus ochrophaeu s Labanick Plethodon sp. Bufo americanus Miller Gallinula chloropus "tadpole" Collinge Grus canadensis sp. Dye Charadrius vociferus " frog" Schardien Himantopus himantopus waltl Vermot Tringa totanus "frog" Collinge Tringa nebularia " frog" Collinge Rana sp. Taylor Actitis hypoleucos " tadpole" Collinge Numenius arquata " frog" Collinge Burhinus oedicnemus " frog" Collinge Larus canus Rana temporaria Ritchie Larus argentatus Rana temporaria Helle

Chlidonias hybrida • Hyperolius horstockii Craig Chlidonias niger " frog" Collinge Cuculus canorus Bufo bufo McDougall Rana temporaria Geococcyx calif ornianus Parmley Tyto alba Bowman "frog" Cuisin Rana temporaria Fairley Palobates fuscus Marian Rana sp. Muselet f )

Tyto albo Ruprecht Valente Otus asio Bufo americanus Miller "" Rising Bubo virginianus Ambystoma tigrinum Holman Bubo bubo Rana temporaria Schaef fer Athene noctura "frog" Collinge Athene cunicularia Scaphiopus intermontanus Gleason Ambystoma tigrinum Tyler Scaphiopus couchi Scaphiopus bombifrons Rana pipiens Strix aluco Betts Rana sp. Bozsko " frog" Collinge Delmee "amphibians" Nilsson Pelobates fuscus Wendland Strix uralensis "amphibia spp." Lundberg Strix nebulosa Rana spp. Mikkola Ceryle alcyon Rana sylvatica Seale Alcedo atthis "tadpole" Collinge Perisoreus canadensis Bufo boreas Beiswenger Pseudacris triseriata Matthews Pseudacris triseriata Tordof Cyanocitta cristata Desmognathus ochrophaeus Howard(1973) Garrulus glandarius " frog" Collinge , Corvus monedula "tadpole" " frog" Collinge , Corvus frugilegus " tadpole" "frog" Collinge Corvus brachyrhynchos Bufo americanus Miller , Corvus corone corone "tadpole" " frog" Collinge , Corvus corone cornix "tadpole" " frog" Collinge Corvus corax "frog" Collinge Troglodytes troglodytes Ranidae Czikeli , Cinclus cinclus "tadpole" " frog" Collinge Turdus merula "tadpole" Collinge Rana temporaria Evans Turdus migratorius Plethodon jordani Brandon( 1975 Pseudacris triseriata Matthews Toxostoma rufum Desmognathus sp. Howard(1973) Desmognathus sp. Jaeger Plethodon cinereus excubitor " frog" Collinge Rana temporaria Halliday Pipilo erythropthalmus Desmognathus sp. Jaeger Plethodon cinereus Quiscalus quiscula Rana pipiens Ernst Ploceus philippinus Rana limnocharis George ) )



Amphiuma sp. Grus canadensis Dye Notophthalmus viridescens Callus gallus Howard "ducks" Pope Pleurodeles waltl Himantopus himantopus Vermot Salamandra salamandra "chic kens, ducks" Horter Ambystoma tigrinum Bubo virginianus Holman Athene cunicularia Tyler Desmognathus montacola Gallus gallus Howard(1971) Desmognathus ochrophaeus Gallus gallus Brandon( 1979 "birds" Brodie(1980) Cyanocitta cristata Howard(1973) Gallus gallus Labanick Desmognathus quadramaculatus Gallus gallus Howard(1971) Gyrinophilus porphyr it icus Gallus gallus Howard(1973) Plethodon cinereus "birds" Brodie(1980) Pipilo erythrophthalmus Jaeger Toxostoma rufurn Tilley Bombina bombina Buteo buteo Zsolt Xenopus muelleri "stork" Loveridge Pelobates fuscus Tyto alba Marion Strix aluco Wendland Scaphiopus bombifrons Buteo swainsoni Sexton Athene cunicularia Tyler Scaphiopus couchi Athene cunicularia Tyler Scaphiopus holbrooki "gulls" Pearson Scaphiopus intermontanus Athene cunicularia Gleason Bufo americanus Bonasa umbellus Hale Circus cyaneus Miller Accipiter cooperii Buteo lineatus Buteo platypterus Buteo jamaicensis Anas platyrhynchos Mueller(1980) Buteo platypterus Rosenf ield Bufo boreas Peisoreus canadensis Beiswenger Bufo bufo Falconif orraes Amores Strigiformes

Cuculus canorus McDougall { 1981 Buteo buteo Zsolt Bufo guttatus Buteogallus urubitinga Beebe Bufo marinus Buteogallus urubitinga Beebe Bufo melanostictus Barker Bufo viridis Buteo buteo Zsolt Brachycephalus ephippium Carvalho Litoria aurea Circus aeruginosus Baker-Gabb Fritziana goeldii Geranospiza caerulescens Bokerman Acris crepitans Nevo Acris gryllus Nevo Hyla regilla Falco sparverius Collopy(1983) Pseudacris triseriata Perisoreus canadensis Matthews Turdus migratorius Perisoreus canadensis Tordoff Rana arvalis Falco vespertinus Pererva Rana aurora Falco sparverius Collopy Rana limnocharis Ploceus philippinus George Rana pipiens Buteo regalis Blair Quiscalus quiscula Ernst Athene cunicularia Tyler Rana ridibunda Buteo buteo Zsolt Rana septentrionalis Dendragapus canadensis Applegate Rana sylvatica Buteo platypterus Rosenf ield Ceryle alcyon Seale Rana temporaria Turdus merula Evans Tyto alba Fairley Lanius excubitor Halliday Larus argentatus Helle Buteo buteo Maguire Cuculus canorus McDougall(1981) Phalacrocorax carbo Ponting Falco columbarius Rebecca Larus canus Ritchie Bubo bubo Schaef f er Schiebe Rana tigerina Sarker Hyperolius horstockii Chlidonias hybrida Craig



Bufo americanus Agelaius phoeniceus Cook Bufo marinus "ducklings" Cook Pyxicephalus adspersus Callus gallus Branch "small birds" Wager Rana catesbeiana "probably" Passer domesticus Cochran Frost Bombycilla cedrorum Gollob "ducklings" Hewett Howard, W. Rana esculenta Regulus regulus Rab^l Rana pipiens Archilochus colubris Norris-Elye Dendroica petechia " Rana ridibunda Phylloscopus bonelli Belman Motacilla flava " "small birds" Hellmich Rana temporaria Phylloscopus trochilus Svensson Rana tigerina "sparrow" Deshpande Gallus gallus Dharmaraju BIRDS EATEN BY AMPHIBIANS


Gallus gallus Pyxicephalus adspersus Branch Rana tigerina Dharmaraju Archilochus colubris Rana pipiens Norris-Elye Phylloscopus trochilus Rana temporaria Svensson Phylloscopus bonelli Rana ridibunda Belman Regulus regulus Rana esculenta Rab?5l Motacilla flava Rana ridibunda Belman Bombycilla cedrorum Rana catesbeiana Gollob Dendroica petechia Rana pipiens Norris-Elye Agelaius phoeniceus Bufo americanus Cook .


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