A Glossary of Terminology

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -SUPPLY 1899-K A Glossary of Karst Terminolog)'

Compiled by WATSON H. MONROE



A contribution to the International Hydrological Decade


ROGERS C. B. MORTON, Secretary


V. E. McKelvey, Director

Library of Congress catalog-card No. 75-607530

First printing 1970 Second printing 1972 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATE."


Compiled by WATSON H. MONROB

ABSTRACT This glossary includes most terms used in describing karst geomorpho'ogic features and processes. The terms are primarily those used in the literature of English-speaking countries, but a few of the more common terms in Fronch, German, and Spanish are included, with references to the corresponding Enrlish terms where they are available. The glossary also includes simple definitions of the more common rocks and found in karst terrain, common terms of hydrology, and a number of the descriptive terms used by speleologists. The glossary does not include definitions of most biospeleological terms, geologic structure terms, varieties of that require microscopic techniques for identification, or names describing and techniques of exploration. INTRODUCTION This glossary of karst terminology has been compiled mainly from published definitions and suggestions made by the following investi­ gators in karst : Keuben Frank and Joseph N. Jen- nings, ; Marjorie M. Sweeting, ; Paul Fenelon, ; Paul W. Williams, ; David Wozab, , TTest Indies; Victor R. Baker, Eugene Borax, Eeginald P. Briggs, William E. Davies, John J. Fisher, L. A. Heindl, Harry LeGrand, C. L. McGuinness, George W. Moore, James P. Quinlan, Zane Spiegel, and V. T. Stringfield, United States. The terms are primarily those used in the literature of EngMsh- speaking countries, but a few of the more common terms in French, German, Spanish, and are included, with references to the corresponding English terms. The existing glossaries of , , and listed in the references have been para­ phrased or quoted freely. Authorship has not been cited because the origin of most terms has not been determined. Although the glossary was originally intended to include only definitions of karst geomorphologic features, it was soon found desir­ able to include definitions of the more common rocks and minerals found in karst terrain, common terms of hydrology, and a number of the descriptive terms used by speleologists; most biospeleological Kl CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES terms have been omitted. Also omitted are definitions of geologic structure terms, which are defined in most dictionaries; varieties of carbonate rocks that require microscopic techniques for identification; and names describing tools and techniques of cave exploration, GLOSSARY

anentolite. A in vhich the eccen­ tricity is ascribed to the action of air abime. (French.) 1. Abyss. 2. Wide, deep currents. shaft, in , the walls of which . A cave formation composed are vertical or overhanging. of feathery or radiating- masses of long abris sous roche. (French.) See rock needlelike of gj-psum or arago- shelter. nite, which radiate ortward from a active cave. 1. Cave containing a running common . See also cave flower. . 2. Cave in which apron. A smooth bulging mass of flow- are growing. (Less common and less stone covering sloping projections from desirable usage.) Compare live cave. walls of or limestone cliffs. aeolianite. See eolian . . A ground-water . Pervi­ aeration, zone of. See zone of aeration. ous rock that is completely saturated aggressive water. Water having the abil­ and will yield water to a or ity to dissolve rocks. In the context of . limestone and , this term refers . A composed of especially to water containing dissolved carbonate, CaCOa, like but dif­ dioxide (carbonic ) or, fering in form. rarely, other . arete and pinnacle karat. A landscape of aguada. (Spanish for watering place.) In naked reticulated saw-topped Yucatan, shallow generally having almost vertical slopes and a covering several hectares used for relief of as much as 120 meters. The water supply. ridges rise above forest-covered corri­ air pocket. An enclosed air space between dors and depressions. Found in New the water surface and the roof of a Guinea at elevations o* 2,000 meters cave. and more. aisle. An elongated high narrow traversa- aven. 1. (French.) A vertical or highly ble passage in a cave. See also crawl, inclined shaft in limestone, extending crawl way; corridor; passage. upward from a cave passage, generally alternative. Adjective used to designate to the surface; smaller than an abtme. an intake or resurgence operating only Commonly related to enlarged vertical during rainy seasons; in some areas joints. Compare ; natural well; reversible; equivalent to intermittent . 2. (British.) A vertical exten­ Used also as a noun. sion from a shaft in a passage or cham­ alveolization. (From the word ber roof that tapers upward rather like "alveolatus," meaning hollowed out.) a very elongate cone. Compare dome Pitting of a rock surface produced by pit. loaded with , by water B charged with , or by plant roots. backflooding. Temporarily rising water anastomosis. A network of tubular pas­ level in a cave caused I* downstream sages or holes in a cave or in a - passage being too small to pass an ab­ sculptured rock. A complex of many normally high . The excava­ irregular and repeatedly connected pas­ tion and reexcavation of some caves is sages. Synonym, labryrinth. ascribed to the enlargement of a pas- A GLOSSARY OP KARST TERMINOLOGY K3

sage at or near the water by blowing cave. A cave out of which or gravity flow alternating with periods into which a of air f aws inter­ of calcite precipitation. mittently. bacon. Thin, elongated, translucent flow- blowing welL A well into T7hich and stone having parallel colored bands on from which air blows with noticeable or projecting from roofs and walls of force owing to changes in barometric some caves. See also blanket; curtain; or tidal action on the under­ drapery. lying aquifer. balcony. Any projection on the wall of a . 1. (Jamaica.) A m^jor emer­ cave large enough to support one or gence where water rises from below more persons. without great turbulence. See also bare karst. See naked karst. boiling spring. 2. (Bahamas.) A base level, karst. See karst base level. drowned solution . . A friable to indurated rock bogaz. (Slavic.) A long narrow chasm consisting of sand grains of various enlarged by solution of the limestone. minerals cemented by calcium carbon­ See also corridor; struga; rinjon. ate; occurs in thin beds dipping ­ ward at less than 15°. Also known as boiling spring. (Jamaica.) A Irrge turbu­ standstone. lent spring. See also . . A layer in sedimentary rocks; a bone-. Cave breccia including . much bone. bedding plane. A plane that separates botryoid. A grapelike deposit of calcium two strata of differing characteristics. carbonate generally found on walls of caves. Synonyms, clusterite; grape bedding-plane cave. A passage formed formation. along a bedding plane, especially when there is a difference in susceptibility to . (British.) Intermittent stream corrosion in the two beds. in a normally dry in bicarbonate. A salt containing the radi­ country. cal HCOs'1, such as Ca(HCOs) 2. . Network of thin blades of cal­ . The study of subterranean cite or etched out ii relief on living organisms, particularly in caves the limestone walls and ceiling of a in limestone regions. cave. . In a cave, a thin sharp projection branchwork. A dendritic system of sub­ jutting out from roof, wall, or floor, of terranean watercourses having many which it is an integral part; generally incoming branches and no risible out­ the remains of a partition or . going ones. blanket. A thick layer of dripstone, not breakdown. See cave breakdown. translucent, see also bacon; curtain; bridge. In a cave, a residual rock span drapery. across a passage. See also natural blind valley. A valley that ends suddenly bridge at the point where its stream disap­ buried karst. Karst topography buried pears underground; some blind valleys by younger . See also cov­ have no present-day . See also ered karst; paleokarst. half-blind valley; marginal . C . 1. A hole on near the . (French.) 1. or small . through which air and water are 2. A valley excavated in limestone or forced by incoming waves. 2. (Austra­ formed by collapse of the roof of a cave lia. ) A small hole in the surface of the and subsequently submerged by a rise Nullarbor through which air in . blows in and out with observable force, calc-. Prefix meaning limy; containing sometimes audibly. . K4 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES calcarenite. Limestone or dolomite com­ sloping wall projection and forming a posed of or shell sand or of grains fringe of shawls or on the derived from the disintegration and outer edge. of older . Size of . 1. A steep-walletf chasm, gorge, particles ranges from 1/16 to 2 mil­ or cut by running: water. 2. A limeters. chasm that has been formed by a cave . Containing calcium carbon­ stream. 3. A valley forned by collapse ate. of the roof of a long fairly straight calcareous . See sinter. cave; a karst valley. . Replacement of the original capillary . Hollow stalagmite hard parts of an animal or plant by formed by saturated karst water calcium carbonate. pushed up through capillaries and small calcilutite. Clastic limestone or dolomite cracks in a sinter crus"; covering per­ in which the grains have an average meable fluvial deposits on the floor of diameter of less than 1/16 millimeter; a cave; first reported from Cuba, where calcareous . such are composed of aragonite. calcirudite. A fragmental limestone in which the particles are generally larger carbonate. 1. A salt or es*er of carbonic than 2 millimeters. acid; a compound containing the radi­ cal COs"2, such as calcrum carbonate, calcite. A mineral composed of calcium CaCOs. 2. A rock consisting mainly of carbonate, CaCOs, like aragonite but carbonate minerals, suc*> as limestone differing in crystal form; the principal or dolomite. constituent of limestone. causse. (French.) A limestone in calcite bubble. A hollow sphere formed the southeastern part of the central by the of calcite around a massif of France chrracterized by gas bubble; the interior is smooth, and closed depressions, caves, and avens; the exterior consists of small jagged a number of such plrteaus in and crystals. around the basin of t^e calcite flottante. (French.) See floe cal­ constitute Les Grandes Gausses. This cite. region was considered by CvijiC to ex­ calcrete. (South .) See . emplify karst development intermediate caliche. 1. ( and .) A natural between holokarst and merokarst. deposit of nitrates and other salts cave. 1. A natural underground room or precipitated at the surface. 2. series of rooms and passages large ( and Southwestern United enough to be entered b7 a man; gen­ States.) Indurated calcium carbonate erally formed by solutio^ of limestone. and other salts found in the soil at the 2. A similar artificial opening. surface in arid and semiarid regions, cave blister. A small pimpMike cave for­ generally formed by of mation, roughly oval in shape, gener­ -bearing drawn to the sur­ ally loose, and having a core of . face by capillary action. 3. In some cave breakdown. 1. Enlargement of parts areas, refers to resulting from of a cave system by fall of rock masses concentration of carbonate in the soil from walls and ceiling. 2. Heaps of rock by downward leaching and reprecipta- that have collapsed froir the walls and tion. See also kankar, kunkar. ceiling of a cave, generally called cave canalc. (Italian.) Long drowned valley breccia. on the Dalmatian . Some canali cave breccia. Angular fragments of rock may be drowned . forming a fill in a cave, either cemented canopy. A compound cave formation con­ together by dripstone or in a of sisting of hanging from a cave . Sec also solution breccia. A GLOSSARY OF KAKST TERMINOLOGY K5 cave coral. A rough, knobby growth of cal- 2. The caves in a given area related to cite resembling coral in shape, gen­ each other hydrologically, whether erally small; found on floor, walls, or continuous or discontinuous from a sin­ ceiling of a cave. Synonym, coral for­ gle opening. See also cave grrnp, cave mation. See also knobstone. series. cave earth, cave fill. Insoluble deposits of caver. One who explores caves as a sport. , , sand, or flooring or fill­ Synonyms, potholer; spelunker. ing a cave pa.ssage. In a more restricted cavern. A cave, often used poetically or to sense, cave earth includes only the finer connote larger-than-average size. fractions: clay, silt, and fine sand cavernous. Containing numerous1 cavities deposits. or caverns. cave flower. An elongate curved deposit . The sport of exploring caves. of gypsum or on a cave wall Synonyms, potholing; spelurking. 2. in which growth occurs at the attached A method of in whicl the ore end. Synonyms, gypsum flower; oulo- is allowed to cave or fall. pholite. ceiling block. Roughly cubical - cave formation. Secondary mineral de­ bounded large block, which h^s fallen posit formed by the accumulation, drip­ from the ceiling of a cave. See also cave ping, or flowing of water in a cave. See breakdown; ceiling slab. also . ceiling cavity. Solutional concav'ty in the cave . A number of caves or cave ceiling of a cave. The orientat'on is de­ systems, not interconnected but ­ termined by joints or a bedding plane. graphically associated in some relief ceiling . Sinuous channel devel­ or particular geological out­ oped in the ceiling of a cave, presuma­ crop. See also cave series. bly during the phreatic phase of cave cave . Accumulations of dung in development. caves, generally from ; in some ceiling . A winding upside-down places partially mineralized. channel in a cave ceiling. cave . Ice formed in a cave by natural ceiling pocket. See pocket. freezing of water. Loosely but incor­ ceiling slab, roof slab. A thin bnt exten­ rectly applied to calcium carbonate sive piece of rock that has fallen from dripstone and flowstone. the ceiling of a cave in roughly hori­ cave-in. The collapse of the ceiling or side zontal limestone. See also cave break­ walls of a cave or of the land surface down ; ceiling block. into a subterranean passage as a result ceiling tube. A half tube remaining in the of undermining or of pressure from ceiling of a cave. above. cenote. (Spanish, after Mayan tzouet or cave . Banded deposit of calcite or dzonot.) Steep-walled natural well that aragonite capable of taking a high extends below the water tabl?; gener­ polish. See also flowstone; ally caused by collapse of a cave roof. marble. Term used only for features in Yucatan. cave onyx. See onyx marble. See also natural well. cave . Small of calcite or chalk. Soft poorly indurated limestone, aragonite formed by concentric precipi­ generally light in color; commonly com­ tation around a nucleus. Synonyms, posed of the tests of floating microor­ pisolite, pisolith. ganisms in a matrix of veT finely cave series. A group of caves of similar crystalline calcite. morphology in a particular district. chamber. 1. (America.) The largest order See also cave group. of cavity in a cave or cave system; it cave spring. A spring rising in a cave. has considerable length and breadth cave system. 1. An underground network but not necessarily great lieight. 2. of passages, chambers, or other cavities. (England.) A room in a cave. K6 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES chasm. 1. A deep, fairly narrow breach in limestone or dolomite that has formed the earth's surface; an abyss; a gorge; as the result of the collapse of the roof a deep canyon. 2. A deep, wide, of a cave, of an underlying cave, or of elongated gap in the floor of a cave. an overhanging ledge. See also solution . Light-cream or gray to black rock breccia. composed of silica, found occurring as collapse sink. A closed depression formed nodules or layers in limestone, or as a by the collapse of tie roof of a cave. replacement of limestone. See also doline. chimney. A narrow vertical shaft in the column. A flowstone formation, generally roof of a cave, generally smaller than .cylindrical, formed l^ the union of a an aven; a dome pit. and stair ^rnite. See also chockstone. A rock wedged between the pillar. walls of a cave passage. conduit. A subterranean stream course choke. Rock debris or cave fill completely filled completely with water and always blocking a passage. under hydrostatic pressure. See also chute. An inclined channel or trough in a siphon. cave, cone karst. A type of karst topography, clay fill. Dry or wet clay that fills a cave common in the tropicr. characterized by passage. star-shaped depressions at the feet of clay filling. According to Bretz (1942), many steep-sided cor ^-shaped . A variety of Kegelkarst. See also cockpit time interval between end of phreatic karst. solution of a cave and beginning of deposition of flowstone. conical wall niche. See meander niche, clint. (England.) ialabs of limestone, par­ constructive . A large allel to the bedding, forming a pave­ on a surface stream. ment. Widened joints, or grikes, iso­ conuiite. A hollow, cone-shaped speleo- late individual clints. Synonym, them formed when a conical depression Flachkarren. is drilled in cave muc1 by falling water. closed depression. A general term for any Subsequent erosion may remove the enclosed topographic basin having no mud, isolating the calcite lining of the external , regardless of origin depression. or size. corrasion. Mechanical erosion performed clusterite. See botryoid. by such moving agents as water, ice, cockpit. (Jamaica.) 1. Any closed depres­ and wind, espe' ' Jly when armed with sion having steep sides. 2. A star-shaped rock fragments. See also corrosion, depression having a conical or slightly corridor. 1. Relatively narrow passage­ concave floor. The surrounding way permitting travel between two slopes are steep and convex. Cockpits larger areas. 2. A fairljy level and are the common type of closed depres­ straight passage that links two or more sions in a Kegelkarst. rooms or chambers in a cave. 3. Inter­ secting linear depressions on the sur­ cockpit karst. Tropical karst topography face of the land, related to joints or containing many closed depressions surrounded by conical hills. Divided by dikes. See also bogaz; struga; zanjon. French and German geographers into corrosion. Erosion by solution or chemi­ several types depending on shape of cal action. See also corrasion. hills. See also cone karst; Halbkugel- coupole. (French.) C "oola or hemis­ karst; Kegelkarst; Spitzkegelkarst; pheric hill. tower karst. cove. (Southern Appalachians.) Narrow collapse breccia. A mass of rock composed steep-sided karst val>y flanking lime­ of angular to rounded fragments of stone . A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY K7

covered karst. A of karst fea­ D tures, usually subdued, resulting from the development of solution features daylight hole. A hole in the roof of a in limestone covered by soil; contrasted cave, reaching the surface. with naked karst, which is soil free. dead cave. A dry cave in which all so­ See also buried karst. lution and precipitation has ceesed. crawl, crawlway. A cave passage that dead end. See cul-de-sac. must be negotiated on hands and knees. decalcification. Removal of calcium car­ crescentic wall niche. See meander niche, bonate from a rock, leaving a crevice karst. An intricate irregular crev­ of noncalcareous material. ice system that has formed by solution Deckenkarren. (German.) Solutional widening of closely spaced joints. Crev­ pendant features in cave ceilir^s. may be as much as 6 meters across decoration. Cave features due to second­ and 20 meters deep. Especially well ary precipitation of calcite, aragonite, developed near in lowland New gypsum, and other rarer minerals. Guinea. diffuse circulation. Circulation of ground stone. A fragile layer of flowstone water in karst under condi­ covering portions of walls of caves; tions in which all, or almost all, open­ looks like a flaky crust. Found in some ings in the karstified rock intercom­ caves. municate and are full of water in the zone of saturation. cryokarst. European equivalent of ther- dissolution. See solution. mokarst. crystal cave. A cave in which much of dog-tooth crystal, dog-tooth . A the surface of the roof, walls, and floor variety of calcite in the form of sharp- is covered with well-formed mineral pointed crystals. crystals. doline. A basin- or funnel-shaped hollow crystal pool. In caves a pool, generally in limestone, ranging in diameter from having little or no overflow, containing a few meters to a kilometer and in crystals. depth from a few to several hundred cueva. (Spanish.) Cave, especially one meters. Some dolines are gentle grassy that is horizontal or nearly so. hollows; others are rocky -bounded cul-de-sac, dead end. A subterranean pas­ basins. A distinction may be made be­ tween those formed mainly by direct sage having only one entry. solution of the limestone surface zone, cupola. A hemispheric hill of limestone. solution dolines, and those formed by (French.) Cupole. (German.) Halb- collapse over a cave, collapse dolines, kugel. but it is generally not possible to estab­ current marking. Shallow asymmetrical lish the origin of individual eramples. hollows, caused by turbulent waterfiow, Closed depressions receiving >a stream that are distributed in rather regular are known as swallow holes or stream over limestone surfaces. See sinks. In America most dolinesr are re­ also scallop. ferred to as sinks or curtain. A wavy or folded sheet of flow- doline . A small karst lake occupy­ stone hanging from the roof or pro­ ing a doline. jecting from the wall of a cave; often dolomite. 1. A mineral composed of translucent and resonant. See also calcium carbonate, bacon; blanket; drapery, CaMg(CO»)*. 2. Rock chiefly composed cutter. 1. (.) Solution crevice of the mineral dolomite. Also called in limestone underlying residual phos­ dolostone. phate deposits. 2. A Karren-like groove . The process whereby formed beneath the soil, more com­ limestone becomes dolomite by the sub­ monly referred to as subsoil Karren. stitution of for See also Karren. part of the original calcium carbonate.

489-369 O - 72 - 2 K8 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES dome pit. "Mammoth Cave possesses sev­ cave. See outflow cave. eral extraordinary vertical cavities of emergence. Point at which an under­ which the arched tops are called domes ground stream comes to the surface. and the deep bottoms are called pfts. See also exsurgence; resurgence; rise. The combined names, dome pits, is here eolian calcarenite. A terrestrial lime­ used for them." (Davis, 1930, p. 600.) stone formed by the by car­ drapery. A thin sheet of dripstone, equiv­ bonates of calcareous coastal alent to curtain. See also bacon; sand. Often shortened to . Syn­ blanket. onym, dune-limestone. Compare beach- driphole. 1. Hole in rock or clay pro­ rock. duced by fast-dripping water. 2. Hol­ epiphreas, epiphreatic zone. The zone in low space surrounded by precipitated a cave system, immediately above the material, such as the bottom of a phreatic zone, affected morphologically stalactite. and hydrologically br too large dripstone. Calcium carbonate deposited for the cave to absort at once. from water dripping from the ceiling estavelle. (French.) An intermittent re­ or wall of a cave or from the overhang­ surgence or exsurgeroe, active only in ing edge of a ; commonly wet seasons. May ac*: alternatively as refers to the rock in stalactites, stalag­ a swallow hole and as a rising accord­ mites, and other similar speleothems; ing to ground-water conditions. in some places composed of aragonite etched pothole. See solution . or gypsum. See also flowstone. evorsion. Mechanical erosion by whirl­ dry cave. A cave without a running ing water that may carry sand and stream. See also dead cave. gravel; pothole erosion. dry valley. A valley that lacks a surface exhumed karst. Karst features reexposed water channel; common in the chalk of by erosion from beneath former cover­ southern England. ing strata. duck-under. 1. A place where water exsurgence. Point at which an under­ reaches the cave roof for a short dis­ ground stream reaches the surface if tance and can be passed by quick sub­ stream has no knovn surface head­ mergence without swimming. 2. In cave waters. See also emergence; resur­ , a longer stretch of passage gence. where the water is so close to the roof F that crawling or swimming beneath the water surface is needed to pass. facet. See scallop. dune limestone. (Australia.) see eolian cave. A cave developed along a fault calcarenite. or fault zone. Durchgangshohle. (German.) See fissure cave. A narrow vertical cave or through cave. cave passage along a fissure. Fissures E widen out to become or shaft caves. ebb and flow spring, ebbing and flowing flattener. A cave passage, which though well. A spring or flowing well exhibit­ wide, is so low that movement is only ing periodic variation in volume of possible in a prone position. See also flow; the periodicity, which is often crawl. irregular, is attributed to siphonic floe calcite. Very thin film of pure cal­ action. cium carbonate floating on the surface eccentric. Adjective or noun implying ab­ of a subterranean pool of very calm normal shape in speleothems, such as water. . floor pocket. See pocket. A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY K9 flowstone. Deposits of calcium carbonate, glade. 1. (Jamaica.) An elongate depres­ gypsum, and other mineral matter sion, having steep sides, in v^hich a which have accumulated on the walls generally floor is divided into small or floors of caves at places where water basins separated by low divides. 2. trickles or flows over the rock. See also (Tennessee.) hav­ dripstone. ing extensive growth of cedar trees. fluorescein. A reddish-yellow crystalline globularite. Small crystals of calcite compound that imparts a brilliant tipped with spheres composed of radiat­ green fluorescent color to water in very ing fibers. dilute ; used to label under­ gour. See rimstone barrage, r'nistone ground water for identification of an barrier, rimstone dam. emergence. grape formation. See botryoid. flute. See scallop. grike, gryke. (England.) A vertical or fluviokarst. A predominantly karst land­ subvertical fissure in a limestone pave­ scape in which there is much evidence ment developed by solution along of past or present fluvial activity. a joint. Synonym. (German.) . (Italian.) 1. A deep wide vertical Kluftkarren. cavity or the swallow point of a river at . 1. A small cave, natural or arti­ the beginning of its underground course. ficial. 2. A room, in a cave system, of 2. A natural vertical shaft in soluble moderate dimensions but richly rock, tending toward cylindrical shape; decorated. it may or may not reach the surface. A ground air. See soil air. dome pit. ground water. 1. The part of the sub­ formation. 1. The fundamental unit in that is in the zone of rock-stratigraphio classification, con­ saturation. See also phreas, phreatic sisting of a distinctive mappable body water. 2. Used loosely by some to refer of rock. 2. See cave formation; speleo- to any water beneath the surface. them. gryke. See grike. karst. See paleokarst. guano. See cave guano. free-surface stream. In a cave, a stream . Steep-walled closed depression hav­ that does not completely fill its passage. ing a flat alluviated bottom; in some fresco. A half-section of a stalactite on gulfs a stream flows across the bottom. the wall of a cave. gushing spring. See vauclusian spring. fungling. (Chinese.) Isolated limestone gypsum. A mineral composed of hydrous hill in , probably similar , CaSO^H-O. to mogote. ?ypsum flower. See cave flower. G H gallery. A rather large, nearly horizontal passage in a cave. Halbhbhle. (German.) See rock shelter. . Hollow globular bodies varying in Halbkugelkarst. (German.) Tropical size from a few centimeters to several karst topography containing dome- decimeters, coated on the interior with shaped residual hills surrounding de­ crystals. pressions, a kind of Kegelkarst. Also geological organ. A group of solution called Kugelkarst pipes best seen in the walls of . half-blind valley. Blind valley in which cave. Cave in ice formed within the stream overflows in floodtirae when or at the base of a glacier. the swallow hole can not accept all the glaciokarst. A glaciated limestone region water. possessing both glacial and karst half tube. Trace of a tube remaining in characteristics. the roof or wall of a cave. See also tube. K10 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES

hall. In a cave, a lofty chamber which is inflow cave, influent cave. Cave into much longer than it is wide. See also which a stream flews or formerly gallery. entered. hanging blade. A blade projecting down intake area, recharge area. The surface from the ceiling. See also blade. area in which water is absorbed into hardness. Property of water that prevents an aquifer eventually to reach the zone lathering because of the presence of of saturation. cations, mainly calcium and magne­ inverted siphon. See wa*.er trap. sium, which form insoluble soaps. haystack hill. (.) In the tropics, rounded of lime­ jama. 1. (Slavic.) Verbal or steeply in­ stone developed as a result of solution. clined shaft in limestone, known as Term being replaced by mogote. abime or aven in France and as pothole helictite. A curved or angular twiglike in England. 2. Any crve. lateral projection of calcium carbonate joint-plane cave. A cavity high in relation having a tiny central , found in to width developed along steeply dip­ caves. Synonym, eccentric stalactite. ping joint planes. heligmite. An eccentric growing upward from a cave floor or from a shelf in a cave. A curved or angular thin stalag­ mite. Kamenitza. (German, possibly of Slavic holokarst. Cvijitf's term for a karst area origin; plural, Kamer'ce.) See solution like that of the Dinaric Karst of pan. . Such areas have bare sur­ kankar, kunkar. (Australia.) See caliche. faces on thick deposits of limestone Karren (German) Channels or furrows, that extend below sea level, well- caused by solution on massive developed Karren, dolines, uvalas, bare limestone surfaces; they vary poljes, deep , and extensive cave in depth from, a few millimeters systems; they have little or no surface to more than a meter and are drainage. Contrast merokarst. separated by ridges. In modern usage, hoya, hoyo. (Spanish.) A very large the terms are general, describing the closed depression. Used in Puerto Rico total complex of superficial solution for doline, in Cuba for polje. forms found on compact pure limestone. hum. Karst . Residual hill of Classified by B6gli (1960) into several limestone on a fairly level floor, such kinds, of which the most common are: as the isolated hills of limestone in Rillenkarren, shallow channels sepa­ poljes. In some tropical areas, used rated by sharp ? 2-3 centimeters loosely as synonym for mogote. apart; Rinnenkarren, flat-bottomed . The ability of a several centimeters apart; rock unit to conduct water under Kluftkarren, joints enlarged by solu­ specified conditions. tion; Spitzkarren, large deep grooves extending down frorr steep spires or pinnacles; MSanderkarren, small wind­ ing or meandering channels; Rund- . 1. A cave, generally in or karren, Karren having rounded chan­ limestone, in which the average tem­ nels and intervening rounded ridges, perature is below 0°C., and which probably reexhumed after formation ordinarily contains perennial ice. Ice under soil or ; FTachkarren, equiv­ may have the form of stalactites, sta­ alent to English clint; Bodenkarren, lagmites, or flowstone. 2. See glacier Karren formed beneath the soil. Syno­ cave. nym, lapie's. A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY Kll

Karrenfeld. (German.) An area of lime­ karst river. A river that originates from stone dominated by Karren. a . karst. (Internationally used term, origi­ karst spring. A spring emerging from nally the German form of the Slavic karstified limestone. See also emer­ word kras or krs", meaning a bleak gence; exsurgence; resurgent; rise. waterless place; it is the German name karst topography. Topography dominated for a district east of having by features of solutional origin. such terrain.) A terrain, generally karst valley. 1. Elongate solution valley. underlain by limestone, in which the 2. Valley produced by collapse of a topography is chiefly formed by the dis­ cavern roof. solving of rock, and which is commonly characterized by Karren, closed depres­ karst window. 1. Depression revealing a sions, subterranean drainage, and part of a flowing caves. See also buried karst; cone across its floor, or an unroofed part of karst; covered karst; exhumed karst; a cave. 2. A small natural l~idge or Halbkugelkarst; holokarst; Kegel- which can be seen through. karst; merokarst; microkarst; naked karstic. Occasionally used as the adjec­ karst; paleokarst; pseudokarst; Spitz- tive form of karst. kegelkarst; subjacent karst; synge- karstification. Action by water, mainly netic karst; thermokarst; tower karst. chemical but also mechanical, that pro­ karst barre. (French.) A karst of limited duces features of a karst toroeraphy, area completely surrounded by rocks of including such surface features as low permeability. dolines, Karren, and mogotes and such karst base level. Level below which subsurface features as caves and karstiflcation does not take place. shafts. karst breccia. See also collapse breccia; karstland. A region characterized by solution breccia. karst topography. karst bridge. A natural bridge or arch in Karstrandebene. (German.) S*e karst limestone. margin plain. karst . Marshes developed in sinkhole katavothron. (Greek.) A closed depres­ terrain; swampy solution fens. sion or swallow hole. karst fenster. See karst window. Kegelkarst. (German.) A general term karst hydrology. The drainage phenom­ used to describe several types of tropi­ ena of karstified limestones, dolomites, cal humid karst characterized by and other slowly soluble rocks. numerous, closely spaced con«-, hemi­ karst lake. A large area of standing water spherical-, or tower-shaped hills having in extensive closed depression in intervening closed depressions and nar­ limestone. row steep-walled karst valleys or pas­ karst margin plain. A plain generally on sageways. See also cockpit ka^st; cone limestone between higher country of karst; Halbkugelkarst; tower karst. limestone on one side and of less per­ keyhole. A small passage or opening in a vious rocks on the other, but having a cave; in cross section, rounded at the cover of impervious detritus, which top, constricted in the middle, and rec­ allows surface drainage. Synonym, tangular or flared out below. Karstrandebene. knobstone. Speleothem, larger, more pro­ karst plain. A plain on which closed de­ nounced, and more widely separated pressions, subterranean drainage, and than cave coral. other karst features may be developed. kras, krs. A Slavic word meaning bleak, Also called . waterless place, from which the term karst . Closed depression in a karst karst is derived. See also karst. area containing standing water. Kugelkarst. See Halbkugelkarst. K12 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES

marginal polje. Flat limestone plain which is surrounded by higher country labyrinth. See network. but is bordered on one side by im­ lake. As used in speleology, a body of pervious rock. Compare blind valley. standing water too deep to walk across. . Unconsolidated lapies. (French; sometimes spelled consisting largely of calcium carbonate lapiaz.) See Karren. and clay; usage varies from calcareous . A cave in a lava flow, generally clay to earthy limestone, and in some formed by gas blistering the surface parts of the United States, the term or by lava flowing out from beneath a has been used for any unconsolidated solidified crust, forming a tube or tun­ sedimentary rock containing fossil nel. See also pseudo karst. shells. level. 1. Within a cave, a group of pas­ cave. See network. sages developed in the same horizontal meander. In a cave, an arcuate curve in plane. 2. The altitudinal relation of a a channel formed by Irteral shifting of cave floor to an outside surface. a cave stream. See ceiling meander; light hole. (Jamaica.) Fossil or aban­ meander niche. doned swallow hole. meander niche. A coni'»al or crescent- lime. , CaO; used loosely shaped opening in the wall of a cave, and incorrectly in referring to lime­ formed by the downward and lateral stone. erosion of a stream o^ the floor of a lime sink. See sinkhole. passage. limestone. A sedimentary rock consisting merokarst. Defined by C-ijic" to indicate chiefly of calcium carbonate, CaCOs. imperfect karst topogrr phy as found on limestone pavement. A bare plane surface thin, impure, or chalky limestone where of limestone, parallel to the bedding, surface drainage and dry valleys are commonly divided into blocks (clints, present in addition to s ome karstic fea­ Flaehkarren) by solutionally widened tures. Contrast perfectly formed holo- joints (grikes, Kluf tkarren), and pitted karst. by solution pans. Mexican onyx. See onyy marble. limestone sink. See sinkhole. microkarst. Karst topography in which live cave. Cave in which there is river all surficial features ar? small; an area action or active deposition of speleo- dominated by minor krrst features. thems. Compare active cave. minor karst features. See Karren; ; localized circulation. Circulation in karst solution pan. aquifers in which the water moves in Mischungskorrosion. (Grerman.) Dissolv­ certain preferred zones and does not ing of limestone by water derived from occupy all or most of the openings the mixing of two saturated waters that below this level. differ in partial pres­ . In a karst region, a surface sure. Such a mixture is undersaturated stream that enters an underground because a nonlinear re^tion exists be­ course. tween calcite and the partial lycopodium spores. Spores of lycopoaium pressure of carbon cUoxide. (Bogli, claratum, which can be used in natural 1964) or dyed color as a label in studying mogote. A steep-sided hill of limestone, ground-water movement in karst areas. generally surrounded by nearly flat al- M luviated ; karst inselberg. Orig­ inally used in Cuba in referring to marble. 1. Limestone recrystallized and residual hills of folded limestone in the hardened by heat and pressure. 2. Sierra de los Organos but now used Commercially, any limestone that will internationally for kar^t residual hills take a high polish. in the Tropics. A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY K13 . A calcareous cave deposit composed of calcite, , or paleokarst. A karstified rock or area that . From Swiss dialect moon- has been buried by later sediments; in milch, elf's milk. Corrupt spelling some places, ancient caves lave been mondmilch is common. completely filled by the later sediments. mud stalagmite. Stalagmite composed palette. In a cave, a more or less flat principally of clay or sandy clay and protruding sheet of crystalline calcium commonly less than 30 percent calcium carbonate spared during solution of the carbonate. rock on each side of it. See also blade; N . naked karst, bare karst. Karst topog­ panhole. See solution pan. raphy having much exposed . park. (.) Shallow broad solution . A rock arch or very short depression. natural ; contrasted with natu­ partition. 1. A nearly vertical residual ral bridge, which spans a ravine or rock mass in a cave. 2. A continuous valley. rock span across a cave. natural bridge. A rock bridge spanning a passage. In a cave, the opening between ravine and not yet eroded away. rooms or chambers. natural tunnel. A nearly horizontal cave pendant, rock pendant. One of a group open at both ends, generally fairly of isolated similarly proportioned proj­ straight in direction and fairly uni­ ections surrounded by a complex of form in cross section. connected cavities in the bedrock ceil­ natural well. (Jamaica.) A vertical shaft ing of a cave. in limestone, open to the surface and pepino hill. (Puerto Rico.) 1. Rounded having water at the bottom; similar to or conical-shaped hill resulting from a cenote. tropical humid karst action. Term generally replaced in Puerto Rico by nested sinkholes. (American.) See . mogote. 2. Elongate hill or ridge network. A complex pattern of repeatedly capped by mogotes. connected passages in a cave system. permeability. The ability of a rock or soil Synonym, labyrinth. to permit water or other fluids to pass nip. An undercutting notch in rock, par­ through it. See also hydraulic con­ ticularly limestone, along a seacoast ductivity. between high and low levels, pro­ phreas, phreatic water. (From the Greek duced by erosion or solution. word meaning well.) Water in the zone of saturation; water below the water O table. phreatic surface. See water table. ojo, ojo de agua. (Spanish.) An artesian phreatic zone. The region below, the spring in limestone regions, especially water table, in which rock is satu­ one forming a small pond; a vauclusian rated with water. spring. piezometric surface. The imaginary sur­ onyx marble. Translucent layers of cal­ face to which water from a given aqui­ cium carbonate from cave deposits, fer will rise under its full static head. often called Mexican onyx or cave Also called potentiometric surface. onyx; used as an ornamental stone. pillar. 1. A column of rock remaining Opferkessel. See solution pan. after solution of the surrounding rock. oulopholite. See cave flower. See also rock pillar. 2. A stalactite- outflow cave. Cave from which stream stalagmite that reaches from roof to flows out or formerly did so. Synonym, floor in >a cave; more properly termed effluent cave. a column. 3. A tall thin stalagmite that ouvala. (French.) See uvala. does not reach the roof of a cave. K14 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES pipe. Small cylindrical hole in uncon- porthole. A nearly circular natural open­ solidated sediments, caused by removal ing in a thin rock wall in a cave. See of fine material by water. also window. piping. Formation of a passage by water pothole. 1. A small rounded hole worn into under pressure in the form of conduits rock in a streambed, at a waterfall, or through permeable materials when the near sea level by sand, gravel, and hydraulic head exceeds a certain criti­ stones being spun around by force of cal value. the currents; a naturr 1 mill. 2. Term pisolite, pisolith. See . used in England for vertical or steeply pit. A deep hole, generally circular in inclined shaft in limestone. See also outline, having vertical or nearly verti­ pit; shaft. cal walls. See also pothole (definition potholer. (British.) /Seec'ver. 2) ; shaft. potholing. 1. The process of scouring holes piton. (French.) Limestone hill having in rock in stream beis or near the sharply pointed peak. strand line by rapid rotation of trapped pitted plain. Plain having numerous or cobbles; evorsion. 2. (Brit­ small closely spaced closed depressions. ish. ) See caving. pocket. Solution cavity in ceiling, floor, or walls of a cave, shaped like the in­ pozo. (Spanish.) See simr terior of a round-bottomed ; un­ pseudokarst. Karstlike terrain produced related to joints or bedding. by a process other than the dissolving polje. (Slavic word for field.) In areas of of rock, such as the rourh surface above karst topography, a very large closed a lava field, where the ceilings of lava depression, in some places several kilo­ tubes have collapsed Features of meters long and wide, having a flat pseudokarst include la^a , lava floor either of bare limestone or covered tubes, lava stalactites, and lava by , and surrounded by gen­ stalagmites. erally steep walla of limestone. B Synonym, interior valley. Randpolje. An enclosed p'ain at the edge polygonal karst. A karst area where the of a karst area receiving surface water surface is completely pitted with closed from the nonkarstic area. The water depressions, the divides of which form drains out through underground pas­ a crudely polygonal network. Especially sages in the karst are-*. The plain is common in humid tropical cone-karst thus completely enclosed by higher terrain, but also found in well-formed ground. Compare blin<* valley; karst temperate doline-karst terrain. margin plain. . (Slavic.) Hole in the bottom or side of a closed depression through recharge area. See intake area. which water passes to or from an un­ residual clay. Clay or san^y clay remain­ derground channel. Compare swallet, ing on a rock surface after removal of swallow hole. calcium carbonate by solution. Compare pool deposit. Crystalline material de­ terra rossa. posited in an isolated pool in a cave. resurgence. Point at wl Ich an under­ pore deposit. Mineral matter deposited ground stream reaches the surface and on the interior of a cave from water becomes a surface stream. In European entering the cave so slowly through literature, the term is reserved for the pores and cracks that it does not form reemergence of a strean that has ear­ drops. lier sunk upstream; tl » term exsur- . The ratio of the vol­ gence is applied to a stream without ume of interstices in a rock or soil to its known surface headwaters. total volume; generally stated as a rice paddy. In a cave, a terraced rimstone percentage. pool. A GLOSSARY OF KABST TERMINOLOGY K15 . A long narrow high cave passage controlled by joints or faults. rill. Small solution groove on surface ex­ sand pipe. See solution pipe. posures of limestone; most common sand stalagmite. A stalagmite formed on in arid or semiarid areas. sand and made of calcite cemented Rillenstein. (German.) Microsolution . grooves and pitting on rock surface. saturation, zone of. See zone of satura­ rimstone. Calcareous deposits formed tion. around the rims of overflowing basins, scaling chip. A thin small rather irregular especially in caves. piece of limestone, commonly crumbly, rimstone barrage, rimstone barrier, rim- which has fallen from the ceiling or stone dam. A wall-shaped deposit that wall of a cave. A form of cove break­ impounds pools of water in caves, down. around springs, and in cascades of scaling plate. A small flat pie?e of rock streams saturated with calcium bicar­ of rectangular or polygonal shape, that bonate. Synonym, gour. has fallen to the floor of a cave. A form rimstone pool. Pool kept in place by a of cave breakdown in thin-lMded im­ rimstone dam. pure limestone cut by closely spaced rise. (Jamaica.) Spring rising from frac­ joints. tures in limestone. Point at which an scallop. Oval hollow having an asymmet­ underground stream comes to the ric cross section along its main axis. surface. Scallops form patterns on tt i walls of rising. See emergence; exsurgence; re­ caves and in streambeds and were used surgence. by Bretz to determine direct'on of flow rock fall. See cave breakdown. of turbulent water, since they are rock pendant. See pendant. steeper on the upstream pide. Com­ rock pillar. A residual isolated mass of monly called flutes in America. bedrock linking the roof or overhang­ scar. (.) f^eep rock ing wall and floor of a cave, in contrast cliff in limestone country. with a column, which is composed of . A cave or cleft in a sea cliff dripstone or flowstone. See column; eroded by waves or currerts or dis­ pillar. solved by water. Compare ni> rock pinnacle. A tall sharp projection of shaft. 1. A cylindrical tube generally bedrock rising from the floor of a cave. steep sided, that forms by solution and rock shelter. Shallow cave under an over­ (or) collapse. 2. A vertical passage in hanging rock ledge. Many sea caves are a cave. See afoopit; pothole (definition rock shelters. Also found in limestone 2). and other rock types where streams shake, shakehole. (England; sometimes have undercut their banks at bends, or spelled shackhole.) 1. T^rm used where there has been by blow­ mainly by cavers to indicate a doline, ing sand. Common in tropical areas at especially one formed by sul Mdence. 2. places where a secondarily hardened Hole formed by solution, , layer of limestone forms a ledge that and in loose drift or allu­ projects over unindurated limestone. vium overlying beds of limestone. roof crust. Flowstone deposited on ceil­ shawl. Simple triangular-shap?d curtain. ings of caves from thin films of water, sheet. A thin coating of calc'um carbo­ which have crept over the rock from nate formed on walls, shelves, benches, pore or crack sources. and terraces by trickling water. roof slab. See ceiling slab. shield. A disk-shaped speleothem stand­ room. A part of a cave system that is ing edgewise at a high angle. wider than a passage. Synonym (Eng­ sima. (Spanish.) Natural we11 that has land.), chamber. vertical sides. K16 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES sink, sinkhole. (American.) General solution pipe. A vertical cylindrical hole terms for closed depressions. They may attributable to solution, often without be basin, funnel, or cylindrical shaped. surface expression, filled with debris, See also closed depression; doline; such as sand, clay, rock chips, and swallet, swallow hole. bones. Synonym, sand pipe. See also sinkhole plain. (American.) Plain on geologic organ. which most of the local relief is due to solution scarp. formed by closed depressions and nearly all more active solution of lower area or drainage is subterranean. by corrosional undercutting of the base sinkhole pond. (American.) Small lake in of the escarpment. closed depression in limestone, due to solution subsidence. Any subsidence due an impervious clay floor or to inter­ to solution of underlying rock but par­ section of depression with the water ticularly the subsidence of parts of a table. formation into hollows or pockets of an immediately underlying soluble sinking creek. A small stream that dis­ formation. appears underground. See also lost sotano. (Spanish for cellar or .) river; swallet, swallow hole. Term used in Mexico for deep vertical sinter. A mineral precipitate deposited shafts in limestone, which may or may by a , either hot or cold. not to a cave. Siliceous sinter, consisting of silica, is spelean. Of, pertaining to, or related to also called and ; cal­ caves. careous sinter, consisting of calcium speleogen. A secondary cave structure carbonate, is also called tufa, traver­ formed by dissolving, s ich as a dome tine, and onyx marble. pit or a scallop. siphon. In speleology, a cave passage in speleologist. A engaged in the which the ceiling dips below a water study and exploration of caves, their surface. See also water trap. environment, and their biota. pit. A hollow in the clay fill of a speleology. The scientific study, explora­ cave floor caused by erosion beneath tion, and description of caves and re­ the fill. lated features. soil air. The air that fills soil and rock speleothem. A secondary nineral deposit interstices above the zone of saturation. formed in caves, such as stalactite or solution. 1. The change of matter from stalagmite. Synonym, cave formation. a or gaseous state to a liquid spelunker. See caver. state by combination with a liquid. 2. spelunking. See caving. The result of such change; a liquid Spitzkegelkarst. (Germrn.) Tropical combination of a liquid and a non- karst topography contrining sharply liquid substance. pointed residual limestone hills. splash cup. The shallow concavity in the solution breccia. A mass of rock com­ top of a stalagmite. posed of angular to rounded fragments spongework. A complex o^ irregular in­ of rock that have accumulated by solu­ terconnecting cavities with intricate tion of surrounding or underlying car­ perforation of the rock. The cavities bonate. See also collapse breccia. may be large or small. solution lake. A lake whose origin is spring. Any natural discharge of water attributed largely to solution of under­ from rock or soil onto the surface of lying rock. the land or into a body of surface solution pan. Shallow solution basin water. formed on bare limestone, generally squeeze. A narrow passage or opening characterized by flat bottom and over­ just passable with effort. Differs from hanging sides. Synonyms, Kamenitza ; flattener in that there is little spare Opferkessel; panhole; tinajita. space in any direction. A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY K17 stagmalite. A general term including sta­ sumidero. (Spanish.) 1. A swallow hole. lactite and stalagmite. Superseded by 2. In Latin America, any closed de­ dripstone. pression caused by solution. stalactite. A cylindrical or conical de­ . 1. A water trap. 2. A poo1 of under­ posit of minerals, generally calcite, ground water or point on an under­ formed by dripping water, hanging ground stream that has a submerged from the roof of a cave, generally hav­ extension, the of whi°h has not ing a hollow tube at its center. From been determined. Greek word meaning exude drops. suspended water. See vadose vater. stalagmite. A deposit of calcium carbon­ swallet, swallow hole. (England.) A place ate rising from the floor of a limestone where water disappears underground cave, formed by precipitation from a in a limestone region. A swallow hole bicarbonate solution through loss of generally implies water loss in a closed CO2. The water drops on the stalagmite depression or blind valley, whereas a from above. From Greek word meaning swallet may refer to water loss into drip. See also dripstone. alluvium at a streambed, even though stalagmite, capillary. See capillary sta« there is no depression. See also ponor; lagmite. sink, sinkhole; stream sink. steephead. A deeply cut valley, generally syngenetic karst. Karst developed in short, terminating at its upslope end eolian calcarenite where of in an amphitheater, at the foot of dune and productior of karst which a stream may emerge. phenomena occurred simultaneously. straw stalactite. Thin tubular stalactite, generally less than a centimeter in diameter and of very great length (ex­ amples as long as 4 meters) ; also called terra rossa. Reddish-brown soil mantling . limestone bedrock; may be residual in stream sink. Point at which a surface some places. stream sinks into the ground. See also terraced flowstone. Shallow rimstone ponor; swallet, swallow hole. pools on outward-sloping walls. See also streamtube. A cave passage completely rimstone barrage, rimstone barrier, filled, or formerly filled, with fast-mov­ rimstone dam; constructive waterfall. ing water and whose ceiling and walls thermokarst. A pitted periglacial or normally possess scallops. former perigiacial svrface in super­ struga. (Slavic.) A corridor formed along ficial deposits, produced by settling or a bedding plane in karst country. caving of the ground after melting of subjacent karst. Karst landscape in non- ground ice. Synonym, cryokarst. carbonate rocks due to presence of thermokarst pit. Steep-walled depression karstified rocks beneath the surface formed by thermokarst processes. formation. threshold. That part of a cave system to submarine spring. Large offshore emerg­ which light penetrates in so^ne degree. ence, generally from cavernous lime­ through cave. Cave through which a stone, but in some areas from beds of stream runs from entrance to exit or lava. formerly did so. Synonym, (German.) subsidence. Lowering of the surface of Durchgangshohle. the ground because of removal of sup­ tidewell. See ebb and flow spring, ebbing port. Caused in karst areas by sub­ and flowing well. terranean solution or collapse of caves. tinajita. (Spanish.) See solution pan. subterranean river. Underground stream torca. (Spanish.) Large closed depres­ of flowing water, not necessarily large. sion, more or less circular; a doline. K18 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES

torricellian chamber. A submerged air- tufa. See sinter; . filled chamber of a cave at a pressure tunnel. See natural tunn«l. below atmospheric pressure, sealed by turlough. (Ireland.) A depression in water, having an air-water surface limestone or in glacial drift over lime­ above that of adjacent free air-water stone that is liable to either from surfaces. excess or from rising tourelle. (French.) A little tower; ap­ ground water. From tv«i Irish words plied to small flat-topped of tuar loch, meaning drj- lake. limestone in karst areas. Contrasted Turmkarst. (German.) See tower karst. with pitons, which have pointed tops, and with coupoles, which have rounded U tops. tower karst, Turmkarst. Karst topog­ underground river. See subterranean raphy characterized by isolated lime­ river. stone hills separated by areas of allu­ upside-down channel. See ceiling channel. vium or other detrital sand; towers are uvala. Large closed depression formed by generally steep-sided forest-covered the coalesence of severrl dolines; com­ hills, and many have flat tops. pound doline. See also canyon; karst tracers. Materials, such as chemicals, valley; valley sink. dyes, radioactive salts, and light in­ soluble introduced into under­ ground waters to determine points of vadose water. Water ir the zone of egress of the water and its velocity. aeration; water abov^ the zone of trap* See siphon; water trap. saturation. travertine. Calcium carbonate, CaCO», light in color and generally concretion­ valley sink. (American.) An elongated ary and compact, deposited from solu­ closed depression or series of inter­ tion in ground and surface waters. connecting depressions forming a val- Extremely porous or cellular varieties leylike depression. Compare karst are known as calcareous tufa, cal­ valley; uvala. careous sinter, or spring deposit. Com­ vauclusian spring. A larp> spring or ex- pact banded varieties, capable of taking surgence of an underground river, gen­ a polish, are called onyx marble or cave erally from limestone, that varies onyx. greatly in output and is impenetrable troglobite. An animal living permanently except with diving aprmratus. Syno­ underground in the dark zone of caves nym, gushing spring. and only accidentally leaving it. . A small cavity in rock usually lined troglodyte. A cavedweller. with crystals. Adjective, vuggy. See troglophile. An animal habitually enter­ also geode. ing the dark zone of a cave but neces­ W sarily spending part of its existence outside such as some species of bats. wall block. A roughly cubical joint-con­ troglophobe. An animal or person unable trolled large block of limestone or dolo­ physically or psychologically to enter mite, which has rotatec1 outward from the dark zone of a cave or other under­ a cave wall. See also crve breakdown; ground area. wall slab. trogloxene. An animal entering a cave wall pocket. See pocket. for various reasons but not living there wall slab. A thin but larg<> block of rock, permanently. which has fallen outward from the tube. A smooth-surfaced cave passage of wall of a cave in limestone in which the elliptical or nearly circular cross dip is nearly vertical. See also cave section. breakdown. A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY K19 wang. Malayan name for polje. Z water table. The upper boundary of an zanjon. (Spanish.) In Puerto Pico, solu­ unconfined zone of saturation, along tion in limestone. Zanjones which the hydrostatic pressure is equal range from a few centimeters to about to the atmospheric pressure. 3 meters in width and from rbout 1 to water trap. A place where the roof of a 4 meters in depth. Apparently they chamber or passage of a cave dips form by the widening and deepening of under water but lifts again farther on. joints by solution. See also bc

Caves, erosional and solutional features anastomosis hanging blade blade keyhole boxwork palette canyon partition cave-in pendant ceiling cavity pillar ceiling channel pocket ceiling meander porthole ceiling pocket rock pendant ceiling tube rock pillar collapse breccia rock pinnacle conical wall niche scallop crescentic wall niche current marking Deckenkarren speleogen dome pit spongework driphole tabe facet upside-down channel floor pocket wall pocket flute well half tube window Caves, kinds abime Halbhohle abris sous roche ice cave active cave jama aven joint-plane cave bedding-plane cave labyrinth blowing cave lava cave cave live cava cave group maze.cave cave series natural tunnel cave system network crystal cave rock shelter cueva sea cave dead cave shaft dry cave sima Durchgangshohle sotano fault cave through cave fissure cave tunnel Zwischenhb'hle K22 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES Caves, parts air pocket flattener aisle foiba aven gallery branchwork grotto bridge hall cavern lake cavernous level chamber light hole chasm meander chimney meander niche chute passage corridor rift crawl, crawlway room cul-de-sac shaft daylight hole siphon dead end squeeze dome pit streamtube duck-under threshold Chemical, mineral, and rock terms aeolianite eolian calcarenite aggressive water floe calcite aragonite fluorescein beachrock geode bicarbonate globularite calc- guano calcarenite gypsum calcareous hardness calcareous tufa kankar, kunkar calcilutite karst breccia calcirudite lime calcite limestone calcite flottante marble calcrete marl caliche Mexican onyx carbonate moonmilk cave guano onyx marble cave ice residual clay cave marble rimstone cave onyx sinter chalk solution breccia chert terra rossa collapse breccia tracers dog-tooth crystal, dog-tooth spar travertine dolomite tufa dune limestone vug A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY K23

Hydrotoffic terms aeration, zone of permeability aggressive water phreas, phreatic water alternative phreatic surface aquifer phreatic zone blowing well piezometric surface blue hole ponor boiling spring porosity cave ice recharge area cave spring resurgence conduit rise diffuse circulation rising doline lake saturation, zone of ebb and flow spring, ebbing and flow­ sinkhole pond ing well sinking creek effluent cave soil air emergence spring epiphreas, epiphreatic zone stream sink estavelle submarine spring exsurgence subterranean river free-surface stream sump ground air suspended water ground water swallet, swallow hole gushing spring tidewell hydraulic conductivity torricellian chamber inflow cave, influent cave trap intake area underground river inverted siphon karst hydrology vadose water karst river vaudusian spring karst spring water table localized circulation water trap lost river well ojo, ojo de agua zone of aeration outflow cave zone of saturation Karst, depression features aguada doline blind valley dry valley bogaz etched pothole bourne geological organ calanque glade canale gulf canyon half-blind valley cave-in hoya, hoyo cenote Kamenitza closed depression Karrenfeld cockpit karst bridge collapse sink karst fens corridor karst fenster cove karst lake K24 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES karst margin plain Randpolje karst pond rill karst valley Rillenstein karst window rock shelter Karstrandebene shake, shakehole katavothron sima lapie"s sink, sinkhole lime sink sinkhole plain limestone sink sinkhole pond lost river solution lake marginal polje solution pan minor karst features steephead natural arch stream sink natural bridge struga natural tunnel sumidero natural well swallet, swallow hole nested sinkholes thermokarst pit ^ , tinajita Opferkessel ouvala, torca panhole tunnel park turlough pit uvala polje valley sink ponor wang pothole window pozo zanj<5n Karst, httl features constructive waterfall rnogote coupole pepino hill cupola piton fungling scar haystack hill solution scarp hum tourelle

Karst, kinds arSte and pinnacle karst Halbkugelkarst bare karst holokarst buried karst karst causse karst barre" cockpit karst karst plain cone karst karst topography covered karst karstland crevice karst Kegelkarst eryokarst limestone pavement exhumed karst merokarst fluviokarst microkarst fossil karst naked karst glaciokarst paleokarst A GLOSSARY OF KARST TERMINOLOGY K25 pitted plain syngenetic karst polygonal karst thermokarst pseudokarst tower karst Spitzkegelkarst Turmkarst subjacent karst Karst forms, minor bogaz Karren clint lapi£s corridor limestone pavement current marking Opferkessel cutter rill Deckenkarren sand pipe etched pothole scallop facet solution pan flute solution pipe grike tinajita gryke zanjfin Kamenitza

Miscellaneous terms base level, karst kras, krs" bed limestone pavement bedding plane lycopodium spores biospeleology pipe blowhole potholer blowing well potholing calc- sand pipe cave solution pipe cave-in spelean caver speleologist cavernous speleology caving spelunker clay filling fluorescein spelunking formation troglobite Karrenfeld troglodyte karst troglophile karst base level troglophobe karstic trogloxene Processes alveolization evorsion backflooding karstification calcification Mischungskorrosion corrasion piping corrosion potholing decalcification solution dissolution solution subsidence dolomitization subsidence K26 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HYDROLOGY OP THE UNITED STATES SELECTED REFERENCES American Geological Institute, 1957, and related : Washington, Am. GeoL Inst, Natl. Acad. of ScL-NatL Research Council Pub. 501,825 p. 1960, Supplement to the glossary of geology and related sconces: Wash­ ington, Am. Geol. Inst, 72 p. Bogli, Alfred, 1960, Kalklosung und Karrenbildung, in Internationale Beitrage zur Karstmorphologie: Zeitschr. Geomorphologie, Supp. 2, p. 4-21. 1964, Mischungskorrosion, ein Beitrag zum Verkarstungsproblem: Erdkunde, y. 18, no. 2, p. 83-92. Bretz, J Harlan, 1942, Vadose and phreatic features of limestone caverns: Jour. Geology, v. 50, no. 6, p. 675-811. Cullingford, C. H. D., ed., 1953, British caving an introduction to speleology: , Boutledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., 468 p. (2d ed., 1962.) Davis, W. M., 1930, Origin of limestone caverns: GeoL Soc. America Bull., v. 41, p. 475-628. Fenelon, Paul, 1968, Vocabulaire f rangais des phenomenes karstiqr^s: Memoires et Documents, Centre de Rechercb.es et Documentation CartCTaphiques et G6ographiques, Nouvelle S6rie, v. 4, p. 13-68. Muma, M. H., and Muma, EL E., 1944, A glossary of speleology: NatL Speleol. Soc. Bull. no. 6, p. 1-10. Also in Pinney, Roy, 1962. The complete book of cave exploration: New York, Coward-McCann, Inc., p. 207-233. Stamp, L. D., ed., 1961, A glossary of geographical terms: New Yor*:, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 539 p. Trimmel, Hubert, 1965, Spelaologiscb.es Fachworterbuch (Fachw"rterbuch der Karst-und Hb'hlenkunde) : Vienna, Landesverein fiir Hohlenl-uide in Wien und Niederdsterreich, 109 p.