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Born: c. 612 bce (Lesbos, ); died c. 580 bce (place of unknown, most Born: also known as Sofokles, c. 496 bce ( [], Greece); died c. 406 bce RE P likely Lesbos). (place of death unknown, most likely Athens) Style and genre: Sixth-century poet from Lesbos called “tenth muse” by ; Style and genre: A bold, compressed, and understated dramatist who often her songs survive in vivid fragments. contrastsed characters, themes, and moods and employed to great effect.

True to her reputation as preeminent poet and lover, Sappho’s In his long life, Sophocles of Athens (496-406 BCE) wrote 123 work intertwines palpable lyrics and erotic charms. Highly plays and competed against both and . regarded throughout antiquity, her poems were collected in Seven extant explore the greatness and suffering of nine volumes for the lost library at . She even had a exceptional humans who possessed almost divine abilities and meter—Sapphic—named after her verse structure, which who must choose between certain disaster or a compromise contained three long lines and a final short one, like a gasp of which would betray the heroic nature separating them from Signature titles desire. Her popularity meant that poem fragments have been mere mortals. Sophoclean dramaturgical skill has been Signature titles found in many philosophers' prose, as well as—more recognized since , who praised its masterful sense of If Not, Winter: Fragments of Sappho, 2002 (date unknown) romantically—on flecks of papyrus discovered in the desert. timing and unparalleled dramatic tension. (date unknown) Sappho’s life is as much of a puzzle as her complete works, When divinely-sent madness causes Ajax to disgrace himself Trachiniae (date unknown) which has not stopped poets, from through Mary at in Ajax, fierce honor and shame permit him (then the the King (date unknown) Robinson to lesbian poet Olga Broumas, writing ardently and mightiest Greek warrior) no other option but suicide. Readers (date unknown) authoritatively about her. The generally accepted biography, a have at least heard of the cursed Oedipus: Oedipus Tyrannus (409 bce) Oedipus at (401 bce) combination of poetic interpretation and ancient gossip, holds dramatizes how the very intelligence that empowers the king that she was an aristocrat who was part of an artistic and drives his excessive and relentless search for truth eventually religious community of women on Lesbos, was exiled to leads to his madness, self-blinding, and . These tragic after a coup, and had a daughter, Cleis. According to legend, dilemmas can be understood in broader political terms as a she committed suicide after rejection by the ferryman Phaon. clash between the values of a past Homeric world, which The nineteenth century presented a sanitized Sappho, privileged the individual, and those of the contemporary world headmistress of a girls’ school; twentieth- of the audience, fifth century Athens, which “Some men say an army of ships century classicists argued that her served the interests of the community and “Sophocles drew men as they beautifully observed poems mourning discouraged extreme behavior. is the most beautiful thing. I say the marriage of beloved female friends Heroic intransigence leads to a dreadful ought to be; Euripides, as they –Fragment 16 were just traditional wedding songs. isolation from even the gods in a world –Aristotle, 1460b35 it is what you love.” Regardless of these cavils, she remains a governed by a mysterious and cruel fate. were.” figurehead for lesbians, because of her Trachiniae shows us will not even save sensual gaze at women, most famously captured in fragment his son, , the model Greek hero, from an agonizing 31, where the poet imagines herself in a love triangle, looking death which strips him both of his flesh and masculinity. Yet longingly at a woman flirting with a man. Whatever their basis in the free and autonomous choice of suffering over the biographical fact, and through two and a half centuries of acceptance of human limitations endows Sophocles’ heroes

ABOVE: A romantic engraving of Sappho— fragmentation and translation, Sappho’s poems send a shiver with power in a world where the past yields no knowledge, the ABOVE: An undated depiction of Sophocles whose true appearance remains unknown. down the spine of any man or woman who has ever loved. SM future no hope, and the present only suffering. DS drawn from contemporary descriptions.

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