Subject knowledge organiser – Why do some creatures no longer exist? Evolution, Adaptation and Inheritance Key vocabulary Adaptation The process of change so that an organism or species can become better suited to their environment. Environment The surroundings or conditions in which a person, , or plant

Evolution The process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth The remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded in rock and preserved

Inherit To gain a quality, characteristic or predisposition genetically from a parent or ancestor

Offspring A person’s child or children/ an animal’s young

Reproduction The production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process

Selective breeding The process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to develop selective characteristics by choosing particular and plants Indirect evidence of in the past such as the , tracks, , borings and waste left behind by animals Body fossil Preserved remains of the body of the actual animal or plant itself

Breeding The mating and production of offspring by animals

Key facts and information –  Mary Anning was not a trained , but taught herself to read and write then read all about anatomy – her parents were too poor to send her to school. It was very unusual for women at this time to become ‘proper’ .  Anning was one of nine children, but only she and her brother, Joseph, survived into adulthood.  A fossil is the remains of a plant or animal that has turned into rock over thousands of . tend to be found in sedimentary rocks such as .  Anning died in 1847 at the age of 47.  Anning was close friends with many important academic scientists such as Charles Lyell and Adam Sedgwick.  Some of Anning’s wealthier friends helped her out financially, sometimes giving her money to live off, so that she could continue her .  In 1878, a fossilised coral was named after Anning: Tricycloseris anningi.  Anning’s father was a carpenter and cabinet-maker, but also had a passion for fossils – Anning most likely became interested in fossils thanks to her father.

Key facts and information – Charles Darwin was an English scientist. He is most well-known for his theory of evolution.

 Charles Darwin’s father was a doctor and he really wanted Charles to study medicine at university. Charles started to train to be a doctor, but he was afraid of the sight of blood, and switched to studying the classics. However, Charles soon realized that his real passion was for geology (the study of the Earth and rocks) and botany (plant biology).  In 1831 Darwin set sail on the HMS Beagle, a naval survey ship. Darwin was there to collect plant and animal specimens from the countries and islands the ship visited.  The voyage took five years. For Charles Darwin, the most important part of the journey was the time spent in the Galapagos Islands. These islands are the home to plants and animals that can’t be found anywhere else in the world. Darwin noticed that each of the different islands was home to a different type of tortoise.  When the Beagle returned to , and Darwin began to study the specimens he had collected in more detail, he realized that the differences in finches of the Galapagos Islands followed a similar pattern to those he had observed in the tortoises. The finches from all of the islands were similar, but from different islands had different beaks.  Darwin started to study other animals and plants, and he began to piece together his theory of natural selection, which explains how populations evolve.  Darwin did not publish his findings straight away because he knew that they would be extremely controversial and upset many people.  On the Origin of Species finally came out in 1859. It was a massive talking point because it challenged the truth of the creation story found in the Bible.  Today, Darwin’s theory of natural selection has been accepted (by most people) as scientific fact, and new fossil discoveries are constantly adding to our knowledge of the different stages of evolution.