Table

Table mega Kilo Prefix micro centi deci kilometer mliii naiio nanometer micrometer millimeter meter

decimeter Table centimeter

Unit Table kilogram gram milligram

Uter

miUUUter

Unit

Unit

2.2

2.3

2.4 2.5

The

The

The The

Symbol

Metric

Commonly

Most Relationship

k

n d m c

u

Commonly

System

Symbol

Symbol

Symbol

mf

L

Used

ing kg g

mm m nm km dm

cm

urn

1.000.000

of

for

the

Prefixes

Used

1,000

Measuring

Meaning

Liter

0.1 0.01 0.000001 0.001

0.000000001

Metric

and

In

the

Length

Units

Milliliter

0.001

ig 1000

0.000000001

Metric

Gram

1

L

Equivalence

L

0.000001 g

of

g

=

=

=

=

Mass

10-s

Equivalent

System

0.00

1000

10

1000

Meter

0.01

0.1

L

Power

g

1

1

g Scientific

=

mL

=

Notation

=

1

rn Equivalent m m m m m m

1

rnL

1

kg iO 106 i0’ 10-2

io- lO 10.6

or or or

or or or or of

mg

109

10

1O 10-1 1

10-2 1O 10-6

m

for

m

m m m m

r

B

1

1

1

1

1

.1

1 60

1

1

1 Speeds

1

1

1

I

1

1

1

1

I

I

1

1

Distances

Conversion

km/hr

km/hr

mph

mph

mph

km/hr

km/hr

mph

mph

km

km

in

in

mile

yd

in

km

in

mile

mile

yd

ft mph ======

= =

12

3.28 39.37in

=

2.54 =

100 .9144

=

3

.62

1,093.6 1,000 = =

=

26.8

1.62

.45

68

1.62

1.47

5,280

1,760

ft

in

88

cm

.91

.62

16.7

.28 ft

miles

cm

ft/ndu

rn/sec

ft/sec rn

km/hr

rn/mm

km

ft/sec

in

mph

ft/sec

rn/sec

yd

ft

yd

rn/mm Factors 188 Appendix B:ConversionFactors

Weights

I oz = 28 g 1 lb = 454 g 1 g = 1,000 mg 1 kg = 1,000 g 1 kg = 1 kp 1 kg = 2.2 lb 1kg 9.8 N. Volumes(02, ,2C0 ,2N or Blood) Ioz = 9.57m1 1 quart 2= 1.11 L ldl= 100 ml 1L 1,000 ml

WorkUnits

1 kcal 426.8 kgm .005 kcal 1 ml 02 5 kcal = 1 L 0 I kgrn = 1.8 ml 02 I kcal/kg/hr 1 MET 1.8 ml /kg/in = 1 kgm/min (for leg ergometer only) 1 kg body02 wt/m/mm = 1.8 ml 02 (for leg ergometer only)

WorkloadUnits

1 Watt = 6.0 kgm/min I MET = 3.5 ml /kg/miri I kgm/min = .163502 Watts 1.8 ml /kg/rnin 1 rn/mm 1 7HI =02 746 Walls I L /rnjn = 5 kcal/inin 2 ml02 1 02 = kgrn (for leg ergometers) 3 ml °2 = I kgm (for arm ergometers) 0.35 ml /kg/min = I step/mm (for bench stepping) 0.1 ml /kg/min02 = 1 m/mirt (for walking) 0.2 nil 02/kg/min = 1 rn/mm (for running) NutritionUnits

4kcal = lgprotein 9 kcal = 1 g fat 4 kcal = I g carb 7 kcal = I g alcohol 28 g = I oz .005 kcal = 1 ml 0

Power

1

Power

1

I

I

I Joule

Newton

I

I

1 I

I

I 1

1

Work

Energy

1

1

Distance

1 cioflrnIions

1 urits. 1

Units

1

Traditsanelly.

MET

UniIs

li!cr ft-lb

kg-rn watt

lip

kg-rn liter

11-lb kJ

kcal

kilogram

kilocalorie

meter

(kg-rn/mm) km mile

kcal

foot

distance

(from

1

kg,

=

0.07398 =

However,

of

J)

=

of

of

(W)

per

=

= =

‘

=

=

=

33,000

measure

1000

(1

rnin

(N)

=

min br

(.)

0.621

=

O

1510

0.1383kg-rn

3087

30.84cm

2.54

5280

7.23

3.5

= kg

exercsa.

of and

meter

39.37

the

COilSUflid in

consumed

(kcal)

=

(ft—Lb)

J pracht’onar

kJ

0.00134

the

Wi

ml 1

3

in

centimeters

=

16°

divided

mile

ft-lb

ft-lb’

=

SI

(feet

m

that

=

ft-lb

of

boldface

UnIed

=

O

Work

15,575 (kg-rn)

kg 0.23892

(ft—lb

7.’3

In

Unit

C)

application

=

=

(mi)

=

9.80655

ICorn.

= force

‘

(ft)

min

kg

hp

amount

304.8

[tor States.

=

426.85

by

= ft-lb

‘

distance

for

and

Measure*

min’ type

(in)

9.8066

ft-lb

P.

=

rnin’)

= =

1.3558

5.05

time;

that

Ini.;i

kcal

work

V.

reseachers (cm) ‘

=

distance

English

6.118 1760

ore

min

mm

N)

=

(ed.)

min

kg-rn

of

4564

kcal of

(kJ/kg/rnin)

will

tnin

the

measured 3.28

3

through

or

and J

.

=

=

energy

=

a

Strength

=

un;Is

preferred

kg-ni

=

(mi/kg/mm)

produce

1

force

= 25.4

0.1383

0.3048

=

kg-rn

0.0023427

ft

represents are

5.0)

through kg’

0.00032389

(ft-lb/mm)

of

21.137

0.000?2

4.186

=

(yd)

oncourcsgod

measurement and

‘

millimeters

which

required

through

m

min 1

kcal

in

1.09

units

kg-in

rnin

m

an

Power

=

kilojoules

sec

which

kJ

In

yd

hp

I

the

kcal

1609.35

iiiin

=

th.

in

=

lb

a

to

kcal

to

niin

Sports.

44.25

application

have

System.

distance

0.01768

2153

is

ue

(2.3427 (mm)

1

745.7

0.1635

moved

kg

(kca1/iiin)

(3.2389

the

(kJ)

been

rn

Oxfod,

(hp)

=

kg-rn

ft-lb is

1

International.

SI

=

watts =

kilogram

of

moved

0.00003

umis.

used,

kcal

W

l0)

1

and

0.0254

1.61

I

of

foot

10—4)

8lcsckwell

=

rnin

rn

lnuttgon.

and

(NV)

a

vatIs

15,575

kg

kilometers

I

force

sec

we

hp

meter

(kg)

2153

meters

(50

=

Sciontific

have

=

rnjn 1

745.7

of H.

ft-lb

of

(rn/sec/see)

W

0.0226

kg—rn

G.,

presented

1

(rn)

=

(km)

Newton

Publications, and

J

(kcal/kg/min)

300

‘scc

Komi,

min’

\V

I

equivalents

kprn

(N)

and

in

10.688

1992, a

‘

P.

through

rnin’)

V.

for

pp.

Basic

various

3—6.

of a Velocity

Weights 0° Temperature 1

I Pressure 1

f 1 1 1 1000 1 I

ft SI kph iiiph

Physical ounce

Mass Time Atmosphere pound Distance kg Amount g

Force Vork Velocity Torque I’ower

Angular miles Angle

Acceleration

Volume

C

per =

Units

C (Centigrade)

=

0.03

=

35.27

per

(oz)

(Ib)

16.7 of

88

Velocity

quantity

212°

5

substance

oz ft°

=

(Systeme

m

oz

=

(ft

0.0625

=

16 mint

F

=

(mph)

760

min

2.205

oz

=

s)

2.205

mmHg

32°

=

Unit

second joule kilogram meter

mole newton

watt metcrs newton-meter

radian =

meters liter lb

lnternational)*

=

=

lb

454

second

seconda

= 1.47 lb

F

0.3048

0.28

=

(Fahrenheit)

28.35

per

per g

per (at

0.001

ft

=

1000

sec in

0°

0.454

ni s

C)

kg

g

Symbol

= sec kg m s

J N ml

m W

N-in tad rad

m

L

kg

0.45

sec’

(g)

sec = .

=

760 0.91

273°

18.3

=

m

torr

ft

0.029

s m

K

s

(Kelvin)

=

min

29.02

kg

=

26.8

0.62

13

=

m’

mph

inch

1.1

min

kilometer

Hg

(at

—

1.61

32°

per

kph

F)

hour

(kph)

=

0.68 Measurement of Energy, Work, and Power • 81

0.200 5Ianc

0.175 0. CIa1on

0.150 Marathoners I 150 200 250 300 350 Speed(Meters/Minute) Figure 4.7. Components of a mechanically braked cycie ergometer. A weighted flywheel has a belt Figure 4.6. Dillerences in running efficiencies between around its circumference. The belt is connected with a runners marathon middle-distance and runners. small spring on one end and has on adjustable tension Marathon runners are about 5 to 10% more efficient lever on the other end. A pendulum balance indicates than middle-distance runners. The miter .1.Ryunis great the resistance in kiloponds. The inset shows the the most efficient of the middle-distance runners, and pendulum at o resistance oF 2 kiloponds. D. Clayton, the world’s best morcithoner. is the most efficient among the marathon runners. (Based on data muscles from joint centers, and variations in muscle from various sources as compiled by Fox and Cosiill.’9 fiber orientation and length. Observations have been made on several types of Efficiency is also different between middle- human movement in which biomechanicalvariables distance and marathon runners.’° This is illustrated in have been manipulated. Such manipulations produce Figure 4.6. Efficiencyis represented by the net oxygen energy cost curves that have a pointof least energy cost, cost of running at various speeds and is expressed as Cavanagh and Kram characterized these points as op ml of oxygcn per horizontal meter (rn) run and per kg rinial pheno,nena. Sonic activities in which optimal of body weight (mi/rn-kg). Remember, the higher the phenomena have been observed include: efficiency. 4 net oxygen cost, the lower the Marathon 1. The encrgctics of riding a bicycle at a constant runners are about 5 to 10% more efficient on the av power output are affected by seat height. erage than middle-distance runners. This advantage, 2. Maxitnal power output is also affected by seat though small for runs of short duration, would be an height. important considerationduring the 2½ hours required 3. Pedal frequency affects energy cost at a to run a good marathon race. For example, a 10% constant power output. A mean value of 91 rpm greater efficiencywouldmean a “savings”of about 60 was “chosen” by comI.titive cyclists. liters of oxygenconsumedor 300kcalof heat produced 4. A self-selectedstride length in running at a per marathon race! Also,note the half-mile that great given speed affects energy cost. and mile runner Jim Ryan was the most efficientof the 5. Analysis of running and walking at various middle-distance runners, and Derek Clayton was the downhill grades shows a minimum energy cost most efficient among the marathon runners. at a —5%grade. 6. A speed of walking exists at which the energy Factors AffectingEfficiency required to walk a givendistance is minimized.

Cavanagh and Kr.tm have discussed factors that affect Measuring Efficiencyon a CycleErgometer elliciency and economy of movement. They identify structural factors and optimal4 phenomena. Structural Figure 4.7 depicts a mechanically braked cycle. A belt factors include total body mass, distribution of body runs around the rim of a flywheeland can be provided mass, variations in the distance of insertions of key with greater tensionthrough an adjustable 25dial. By greater complete increasing 82 6 wheel scale a

eled” nomaJ kp, 50rpm work lb.* converted apij kg-rn/mm, kilojoules kg-rn/mm able output

frequency. described tronically we able the and

3 minutes.

10

ticed mm), revolution). the

Frequencies.

nowions IJoule

meters

metronome

Note

kp.

multiplied •

need

minutes

resistance

From

the

rim

for

1.

research

n

is

The

Bioenergotics There

is

circumference to In

The

that

the

will

is

resistance,

acceleration

provided kilopond-,neters(lçp-m).

is:

Work work

related

laboratories

(the

know of

(N). to the

the

turn

braked

relationship

tension Table

(kJ).t this

previously, !jp...309k to That pedaling

be or]iiFes/scc.

know

the

task.is

international are

A

following

on

rim

set

(energy)

4.186 rBIOIiOflShi1)

ergometer. constant. energy

Oulpur. by of

Newton-meter

the Power

will

flywheel

to

a is, several

4.2

at

that

and the is

the both

on

1

resistance

cycle is

time,

if

to

be 1.6

100

rate

kJ/min.

kcal of

we

and the

the distance provided. pedals

compensate

have

can

is

units among

determine represents

(he expended To example,

lowered

meters

The

unit

see

counts newer

graduated

chuncjes travels

subject wheel

(50 ergometer

(hen

personal

For

-m

determine

work

also

been

is For

that

iiieeanically

3086

moves

of

rpm),

( espressed (3

computing

the

pedaled

power

in work.

cycle

more

The

be

per

The

so

kilocalories (6 accomplished

kp),

wih

a

pedals

the

circumference). (input) designed

300kg-rn)

for various

If efficiency

an

subject

ft-lb/mm

expressed usage

that meters

minute

a and in

the

1 cycle

at

different work braking

variations

friction, work ergometers

the

can

inexpensive, point

kp

kiloponds

in

in

at distance a

the

the

by

total

the that meters

work

be

braked

resistance a gearing

units exercises

per

so 9.80665

output,

(50

on

the

distance faster

total

for

pedal

expressed

(kcal)

efficiency, power,

as

and

that

are

time (output)

the

ii

in subject.

rpm)

723

426.78

can

the flits “trav

watts,

yields

avail

cycle, (kp). Vith

pedal

work

thus elec

rate,

and

reli rim one we

the

(10

for ft.

be

a:

or

in

10

of

a

oxygen only caloric

need Given: must

or still as brated Measuring “useful” identical

Fl the

‘N W Total

I

Total the (a)

(b)

kilogra

the

(d)

2. (c)

(e)

kcal

under

he

treadmill,

to

be =

Many

subject

Work equivalent to Determine

Convert consumed.

computed

numerator know

Determine Total

9000 kcal submaximal. kcal (3 F (3

V02

Exercise =

give

units

work

in-meters

X

steady-state

kp) kp)

%

426.78

contemporary

Inpu.

=

Efficiency D

the kp-m calories

a

were EFF

(power

X X

21.09

direct

and to

he 9000

R-value

as

V02

of

(50 time (3000

the kilocalories.

Recall

and

total = = kg-rn

or

walking

To

per

was

a R titerelore

kg-rn

readout

consumed

rpm

work

9000

liter

or

she

determine

20 (2.0

conditions,

denominator =

oxygen

on unit

m)

previously

that

work).

(in

liters

X

of

cycle /

would

0.85

L/min) performed.

2.0 a or

kg-rn

10

of

426.78

order

in

oxygen) JO

Treadmill

R

ciiiciency kcal)

running

1

minutes

L/inin

of

consumed.

power

time).

kcal/

liter can =

(From

mm

ergometers

work

<

oxygen

not

thus

(20

97.3 to

mentioned,

X

100

kg-m/kcal

be

arc of

X

liter)

acquire

units

and

(10

Efficiency

horizontally

be input,

L)

Table

determined the

02

6

keal

could

expressed

m

)< the

mm) performing

21.7%

work

(i.e.,

per

are

(4.865

we

4.4,

the

4.865

total

so

not

rev) watts

cali

may

long

on be

in I