Luigi Gatti and the Collection of Sources in the Library of the Conservatorio in Florence

Eva Neumayr, Lars E. Laubhold1

Summary:

Ferdinand III., Großherzog von Toskana (1769−1824), regierte Salzburg nur von 1803 bis 1805. In dieser kurzen Zeit und wohl auch noch etwas später fügte er seiner Sammlung eine große Anzahl von Musikalien Salzburger Provenienz hinzu, darunter auch zahlreiche Abschriften von Kirchenmusik, vornehmlich von Werken Johann Michael Haydns (1737– 1806) und Luigi Gattis (1740–1817). Diese Sammlung wird heute unter dem Namen Fondo Pitti in der Bibliothek des Conservatorios «Luigi Cherubini» in Florenz aufbewahrt. Unter Beschränkung auf die Kirchenmusikalien der Sammlung ist der vorliegende Beitrag den Fragen gewidmet, welche Salzburger Kopisten von Ferdinand beschäftigt wurden und inwieweit Originalmaterialien aus dem Dommusikarchiv ihren Weg nach Florenz fanden. Die Rolle Luigi Gattis für die Sammlertätigkeit Ferdinands und die Bedeutung Großherzog Ferdinands für die Verbreitung der Musik Michael Haydns und Luigi Gattis werden beleuchtet.

In the library of the Conservatorio «Luigi Cherubini» in Florence a large collection of manuscripts of Salzburg provenance has survived. Approximately 260 manuscripts of works by , Luigi Gatti, , and others are part of the collection of Grandduke Ferdinand III of Tuscany (1769−1824).

Ferdinand III, Grandduke of Tuscany, the second son of Pietro Leopoldo of Tuscany—later Emperor Leopold II—had left Florence for Vienna in the face of a French invasion in 1799. When in the Peace Treaty of Lunéville (February 9th, 1801) the Grand Duchy of Tuscany was awarded to the French, he was recompensed with the dukedom and electorate of Salzburg. He was also made Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. On April 29th 1803, he took possession of Salzburg and was warmly welcomed by the people. However, in October 1805, already, Ferdinand fled to Vienna, again, because advancing French troups. After the Treaty of Pressburg was signed on December 25th, 1805 Ferdinand III had to give up Salzburg in favour of his brother, Austrian emperor Franz II/I and was recompensed with the Duchy of Würzburg.

1 The results presented in this paper were researched by the RISM Arbeitsgruppe Salzburg at the Archiv der Erzdiözese Salzburg (AES) under the direction of Ernst Hintermaier and funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). At the conference Eva Neumayr also spoke about the Salzburg materials at the music Library of the Benedictine Abbey of Maria Einsiedeln, Switzerland. As this topic is dealt with by Claudio Bacciagaluppi in this volume, confer our paper EVA NEUMAYR – UARS E. LAUBHOLD, Die Quellen der Salzburger Dommusik in der Musikbibliothek des Benediktinerklosters Maria Einsiedeln (Schweiz), «Schweizer Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft 2010», vol. xxx, Lang, Frankfurt, 2011 (in print) for further information. 1 Ferdinand III of Tuscany2 was an able singer, pianist and collector. As other members of the Habsburg family, he had received ample musical training in his youth. However, as a collector he was, by no means, solely interested in music. Domenicus Hagenauer, abbot of St. Peter’s in Salzburg, recounts a visit to the collections of the Grandduke in January 1805 in his diary and gives us some idea of the widespread interests of the Prince:

«Mittwoch den 2ten besah ich mit den Fürsten in Chiemsee und Lavant, und dem Oberst Stalmeister Graf Küenburg die vom Kurfürsten neu neben dem Kloster Refecktor aufgestelte prächtige Bibliotheck. Der Kurfürst hatte die Höchste Gnad, und zeigte uns diese in eigner Person. Man trift in dieser die ausgesuchtesten Werke von allen Wissenschaften, und zwar in den kostbarsten Ausgaben an. Nach einem Aufenthalt von 1 ½ Stund führte uns der gute Regent in seine nächst seinem Schlafzimmer errichtete Hand Bibliotheck in welcher besonders die Authores Classici in verschiedenen Ausgaben, und in einem Nebenzimmer alle seine Musickalien von welchen er ein vorzüglicher Liebhaber ist, zu sehen sind. Er zeigte uns weiter ein erst vor 2 Wochen in Florenz für 300 Dukaten erkauftes Original Gemählde von dem berühmten Raphael Urbino, welches die Mutter Gottes mit dem Kind Jesu vorstellet, und ohne Vergleich das schönste Bild ist, was hier weit und breit zu finden ist. Endlich begleitete er uns durch seine Zimmer in sein neues Gebaude, und wieß uns neben der Konfektstube sein Porcelain, das er zum Theil zu verehren bekommen, theils selbst beÿgeschaffet hat. Dieses gnädigste und für mich besonders schmeichelhafte Herumweisen, und Vorzeigen dauerte bis ½ 1 Uhr, wo wir mit den herablassendsten Ausdrücken entlassen wurden.»3

However, music was certainly one of Ferdinand’s chief interests. During his stay in Vienna between 1799 and 1803 his sister-in-law and cousin Empress Maria Theresia of Naples and Scicily (1772–1807)4, the wife of his older brother Franz, became his singing partner in many private concerts performed at both his and her residence5. A few days after taking possession of Salzburg on April 29th, 1803, he wrote to her, «Music still languishes here, and I have hardly touched the cembalo because, between audiences, papers, and unpacking, I have so

2 Cf. JOHN A. RICE, Empress Marie Therese and Music at the Viennese Court, 1792–1807, Cambridge University Press, New York 2003, p. 48ff. 3 Abt Dominikus Hagenauer (1746–1811) von St. Peter in Salzburg. Tagebücher 1786–1810, ed. by the Historische Sektion der Bayerischen Benediktinerabtei, revised and annotated by Adolf Hahnl, Hannelore und Rudolph Angermüller, 3 vls., Eos, St. Ottilien 2009, p. 1021; [translation by E. Neumayr:] «Wednesday the 2nd I, with the Bishop in Chiemsee and Lavant and the High Equerry Count Küenburg, looked at the library which the Prince-Elector has had erected lately next to the refectory of the convent. The prince was so kind as to show it to us himself. In it there are the most sought-after works of all sciences in the most precious editions. After a stay there of one and a half hours the good regent led us to his reference library next to his bedroom, where, especially, the classical authors in different editions, and, in another room, all of his musical sources, of which he is an excellent enthusiast, are to be seen. He showed us a painting by the famous Raphael Urbino, which shows the Virgin Mary with the child and which is the most beautiful painting found around here far and wide. Finally he accompagnied us through his rooms to his new building and showed us, next to the confect parlour, his porcelain, which he partly got as a gift, partly bought himself. This kind, and for me especially, flattering guiding and showing took us until half past twelve, when we were dismissed with the most condenscending words». 4 In the following the French form of her name, Marie Therese, will be used to discern her from her famous grandmother, Empress Maria Theresia (1717–1780). 5 Cf. JOHN A. RICE, Empress Marie Therese, p. 48f. 2 much to do.»6 This did not prevent him from organizing a group of musicians soon after his arrival to give private concerts with. He also started collecting music from Salzburg, on the one hand, giving commissions to local , on the other hand, having works copied. Among the works composed for him is the autograph of Salzburg court chapel master Luigi Gatti’s per il giorno dell’Epifania. (I-Fc F.P.T. 115). About this Ferdinand wrote to Marie Therese on Dec. 29th 1804:

«L’abate Gatti ha composto un Oratorio per l’Epifania che no ho ancora sentito. Sono curioso di verderne l’esito. Quando sarà stato eseguito ve ne darò conto.»7

Abbot Dominikus Hagenauer was invited to the performance on January 6th, 1805 and wrote in his diary: «Abends wurde ich von Höchst Selben [Ferdinand III] zur neu komponirten Music des Kapelmeister Gatti beÿ der Krippe eingeladen, und blieb demnach beÿm Spiel und beÿ der Soupé»8. Ferdinand reports the first performance to Marie Therese on January 20th, 1805:

«L’oratorio dell’Abate Gatti è riescito molto bene, la musica è molto difficile a cantarsi, ed a suonarsi, e se ha un diffetto, si è che è troppo istrumentata, e copre le voci ma ha piaciuto universalmente. Se mai la desiderate ditemelo che la farò subito copiare.» 9

Ferdinand III must have started giving commissions to copyists almost immediately when he arrived in Salzburg in the April of 1803. Maria Anna Freifrau von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg (1751–1829), neè Mozart, who was at that time corresponding with Breitkopf und Härtel about her brother’s works and that of other Salzburg composers possibly interesting for the publisher, bears witness to the acquisitiveness of the Grand Duke when she writes on May 29th, 1803:

«Ich hofe daß es mit überschickung der Jos: Haidnschen Messen keine Eile haben wird, den der Copist hat so viel zu thun, dass er nich einmahl noch zeit gehabt hat, solche anzufangen

6 Ferdinand to Marie Therese, Salzburg, 7 May 1803, Vienna, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Familienarchiv (HHStA, Fa) Sammelbände (Sb), Kart. 62, Erzherzog Ferdinand v. Toskana […] an Kais. Marie Therese, 1803, fol. 5r, quoted in: JOHN A. RICE, Empress Marie Therese, p. 49. 7 HHStA, Fa, Sb, Kart. 63, fol. 23, quoted in: RICE, Empress Marie Therese, p. 53 and translated by him as follows: «Abate Gatti has composed an oratorio for Epiphany, which I have not yet heard. I am curious to see how it turns out. When it is performed I will tell you about it». 8 Abt Dominikus Hagenauer (1746–1811) von St. Peter in Salzburg. Tagebücher 1786–1810, p. 1021, [translation by E. Neumayr:] «In the evening I was invited by His Royal Highness to Luigi Gatti’s newly composed music next to the nativity set, and, afterwards stayed for game and soup». 9 Vienna, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Familienarchiv, Sammelbände, Kart. 65, Erzh. Ferdinand von Toskana an Kaiserin Marie Therese, fol. 1r, quoted in: RICE, Empress Marie Therese, p. 53 and translated by him as follows: «Abate Gatti’s oratorio was a great success. The music is very difficult to play and to sing, and if it has a defect, it is that it is too heavily orchestrated, and covers the voices; but it pleased everyone. Tell me if you would like it, and I will have it copied immediately». 3 selbe abzuschreiben, da aber dieser der Beste hier ist, so wollte ich sie keinen andern anvertrauen.»10

A year later, on April 30th, 1804, the situation for people wishing to employ a copyist apparently had not improved:

«[…] ich sprach mit dem copisten, und musste zu meinem grössten Verdruß hören, dass er noch keine abzuschreiben angefangen hat, weil er immer zu viel für den Kurfürsten zu schreiben hat […].»11

Considering the brevity of Ferdinand’s rule, his collection of Salzburg music is large. Although Ferdinand III complains to Marie Therese about the copyists in Salzburg being not as fast as those in Vienna12, the amount of music copied by them for Ferdinand’s collection is rather astonishing: Among the 256 sources of Salzburg provenance in Ferdinand’s collection of sacred music13 we were able to see there are 173 works by Michael Haydn, 69 by Luigi Gatti, 12 by Johann Ernst Eberlin, one litany by Anton Cajetan Adlgasser14, and one «Tenebrae» by Joachim Fuetsch.

Apparently, Ferdinand was most interested in Michael Haydn’s and Luigi Gatti’s compositions. While Luigi Gatti (1740–1817) was Salzburg Hofkapellmeister and, thus, the Prince’s prime contact person in all musical affairs, Michael Haydn was only «court organist». However, his reputation as a , at that time, may have exeeded Gatti’s. His sacred music, especially, was famous enough for Empress Marie Therese to commission several masses and a . For the same reason Count Nikolaus II Esterházy (1765–1833) tried to entice him to become his chapel master. It is natural enough that Ferdinand, while not raising Haydn’s income enough to equal Gatti’s15, still took great interest in his music.

10 «I hope there is still time for the sending of Jos. Haydn’s Masses, because the copyist has so much to do that he hasn’t even had time to begin to copy them, because this one is the best, however, I did not want to entrust them to anybody else.» [translation by Eva Neumayr]; Mozart. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen. Gesamtausgabe, ed. by Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum, collected and commented by Wilhelm A. Bauer and , Bärenreiter, Kassel etc., 1962, letter 1361, May 29th, 1803, vol. IV, p. 434. 11 «[…] I talked to the copyist, and had to hear to my greatest anger that he hasn’t even begun to copy yet, because he has so much to copy for the Grand Duke […]» [translation by Eva Neumayr], BAUER – UEUTSCH, Mozart. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, letter 1365, April 30th, 1804, vol. IV, p. 439. The copyist she refers to is very probably Felix Hofstätter (1740–1814) the main professional copyist in Salzburg around 1800. 12 Letter from Ferdinand III to Marie Therese, Salzburg, 7. November 1803: «Attualmente si va copiando il Trionfo della Chiesa per voi, ma adagio perchè quà i copisti non sono fulmini come a Vienna e sono molto agiati», Vienna, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Familienarchiv, Sammelbände, Kart. 62, fol. 5r, quoted in: RICE, Empress Marie Therese, p. 50. 13 The signatures of this collection in I-Fc beginn with F.P.Ch., while there is also an ample collection of secular music whose signatures begin with F.P.T., which was, however, not the object of our study. 14 CHRISTINE D. DE CATANZARO – TERNER RAINER, Anton Cajetan Adlgasser (1729–1777). A thematic Catalogue of His Works, Pendragon Press, Hillsdale (NY) 1993 (Thematic Cataglogues, 2), no. 3.52 15 Cf. ERNST HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle von 1700–1806: Organisation und Personal, Universität Salzburg (Phil. Diss.) 1972, p. 168. 4 In the first biography of Michael Haydn, his friends describe him as fairly reluctant to part with his works, especially, when commercial interests were involved:

«Wir besitzen eine Correspondenz, welche beweiset, daß bey Breitkopf und Härtl in Leipzig wirklich ernsthafte Versuche zur Herausgabe der Michael Haydn’schen Werke gemacht wurden. Anfangs bewilligte er zwar diesen Schritt, zuletzt aber gab er doch nichts von seinen Compositionen zu diesem Zwecke her. Wußte man bey gutter Laune seine rechte Seite zu treffen, so gab er um Kleinigkeiten und gute Worte seine beßten Werke zur Abschrift hin; wollte man aber mit ihm zu seinem Vortheile in wirklichen Accord treten, so hielt er zurück, und mußte selbst zur Herausgabe einiger Kleinigkeiten gleichsam gezwungen werden.»16

In his dissertation about the Masses of Michael Haydn, Charles Sherman develops the following theory about how the copying for Ferdinand’s collection proceeded:

«In 1805, Archduke Ferdinand III of left the regency of Salzburg to assume the title and office of Elector of Würzburg. At that time, he commissioned the making of copies of a great number of Haydn’s compositions, which he admired and wished to have for his future use. Haydn, who was ill, did very little toward fulfilling the commission, rather, he made his scores available to several copyists, Lang among them, who produced the majority of manuscripts for the Archduke’s collection. It seems a certainty that Lang used this opportunity to make duplicate copies of Haydn’s music for himself. These he organized in a systematic catalog, which, according to the Biographische Skizze, he used to advertise his trade in score copies of Haydn’s works.»17

As for the beginning of the copying activities, we have shown above that they must have started right after Ferdinand’s arrival in Salzburg in the April of 1803. The others of Sherman’s assumptions are based on the following passage from Michael Haydn’s first biography18:

«In dieser Apathie gegen alle Vergoldung und Versilberung seiner Produktion liegt wahrhaft die ewige Verklärung seines Kunstgenie. Desto mehr kalkulirten gewinnsüchtige Copisten darauf. Sie versendeten die Abschriften seiner Meisterwerke weit und breit herum. So kann man wirklich einen Catalog von Johann Michael Haydns Werken im Original aufweisen, womit ein gewißer feiler Spekulant zum sichtlichen Schaden des rechtmäßigen Eigenthümers

16 [Translation by E. Neumayr:] «We have a correspondance which proves that real efforts were made by Breitkopf und Härtl in Leipzig to publish Michael Haydn’s works. In the beginning he authorized this, however, in the end he did not contribute any of his compositions for this aim. If one knew how to find him in good humour, however, he gave his best works for trifles and good words; If one wanted to reach an accord to his advantage, he held back, and had to be forced to release small samples of his works.» [Georg Schinn, Franz Joseph Otter, Werigand Rettensteiner], Biographische Skizze von Michael Haydn. Von des verklärten Tonkünstlers Freunden entworfen, und zum Beßten seiner Wittwe herausgegeben, Mayr, Salzburg 1808, p. 34. 17 CHARLES HENRY SHERMAN, The Masses of Michael Haydn: A Critical Survey of sources, University of Michigan (Phil. Diss.) 1968, p. 25. 18 Up to now, only Nikolaus Lang (1772–1837) was suspected of being one of those copyists. Cf. SHERMAN, The Masses of Michael Haydn, p. 54f.; ROBERT MÜNSTER, Nikolaus Lang und seine Michael-Haydn-Kopien in der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, «Österreichische Musikzeitschrift», XXVIII/Sonderheft, 1972, 25–9: p. 26–7. 5 in die nahen und fernen Gegenden handelte.»19

From this Charles Sherman assumes that Nikolaus Lang (1772–1837) was 1. the main copyist of Johann Michael Haydn’s works for Ferdinand’s collection, that 2. he made duplicate copies on that occasion and 3. entered them into a systematic catalogue to the purpose of selling them. These assumptions merit a closer inspection, especially, because they have not been supported by the results of our research.

1. The following chart illustrates, what materials of Salzburg provenance can today be found in Ferdinand III’s collection in the library of the Conservatorio Luigi Cherubini in Florence and which Salzburg Copyists20 were involved in the copying. As, in many cases, several copyists participated in the making of the parts for one work, the sum of these sources is not identical with the sum of works of Salzburg provenance found in Florence:

Copyist of Salzburg involved in of composer number of works 67 and 67a 94 M. Haydn, L. Gatti Hofstätter, Felix 73 M. Haydn, L. Gatti, J. E. Eberlin Lang, Nikolaus 30 M. Haydn 249 21 M. Haydn 321 10 L. Gatti 245 4 L. Gatti 163 4 L. Gatti 20 2 L. Gatti Estlinger, Joseph Richard 1 L. Gatti 86 1 L. Gatti 24 1 L. Gatti

19 Biographische Skizze, p. 34–5, [translation by E. Neumayr:] «In this apathy against all earnings from his creative production his genius is eternally gloryfied. All the more, mercenary copyists reckoned with the profits. They sent copies of his masterworks everywhere. A catalogue of Michael Haydns works could be shown in an original copy whereby a certain speculator—to the disadvantage of the rightful owner—dealt with near and far away.» 20 The identification of copyists is based on the Salzburg Copyist’s Catalogue started by Manfred Hermann Schmid in 1970 and continued by P. Petrus Eder (OSB) at the music library at the abbey St. Peter and by Ernst Hintermaier at the Archiv der Erzdiözese Salzburg. Cf. MANFRED HERMANN SCHMID, Die Musikaliensammlung der Erzabtei St. Peter in Salzburg. Katalog. Erster Teil: Leopold und Joseph und Michael Haydn. Mit einer Einführung in die Geschichte der Sammlung, [Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum], Salzburg 1970 (Schriftenreihe der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum, 3/4; also: Publikationen des Instituts für Musikwissenschaft der Universität Salzburg, 1). Today this Catalogue is permanently amended by the RISM Salzburg working group and consists currently of about 800 samples of copyist’s hands. Copyists, whose names are unknown, are entered in the RISM data base as «Copyist of Salzburg [number]». 6 Tab. 1: Copyists from Salzburg, whose hands can be found in Ferdinand of Tuscany’s collection of sacred works in the library of the Conservatorio «Luigi Cherubini».

In addition to these copies, the collection boasts several autographs: There are four manuscripts of Michael Haydn’s works in in the composer’s own hand, among those scores of the Missa Sanctae Crucis (MH 56, F.P.Ch. 324/1), the Missa sub titulo Sancti Francisci Seraphici (MH 826, F.P.Ch. 317/1), the offertory «Domine Deus» (MH 827, F.P.Ch. 317/2), and a «Te Deum» (MH 829, F.P.Ch. 317/4), the last three having been commissioned by Empress Marie Therese for the nameday of her husband, emperor Franz I/II, in 180321. While Luigi Gatti’s hand is found in 17 of his own works, Joachim Joseph Fuetsch’s hand appears solely in his composition «Tenebrae» (F.P. Ch. 1048).

As the table above shows, Nikolaus Lang was by no means Ferdinand’s main copyist. He made copies of 30 works by Michael Haydn, among them four masses (I-Fc F.P.Ch 303, 308, 309, 310), «Gloria» and «Credo» of both the Missa St. Gabrielis (I-Fc F.P.Ch 297) and the Missa St. Raphaelis (I-Fc F.P.Ch 299) and numerous compositions for the proper and for other liturgical occasions. However, he is outperformed by both Felix Hofstätter (1744–1814) who participated in the making of at least 73 copies and by the Copyists of Salzburg 67 and 67a, who, among them, took part in the copying of 94 works.

Felix Hofstätter22 was, after Joseph Richard Estlinger’s23 death in 1791, the most important Salzburg copyist of the time. His copies are found not only in the Dommusikarchiv (A-Sd), but also in the Music Library of St. Peter’s, Salzburg (A-SSp), in the Music Library of the Benedictine Abbey of Maria Einsiedeln, Switzerland (CH-E)24 and in many other archives. He seems to have conducted a successful business in selling his copies25. Most probably he was

21 After her death in 1807, Marie Therese’s collection became part of the «Kaisersammlung», which is now split between Österreichische Nationalbibliothek and Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (cf. RICE, Empress Marie Therese, p. 4). The Österreichische Nationalbibliothek has part material from 1803 of all three works (Missa St. Francisci, H.K.2048.Mus, copy by Eybler; «Domine Deus», H.K.2664.Mus; «Te Deum», MH 829, H.K. 2678.Mus). The reason for the autograph scores being in Ferdinand’s collection is not clear: Either the autographs were given to him by Marie Therese or he inherited them after her death. Other possibilities would be that he aquired them from Michael Haydn or, after his death, from his widow. In two other manuscripts, F.P.Ch. 302 and F.P.Ch. 293 corrections by M. Haydn were found. 22 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, p. 182–5. 23 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, p. 91–3. 24 Cf. EVA NEUMAYR – UARS E. LAUBHOLD, Die Quellen der Salzburger Dommusik in der Musikbibliothek des Benediktinerklosters Maria Einsiedeln (Schweiz), «Schweizer Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft 2010», vol. xxx, Lang, Frankfurt, 2011 (in print). 25 th Cf. BAUER – UEUTSCH, Mozart. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, May 15 , 1784, vol. III, p. 313, W. A. Mozart to his father: «[…] wegen der Sinfonie bin ich nicht heiklich, allein die 4 Concerte bitte ich /: bei sich zu hause abschreiben zu lassen :/ denn es ist den kopisten in Salzburg so wenig zu trauen, als den in Wienn;—ich weis ganz zuverlässig, daß Hofstätter des haydn Musique dopelt copiert—ich habe seine Neuesten 3 Sinfonien wirklich», [translation by E. Neumayr:] «[…] I am not partial about the sympony, but please /:have the 4 7 the copyist Maria Anna Berchtold zu Sonnenburg mentions in her letter to Breitkopf & Härtel.26 Very probably he was also one of the copyists that are mentioned—unfavourably— in the passage of Biographische Skizze27 cited above.

2. The assumption that Nikolaus Lang made duplicate copies from Michael Haydn’s works on the occasion of copying for Ferdinand’s collection could not be verified. In the library of the Conservatorio «Luigi Cherubini» in Florence there are only 30 copies by Nikolaus Lang, while the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek owns more than 200 copies of Michael Haydn’s works by his hand. However, of the thirty works that were copied for Ferdinand by Lang only ten are also in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek28 in a copy by Lang.

3. The fact remains that Nikolaus Lang was the one who wrote, in all, six catalogues29 of Michael Haydn’s works. The earliest one is stored in the Benedictine Abbey of Michaelbeuren (Austria)30, a second comprehensive catalogue that is, according to Sherman, based on the first one, is in the Bavarian State Library (BSB, Mus.ms. 2988k). The other four cataloges31 are all concerned only with parts of Haydn’s works. Sherman’s assumption, that Lang wrote the first of his catalogues32 in connection with Ferdinand’s collecting activities, could not be verified. While there are several of Michael Haydn’s works registered in the catalogue, but are not part of the collection in Florence, there are also a few works in Florence, but not registered in the catalogue.33

The connection between Michael Haydn, his wife and Nikolaus Lang may have been much closer than that of composer and copyist. After Michael Haydn’s death Lang seems to have been in close contact with Michael Haydn’s widow—her letter from Nov. 12th, 1808 encloses a list of her husband’s works by Nikolaus Lang34—as well as with some of his friends35. He is

concerts copied at home:/ because neither the copyists of Salzburg nor those of Vienna can be trusted;—I know for a fact that Hofstätter makes double copies of Haydn’s music—I do have his newest three ». 26 th Cf. BAUER – DEUTSCH, Mozart. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, , letter 1361, May 29 , 1803, vol. IV, p. 434. 27 Biographische Skizze, p. 34–5. 28 Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (D-Mbs), Mus.ms. 4149, 4138, 4203 and 452, 4155-1, 4150, 4152, 4153, 4133#Beibd.1, 4137, 3741. 29 Cf. SHERMAN, The Masses of Michael Haydn, p. 25–31. 30 A-MB, without shelfmark. For this study a copy of Lang’s catalogue in the library of Institute of Musicology of the University of Salzburg was used (D2 Hay 999a). 31 D-Mbs, Mus.ms. 2989 (masses), Mus.ms. 3765 (masses). About the catalogues cf. SHERMAN, The Masses of Michael Haydn, p. 25–31. 32 A-MB, without shelfmark. 33 E.g. the Gradual «Caro mea» MH 513 (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 341/1), the offertory «Inveni David» MH 224 (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 365/1) and others. 34 MÜNSTER, Nikolaus Lang und seine Michael-Haydn-Kopien, p. 26; SHERMAN, The Masses of Michael Haydn, p. 25. 8 much more likely to have made copies for idealistic reasons than Felix Hofstätter, who made a living mainly through copying. Felix Hofstätter copied 47 works for Ferdinand, 29 either for the Benedictine Abbey of Einsiedeln or for the Benedictine Abbey of Weingarten36, numerous for St. Peter’s abbey (many of Michael Haydn’s works survive in two Hofstätter copies there) and took part in the copying of more than 40 works by Michael Haydn in the Dommusikarchiv.

Moreover, Robert Münster has pointed out, that most of Lang’s copies in the Bavarian State library show the watermark «FAHofmann / Salzburg» and, therefore, cannot have been written earlier than 180937—which is one year after the publication of the Biographische Skizze38 and, thus, after the unfavourable implication about the mercenary copyists. This is also true for at least six copies by Nikolaus Lang39 in the Library of the Conservatorio «Luigi Cherubini» in Florence bearing the watermarks « SALZBURG / HOFMANN», «HOFMANN / SALZBURG» and « SALZBURG / F A HOFMANN». Franz Anton Paul Hofmann was the owner of the papermill of Lengfelden near Salzburg from 1809 to1852.40 Additionally, this fact is significant in so far, that it proves that the copying for Ferdinand’s collection did not stop when Ferdinand left Salzburg. Nor did it stop in the August of 1806, when, as is related in Haydn’s biography41, a few days before Haydn’s death «Herr von Manfredini was with him and handed over 100 fl from His Royal Highness the Prince Elector of Würzburg, because he had allowed his Gradual to be copied.» Further support for this theory comes from a source in the Library of the Conservatorio Luigi Cherubini: The autograph score of Luigi Gatti’s Requiem in C (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 183), on the cover, features an entry in the composer’s own hand, reading «prodotto li 14 Giugno 1808 nella Chiesa dell’

35 According to Robert Münster, at the Bavarian State Library there are several Lang-copies of Michael Haydn’s works out of Benedikt Hacker’s collection (cf. MÜNSTER, Nikolaus Lang und seine Michael-Haydn-Kopien, p. 28). Other copies seem to be out of the collections people that were close to friends of Michael Haydn in Munich, e. g. Michael Hauber (1778–1843). In his collection there were six copies of Michael Haydn’s works in the hand of J. Lang. (D-Mbs Mus.ms. 457, 333, 440, 456, 452, 451, cf. ). 36 Cf. NEUMAYR – UAUBHOLD, Die Quellen der Salzburger Dommusik in der Musikbibliothek des Benediktinerklosters Maria Einsiedeln (Schweiz), (in print). 37 MÜNSTER, Nikolaus Lang und seine Michael-Haydn-Kopien, p. 27. 38 Biographische Skizze von Michael Haydn. Von des verklärten Tonkünstlers Freunden entworfen, und zum Besßten seiner Wittwe herausgegeben. Salzburg, Mayr 1808. 39 Conservatorio «Luigi Cherubini», Biblioteca (I-Fc), F.P.Ch. 309, 352/1, 364/1, 385/1, 385/2, 385/3. 40 GEORG EINEDER, The Ancient Paper-Mills of the Former Austro-Hungarian Empire and their Watermarks, The Paper Publications Society, Hilversum, 1960 (Monumenta Chartae Papyraceae Historiam Illustrantia, VIII), p. 69. 41 «Herr von Manfredini war bei ihm und überreichte ihm 100 f douceur von Seiner königl: Hochheit dem Herrn Churfürsten von Würzburg, weil Höchst selber sein Graduale hat kopieren lassen.» «Biographie des Salzburgischen Concertmeisters Michael Haydn von seinen Freunden verfasset...», ed. by Rudolph Angermüller and Johanna Senigl, «Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum», XXXVII/1–4, 1989, p. 198–231: p. 222. 9 Università di Salisburgo». Therefore, the score of this Requiem was not transferred to Ferdinand’s collection before the second half of the year 1808.

Nikolaus Lang and Felix Hofstätter, however, are not the only Salzburg copyists, whose hands are found in Ferdinand’s collection, worthy of our attention. Interestingly, there seems to be a connection between some of the copyists writing for Ferdinand and the historic inventories of the cathedral. These inventories42 were started, when Luigi Gatti came to Salzburg in 1782 to assume the post of Hofkapellmeister of prince-archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo and was assigned to record all music manuscripts in an inventory «so that nothing of the music shall be withdrawn»43 Subsequently, the main court copyist of the time, Joseph Richard Estlinger (1722–1791), drew up two copies of the inventory Catalogus Musicalis in Ecclesia Metropolitana, one labelled «Gatti», and the other one «Archivium».

In the course of our work in the collection of Ferdinand III of Tuscany in the Library of the Conservatorio «Luigi Cherubini» in Florence, our attention was drawn to three Salzburg Copyists, 140, 67a and 245, who share some characteristics. a. They copied for Ferdinand’s collection. b. They wrote some copies for the collection of the Cathedral, but in most cases, rather few. c. All three of them were involved in the copying of the parts of the first Salzburg performance of ’s Creation or Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Requiem or both, which took place in 1800 and 1801.44 These performances are significant, because they allow to date the source-material rather accurately: The parts for Haydn’s Creation were copied in 1800, while the parts for Mozart’s Requiem in the Dommusikarchiv were copied between 1801 and 1806. Therefore, the copyists mentioned above were definitely active in Salzburg around 1800. d. Although they were by no means main Salzburg copyists, we were able to identify their hands in one of the copies of the Catalogus Musicalis, suggesting that they were somehow

42 cf. LARS E. LAUBHOLD – UVA NEUMAYR, Luigi Gatti and the Catalogus Musicalis in Ecclesia Metropolitana of the Salzburg cathedral, in the same volume. 43 «[…] auch die Inventarien richtig gefasset und verwahret werden, damit der Musique nichts entzochen werde […]», decree of appointment: Salzburger Landesarchiv, Hofkammer, Generaleinnehmer- und Hofzahlamt (HZA) 1783/1/H., cf. HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle pp. 134−5. 44 EVA NEUMAYR – UARS E. LAUBHOLD, Quellen zur Rezeption des Requiems von W. A. Mozart in Salzburg im 19. Jahrhundert, Mozart-Jahrbuch 2007/08, Bärenreiter, Kassel 2011(in print), LARS E. LAUBHOLD – UVA NEUMAYR, «‹…was mein Bruder in seinen Chören mit der Ewigkeit treibt…› Quellen zur frühen Rezeption von Joseph Haydns Schöpfung», Haydn-Studien, X/1, 2010, S. 55-70. 10 involved in organizing the music collection of the cathedral. While Copyist of Salzburg 140 writes in the Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Gatti», the Copyists of Salzburg 67a and 245 enter a significant amount of music into the Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Archivium». Copyist of Salzburg 24545 took part in the copying of four works by Luigi Gatti for the collection of Ferdinand, while in Salzburg he wrote out only a few parts for J. Haydn’s Creation (A-Sd A 1165), W. A. Mozart’s Requiem (A-Sd A 1349), a Mass in Bb and the offertory «Nimis honorati sunt» by Luigi Gatti. Thus, in neither collection he was considered in any way important so far. Nevertheless, there are at least 18 entries of Gatti’s works into the Catalogus musicalis, copy «Archivium», by his hand46. Even more interesting is that the same entries are found in the Catalogus musicalis, copy «Gatti», written by Copyist of Salzburg 14047. A similar pairing seems to prevail between Copyist of Salzburg 67a in Catalogus musicalis, copy «Archivium», and Joachim Fuetsch in Catalogus musicalis, copy «Gatti» with 15 entries.

45 In I-Fc he is the main copyist of the part material for Gatti’s Requiem in C (I-Fc F.P.Ch 183) mentioned above. His hand also appears in the part material of the same Requiem, which has survived in the music library of the Benedictine Abbey of Kremsmünster, Austria (A-KR E 6/121). 46 Cf. Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Archivium», pp. 68–70. 47 Cf. Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Gatti», pp. 72–4. 11

Fig. 1: Copyist of Salzburg 245’s entries in Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Archivium», p. 69, (photo: Peter Rohrmoser, courtesy of AES)

12

Fig. 2: Copyist of Salzburg 140’s entries in Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Gatti», p. 73, (photograph: Peter Rohrmoser, courtesy of AES)

While it was tempting to construct a connection between these entries in the Catalogus musicalis and Ferdinand of Tuscany’s collection activities, this hypothesis was not supported by the data. There is no conformity whatsoever as to who entered the work into the Catalogus

13 and who copied the work for Ferdinand’s collection.48 We also do not know, when the entries were made—it is perfectly possible that they were made during Ferdinand’s rule in Salzburg, but equally possible that they were made between his leaving Salzburg in 1806 and Gatti’s death in 1817. Most probably they were not a result of the inventory following Gatti’s death ordered by the Austrian authorities in 1817, which will be discussed later.

Considering the fact, that numerous musical sources from the Dommusikarchiv have found their way to other archives, for example, the music library of the Benedictine Abbey of Einsiedeln (Switzerland)49 or to the Stadtarchiv ()50, it seemed reasonable to suspect that, with Ferdinand’s collecting activities, some original materials from Salzburg might have found their way the Library of the Conservatorio «Luigi Cherubini» as well. This appeared to be the case with an important set of parts copied by Joseph Richard Estlinger.

Joseph Richard Estlinger was one of the main court copyists in the Salzburg of the second half of the 18th century. As he died in 1791, he certainly was not one of the copyists working for Ferdinand III. However, his hand, together with Hofstätter’s and those of both Copyist of Salzburg 162 and Copyist of Salzburg 86, is found in Ferdinand’s collection, in I-Fc F.P.Ch. 184, Luigi Gatti’s Missa Sancti Ruperti51. Luigi Gatti wrote this mass shortly after his arrival in Salzburg in July 1782 for the celebrations of the 1200th anniversary of the Salzburg diocese. The fact that a manuscript by Estlinger’s hand can be found among Ferdinand’s collection is worth exploring, as it sheds more light on the transactions around Ferdinand’s collecting activities.

Any task involving the archive of the court-chapel, be it copying, cataloging or removing musical supplies from the archive, had to be approved by the chapel master, Luigi Gatti. Maria Anna Freifrau von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg, who was at the time trying to assemble her brother’s Salzburg works for the first Mozart edition planned by Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, describes this in her letter from June 18th, 1801:

«Mein Freund in Salzburg schrieb mir zu meinen grössten Verdruß, dass ihm nun der Capelmeister, die Serenata il Sogno di Scipione und die opera , kurz alle die

48 For a more thorough discussion of these issues, see LAUBHOLD – NEUMAYR, Luigi Gatti and the Catalogus Musicalis in Ecclesia Metropolitana of the Salzburg cathedral, in this volume. 49 Cf. NEUMAYR –LAUBHOLD, Die Quellen der Salzburger Dommusik in der Musikbibliothek des Benediktinerklosters Maria Einsiedeln (Schweiz), (in print). 50 Cf. ERNST HINTERMAIER, Zwei bisher unbekannte authentische Stimmenabschriften von Mozarts Regina- coeli-Kompositionen KV 127 und 276, in: Mozart im Zentrum. Festschrift für Manfred Hermann Schmid zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. by Klaus Aringer und Ann-Kathrin Zimmermann, Schneider, Tutzing 2010, pp. 111–140: 112. 51 A second Missa St. Ruperti by Luigi Gatti is stored in the Dommusikarchiv (A-Sd), A 629. 14 Musickalien, so er ihm ehevor versprochen hat nun ablaugnet, und sich entschuldigt, dass er sie nicht mehr findet. Nun weis ich nicht was ich denken muß, hat er vielleicht die compositionen meines Bruders schon wo anders hin verschickt, oder, da er ein Italiener ist, will er vielleicht für das herleihen ein present haben, oder was er für eine Absicht hat begreife ich nicht, da diejenigen Werke so mein Bruder in Salzburg für dem Fürstl: Hof gemacht hat, kann ich Ihnen nicht verschafen, wenn sie der Capelmeister nicht hergeben will, da sie nur bey hof Copirter, und bei meines Bruders Wittwe in der Spart zu finden sind, […].»52

In Salzburg it was commonly accepted, that chapel-masters, vice chapel masters and, in some cases, other musicians53, had some of the music materials at home. That’s why was able to bequeath several masses of his son’s, which had been copied for the court chapel, to the monastery of Heilig Kreuz in Augsburg.54 This fact, on the other hand, was one of the reasons for an inventory being ordered by the, then, Austrian authorities55 immediately after Luigi Gatti’s death at the beginning of March 1817.

This inventory was conducted by Gatti’s successor in the cathedral Matthias Schitra (ca. 1750-1824)56, together with court cellist Joseph Joachim Fuetsch (1766–1852)57—who may have well been one of Gatti’s best friends in Salzburg—and two members of the Cathedral , Joseph Pohl (ca. 1759–after 1817)58 and Alois Fuchs59. All the musical materials registered in the Catalogus Musicalis were found, and many more. However, one mass was

52 «My friend in Salzburg writes me to my greatest annoyance that the chapel master now denies the Serentata il Sogno di Scipione and the opera il Re pastore, in short all the music supplies he had promised him before, and he excuses himself that he cannot find them any more. Now I don’t know what to think, has he perhaps sent my brother’s compositions somewhere else already, or, since he is Italien, does he want a present for lending or whatever else his intentions I do not comprehend, because I cannot supply you with the works my brother made in Salzburg for the court if the Kapellmeister does not want to yield them, because copies are only to be found at court, and the scores are with my brother’s widow» [translation by E. Neumayr], BAUER–DEUTSCH, Mozart. th Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, letter 1336, June, 18 , 1801, vol. IV, p. 405f. 53 «Nach dem Tode des Domchoralisten Christoph Kunrad / hat man in Erfahrung ge- / bracht, daß derselbe, als Mu- / sikalien Aufleger, eine Men- / ge Musikalien in Verwahrung / gehabt habe, wovon kein Buch-/ stabe von einer Aufschreibung / vorfindig ist.» [translation by E. Neumayr:] «After the death of cathedral curate Christoph Kunrad it became known that this man, as the one who put the music on the stands, kept a lot of musical material at home, of which not one character has been found written down.» Letter to the Domkustodie, Salzburg, April 29th, 1820, AES, Dommusikverein und Mozarteum, 522. 54 Among those KV 65 (61a), KV 262 (246a), KV 257, KV 258, 275 (272b), KV 337, 427 (417a), KV 140 and other works. Cf. WALTER SENN, Die Mozart-Überlieferung im Stift Heilig Kreuz zu Augsburg in Neues Augsburger Mozartbuch. «Zeitschrift des historischen Vereins für Schwaben», LXII/LXIII, 1962, pp. 333−68; HINTERMAIER, Zwei bisher unbekannte authentische Stimmenabschriften. 55 AES, Dommusikverein und Mozarteum, 522: «Ad et Nr 6681 / Salzburg den 18ten Maerz / 1817 / Die von dem Herrn Konsistorialrath und Dom / Kustos Joseph Naupp zur Aufbewahrung und In- / ventarisation der Dommusikalien und Instrumente getroffene Einleitung, so wie deren einst- / weilige Uebergabe an den Dommusikus Fuetsch / gereicht zur befriedigenden Nachricht. Ueber den Erfolg der Inventur wünscht man nach deren / baldigen Beendigung die weitere Anzeige. […]»; [translated by E. Neumayr:] «The arrangements for storing and inventory of music supplies and instruments of the cathedral made by Konsistorialrath and Domkustos Joseph Naupp, as well as their delivery to cathedral-musician Fuetsch for the time beeing, is sufficient. The authorities want to be kept informed about the success of the inventory». 56 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, pp. 375–6. 57 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, pp. 128–30. 58 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, p. 526. 59 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, p. 522. 15 missed60 and marked missing in both copies of the Catalogus Musicalis. This mass was Luigi Gatti’s Missa Sancti Ruperti of 1782:

Fig. 3: Entry of Gatti’s Missa St:cti Ruperti into the Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Archivium», marked missing by a later hand, p. 71 (photograph by Peter Rohrmoser, courtesy of AES)

However, sheet material of the same Mass has been preserved in the Dommusikarchiv in Salzburg (A-Sd A 677). This material must have been copied by Joachim Fuetsch between 1817 (Gatti’s death) and 1828, because he mentions a Missa solemnis61 by L. Gatti in a detailed invoice. Very probably this mass was the Missa Sancti Ruperti of 1782, because it is the only Missa solemnis by L. Gatti in the Dommusikarchiv copied exclusively by Fuetsch.

60 AES, Dommusikverein und Mozarteum, 522: «Ad N.ro 6681 / Salzburg den 1 April / 1817 / K. K. Hochlöbl. / Finanz-Direction / Die Dom-Musikalien betrf. / Am 27 des vorigen Monathes / ist die Inventur der von dem seligen Kapellmeister Gatti zu / rückgelassenen Dom-Musikalien vorgenommen worden. / Eine einzige Messe [gestrichen: und ein Te Deum Laudamus] wurde vermisst. Dagegen fanden sich an- / dere Stücke, nämlich Offertorien [gestrichen: u. Gradualien] weit mehr vor, als in dem Domkirchlichen Inventar ver- / zeichnet waren. / Die abgängige Messe hat / man sich von den zurückgelassenen eigene[n] Musikalien / des Verstorbenen mit einer anderen ersetzen lassen. / Es hat dieses auf den / hohen Auftrag vom 16 / 28 d. M. / gehorsamst anzuzeigen / die Ehre / Dir k. k. prov. Domkustodie»; [translation of the relevant parts by E. Neumayr:] «On the 27th of last month the inventory of the music supplies of the cathedral left by the deceased chapel master Luigi Gatti was completed. One mass [crossed out: and a Te Deum laudamus] was missed. On the other hand, of other pieces there were found many more than are entered in the inventory of the cathedral, that is to say, offertories [crossed out: and graduals]. The missing mass was replaced by another one from the deceased’s music supplies». 61 J. FUETSCH, Spezifisches Verzeichnis der vom Endes Unterzeichneten für den Dom abgeschriebenen, und noch nicht abgelösten Musikalien. Den Bogen pr. 8xr:, July 9th, 1828, AES, Dommusikverein u. Mozarteum, 522, p. 2 16

Fig. 4: Detail of p. 2 of an invoice62 written by Fuetsch on June 9th, 1828, mentioning a Missa solemnis by Gatti, (Photograph: Eva Neumayr, courtesy of AES)

Thus, it can be safely assumed, the material of the original performance of Gatti’s Missa Sancti Ruperti went to Florence with Ferdinand’s collection (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 184)—in all probability with the approval of Hofkapellmeister Luigi Gatti—while the original cover, with a title in the hand of Luigi Gatti, has remained in Salzburg. Some time between 1817 and 1828, Johann Joachim Fuetsch copied a new sheet material from the autograph score to replace the missing mass for the Dommusik.

62 Spezifisches Verzeichnis,/ der vom Endes Unterzeichneten für den Dom abgeschrie-/ benen, und noch nicht abgelösten Musikalien. Den Bogen pr. 8 Xr:, Archiv der Erzdiözese Salzburg, Dommusikverein und Mozarteum, 522. 17 All in all, there are copies of more than 60 works of Salzburg provenance in Florence (I-Fc) that have not survived in the Dommusikarchiv (A-Sd). In addition to that, there are at least 34 musical sources in Florence whose correspondent materials in Salzburg were copied by Fuetsch after 1817 and, thus, could have been taken from the Dommusikarchiv before that. Did Ferdinand of Tuscany use the Dommusikarchiv to complete his collection?

Only four of these works are mentioned in one of the old inventories of the Dommusik, namely F.P.Ch. 197/2 (L. Gatti, Litanie de B: V: Maria in Eb, in both inventories p. 67/2, entries by Estlinger,), F.P.Ch. 208/3 (L. Gatti, Offertory «Surrexit pastor bonus» for Tenor in Bb, mentioned in both inventories by the Copyists of Salzburg 245 and 14063) and F.P.Ch. 214/2 (L. Gatti, Offertory «Nimis honorati sunt», mentioned in both inventories by Copyists of Salzburg 245 and 14064). The introit «Domine ne longe facias» (I-Fc F.P.Ch 126/6), which has been wrongly attributed to Johann Ernst Eberlin (1702-1762) in Florence (I-Fc)65, is mentioned in the Catalogus, copy «Gatti», without an attribution to a composer, by Joachim Fuetsch, but there is no source material in Salzburg any more.

Three parts of a Magnificat by Gatti, entered into the Catalogus Musicalis as No. XIV (copy «Gatti», p. 66/4, copy «Archivium» p. 64/4), written by Felix Hofstätter on paper with the watermark «VA [beneath canopy; countermark: 3 crescents], survived in the Dommusikarchiv’s holdings (A-Sd A 1586) anonymously and could be attributed to Luigi Gatti, when the greater part of the material was found in the holdings of the Fondo Pitti in Florence (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 201/2, Hofstätter, on paper with the same watermark).

Of Luigi Gatti’s five offertories documented as missing in the Dommusikarchiv by entries in the Catalogus Musicalis66, both the above mentioned «Ascendit/Surrexit Pastor» from the hand of Copyist of Salzburg 132 (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 208/3) and «Nimis honorati sunt» from the hand of Gatti and Copyist of Salzburg 20 (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 214/4) could be located in the collection Fondo Pitti. Three more, namely, «Hodie beata virgo», «Reges tharsis» and «In

63 Copy «Archivium» p. 69/8 (Copyist of Salzburg 245), copy «Gatti» p. 73/8 (Copyist of Salzburg 140). 64 Copy «Archivium» p. 69/4 (Copyist of Salzburg 245), copy «Gatti» p. 73/4 (Copyist of Salzburg 140; crossed out later). 65 The composer is Peter Guetfreund. The motet is found in his MELOS / divinarum laudum in duas / partes distributum […] of 1635, Wb. VIII/61, cf. ERNST HINTERMAIER, Die Musikhandschriften und Musikdrucke in Chorbuch-Notierung, in Katalog des liturgischen Buch- und Musikalienbestandes am Dom zu Salzburg, ed. by Gerhard Croll, Ernst Hintermaier, Gerhard Walterskirchen, Pustet, Salzburg 1992 (Veröffentlichungen zur Salzburger Musikgeschichte, 3, also: Schriftenreihe des Salzburger Konsistorialarchivs, 1), part 2 [separate pagination] p. 104. 66 «Hodie beata virgo», Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Gatti», p. 71/5; «Reges tharsis», copy «Gatti», p. 71/9; «In conspectu Angelorum», copy «Gatti», p. 72/5; an offertory entered without text [«Nimis honorati sunt»], p. 73/4; «Ascendit» or «Surrexit Pastor», p. 73/8. 18 conspectu Angelorum» have the same text as the works entered in the Catalogus Musicalis, however, they are different compositions. A «Gloria et Credo einer Mess in C-Dur» by Michael Haydn stored in Florence (I-Fc F.P.Ch. 320/2) might be coherent with entries by J. R. Estlinger into the Catalogus Musicalis, copy «Archivium» p. 79/5 and copy «Gatti» p. 85/5.

The above evidence leads to the following conclusions:

1) Apart from Gatti’s Missa Sancti Ruperti of 1782 only few other materials from the Dommusikarchiv were transferred into the collection of Ferdinand III. These may also include Michael Haydn’s Missa Admontis (F.P.Ch. 301) by the hands of Copyist of Salzburg 67, Gatti and Hofstätter, and Luigi Gatti’s Litanie de B.V.M. in D (F.P.Ch. 190) in the hands of Gatti, Hofstätter, and the Copyists of Salzburg 24, 321 and 140. 2) In most cases the copies for Ferdinand do not seem to have been made from the manuscripts of the Dommusikarchiv.67

Nobody else than Hofkapellmeister Luigi Gatti himself could have authorized the transfer of material from the Dommusik to Ferdinand’s collection, and he may have given his consent in several cases. In what seems like a defense of his deceased friend, Joachim Fuetsch wrote in April 1822:

«Wenn es einem Vice Capell Meister68 oder etwa gahr einem Meißner69 erlaubt war, eine veraltete Messe vom Fux zu verschenken, so ist es gewiss unter Erzpischöflicher Regierung einem wirklichen Capel-Meister weniger zu verargen, alte, abgelebte Stücke mit neueren zu vertauschen […] Übrigens wird man doch gewiß keinen Abgang, sondern nur Umtausch finden, ausser in Hinsicht einzelner Stimmen, welche zu ersetzen sich jederzeit, wenn es nöthig seyn soll, bereithwillig erbiettet Untertänig gehorsamster Joachim Fuetsch Hof- und Dom Violonzellist.»70

After he had taken over the direction of the Dommusik from Mathias Schitra in 1824, Joachim Fuetsch worked assiduously to restore what was necessary to supply orchestra, choir and soloists of the cathedral with good music. In addition to providing individual parts for numerous works, he copied about 20 works by Luigi Gatti and almost 40 works by Michael

67 The copyists seem to have gone directly to the composers to gain access to their autograph scores. After all, Michael Haydn and Luigi Gatti were still alive at the time. After Michael Haydn’s death in 1806, his widow still had the autograph scores for some time. 68 Very probably, Leopold Mozart, who had bequeathed a large amount of music authored by his son out of the archive of the chapel to the abbey of Heiligenkreuz in Augsburg. 69 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, p. 263–73; Joseph Nikolaus Meissner (ca 1725–1795), Johann Ernst Eberlin’s composition pupil and son in law, was a famous singer of the period. 70 [translation by E. Neumayr:] «If it is allowed for a vice-chapel-master or even a Meißner to give away an obsolete mass by Fux, who will not understand that a real chapel-master wanted to exchange old, obsolete pieces with newer ones, […] Incidentally, one won’t find any reduction but only exchange, except for individual parts, which the most humble and obedient Joachim Fuetsch, court and cathedral violoncellist, is willing to restore any time should it be deemed necessary»; J. FUETSCH, Bericht über das Verzeichnis des Herrn Schittra, der abgängigen Dom-Musikalien, Actum 22. April 1822, AES, Dommusikverein und Mozarteum 522. 19 Haydn. As for Gatti’s works, it is quite clear how he was able to copy, for example, the Missa Sancti Ruperti, although the original source material had been transferred to Ferdinand’s collection: Gatti’s personal musical estate, which consisted mainly of his autograph scores but also of a few other materials, was kept in a closet in Joachim Fuetsch’s apartment71, probably, until the legal heirs were able to sell the collection to the collector Giuseppe Greggiati. The transfer to Greggiati did not take place until 183172 and the collection may well have been in Salzburg until the late 1820’s, giving Fuetsch enough time to make copies.73

However, from where was he able to copy so many of Johann Michael Haydn’s works, when by April 30st, 1807, Haydn’s widow had only two scores left? We know this fact, once again, from Maria Anna von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg’s correspondence with Breitkopf & Härtel:

«Sie müssen sich die Schuld selbst beymessen, daß Sie von Haidns Messen nichts als das Requem und die letzte Meß für die Kaisserin erhalten können, da Md: Haidn alles schon verkauft hat, ich aber gewis von Ihr alles für einen billigen Preiß bekommen hätte, wenn Sie mir Ihre Aüsserung längst geschrieben hätten, da Md: Haidn nur diese zwey einzige Stücke nur noch hat, so verlangt sie ausser der Copiaturs kösten ein douseur von 8 ducaten, […]»74

When Michael Haydn’s sister in law Maria Judith Brunetti (neè Lipp) died in 1800, Luigi Gatti took over a collection of Michael Haydn’s graduals, masses and other works and several masses by Mozart75, which Maria Judith Brunetti had inherited a few months earlier from

71«Wirklich befinden sich bereits sammentliche Domkirchliche Musikalien in dem Quartier des seligen in einem eigenen [gestrichen:] Kasten wozu nur der allgemein als rechtschaffen bekannte Hofmusikus Hof u. Dommusikus Joachim Fuetsch den Schlissel hat sehr gut ver [Ende der Streichung, korrigiert in:] der gewöhnlichen Wohnung ganz abgesonderten Zimmer unter der strengsten und getreuesten Aufsicht des allgemein als [eingefügt:] ordentlich u. [Ende der Einfügung] rechtschaffen bekannten Hof u. Dommusikus Joachim Fuetsch in der besten Verwahrung. […] Hofmusikus Fuetsch ist […] erbiethig, […] die Musikalien [eingefügt:] samt dem Forte Piano [Ende der Einfügung] bis auf weiteres in seinem Quartier aufzubehalten, u. [eingefügt] an gewissen Festtagen die [gestrichen:sonderliche] Herausgabe der erforderlichen Stücke zu besorgen. [Ende der Einfügung] Da sich über sammentliche Dommusikalien ein eigener Katalog bey der Domkustodie befindet, so wird man nächstens eine Inventur veranstalten, worauf sodann das gefällige Anerbiethen des Hofmusikus Fuetsch um so unbedenklicher angenommen werden kann, als es demselben weder an Treue noch an Sachverstand gebricht». [translation of the relevant parts by E. Neumayr:] «Virtually all the music supplies of the cathedral are already stored safely in the appartment of the deceased Kapellmeister in a special closet, for which only court- and cathedral musician Joachim Fuetsch, who is known as righteous and honest, has the key. Court-musician Fuetsch is prepared to keep the musical supplies as well as the piano in his apartment for the time beeing, and to hand out the appropriate music on the various feasts. Because there is a catalogue at the Domkustodie about all music of the cathedral, an inventory will be conducted soon. Thus court- musician Fuetsch’s generous offer can be accepted all the more, because he lacks neither loyality nor expert knowledge.«, AES, Dommusikverein u. Mozarteum, 522. 72 For this information we thank Alessandro Lattanzi. 73 Greggiati’s collection, and with it, Gatti’s musical estate, is now in the Biblioteca Musicale «Giuseppe Greggiati» in Ostiglia (Italy). 74 BAUER – UEUTSCH, Mozart. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, Bd. IV, S. 448. [translation by E. Neumayr:] «It is your own fault that now, of all of Haydn’s masses, you can get only the Requiem and the last mass for the empress, because Madam Haidn has sold everything already. I could have surely gotten a good price, if you had written your order earlier, but since Madam Haidn has only two pieces left, she wants the costs of copying plus a present of 8 ducats». 75 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, p. 53. 20 court-timpanist Franz Xaver Holl.76 Was this collection large enough to provide Fuetsch with almost 40 new works for the Dommusik, or did he use other resources?77

In any case, at the beginning of the 19th century the interest in music from Salzburg, especially in the sacred works of Johann Michael Haydn and Luigi Gatti, began to grow. Ferdinand III of Tuscany brought music from Salzburg first to Würzburg and then to Florence and, therefore, is significant for the dissemination of Michael Haydn’s and Luigi Gatti’s works to Germany and Italy. He was also one of the first collectors interested in this music on a large scale, however, there were others to follow78. With him, the century of collectors and collections, as the 19th century turned out to be, had begun in Salzburg.

76 HINTERMAIER, Die Salzburger Hofkapelle, p. 487. 77 The music library of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter’s, Salzburg, for example, had and has an abundant collection of Michael Haydn’s compositions. 78 Count Nikolaus II Ersterhazy (1765–1833), Don Nicola Udina-Algarotti (1791–1838), P. Sigismund Keller OSB (1803–1882), to name the most important collectors interested in music from Salzburg in the 19th century.

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