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Flowers, Fruits and Seeds and Seedlings

Flowers, Fruits and Seeds and Seedlings

The Story of Flowering : , and and

Matthaei Botanical and Nichols , of Michigan

And now; SEEDS and PARTS for 2nd & 3rd graders !

When flowers are pollinated & fertilized they make seeds.

kidsgrowingstrong.org Flowers have 5 major parts: , , , Pistil, & Stem

May also be called a carpel Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan and Fertilization Make Seeds Pollination: moves from the anthers to the .

Fertilization: Pollen on the stigma, a develops and fertilizes the at the base of the

Seeds: The result of pollination and fertilization. Also called found in the ovary. Flower power! Important to pollination: Attracts the to the flower. Hold the petals and also cover the young developing before the flower blooms. Male part of the flower, composed of anthers and filaments. Pollen Is found on the filament Pistil (also called a carpel) has a stigma, style and ovary. It is the part of a flower. Fruits arise from a ripened ovary. Ovary holds ovules which will become seeds. A fertilized ovary changes into a .

Stems hold the flower upright, carry and hold the developing fruit on the plant.

Flower parts and their roles

See the seeds developing in the flower ovary? http://www.bb.iastate.edu/necgex/Flowers.htm Flowers come in many shapes and sizes, to attract different .

Guess who might pollinate these flowers?

Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan Flowers with flat faces are often pollinated by . The flat petals make a good perch for the while it .

Flowers that are & fragrant at may be pollinated by or moths

Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan Tube shaped flowers are usually pollinated by butterflies, moths or hummingbirds.

Tree flowers may be or pollinated Examples of pollinators and preferred flowers

Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan Flowers may produce different types of fruits & seeds

Simple fruit. A simple fruit . An . A Accessory fruit. An develops from a single aggregate fruit multiple fruit develops accessory fruit contains carpel (or several fused develops from from carpels of many other floral parts (such as carpels) of one flower many separate flowers (examples: the ) in addition (examples: , , carpels of one , mulberry, to ( examples: , ). flower (examples: osage-). ). , , strawberry). Flowers may be pollinated by more than one thing: wind, , or insect. But most pollinators prefer a specific of flower, and most flowers have a best way to be pollinated


Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan Now that we understand pollination of flowers, let’s look at seeds! Remember: First a flower, then a fruit and inside the fruit are seeds!

http://www.botany.org/bsa/misc/mcintosh/mcinto20.html So, what’s a fruit? Fruits have seeds inside. They might be fleshy, like a or dry, like a . They develop from a fertilized flower. The ovary wall swells and creates layers surrounding the . Fruits have a pericarp that surrounds the seed..

Pericarp: ‘Peri-’ means around, the pericarp is made of the endocarp, mesocarp, and exocarp. The pericarp surrounds the seed.

Endocarp: ‘Endo’ means inside. This thin layer surrounds and protects the seed.

Mesocarp: ‘Meso’ means middle. This middle layer, is between the exocarp and the endocarp.

Exocarp: ‘Exo’ means out. This outer layer holds the fruit together. It forms the skin of a grape or peach. Image from MSU extension service http://www.extension.org/pages/55717/exocarp Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan How many different fruits ?

Fruits come in many different forms, and there are many different names for these fruits.

But all fruits come from flowers & all fruits have seeds.

The fruit comes from the ovary wall. The seeds are the fertilized ovules.

Let’s look inside the fruit to find the Seeds! ’S NEW PLANT PACKAGE

Seeds have everything the plant needs to make a new plant. Most seeds have a seed coat, and and a . Seed coats protect the seed. Endosperm stores nutrients. The embryo is the baby plant. The cotyledon is part of the developing seed. When the seed takes on and germinates, the swell, a emerges and a develops. divide plants into monocots or dicots based on number of cotyledons. have one first and one cotyledon. Also called a monocot. have two first and two cotyledons. Also called a dicot.

Corn is an example of a monocot. are an example of a dicot.

Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan Corn-a monocot and Beans-a dicot. Both monocot and dicot seeds have endosperm; stored for the developing plant which is surrounded by the seed coat. Monocots, like corn, have 1 cotyledon, which also stores some energy for the growing plant, and develops a single first leaf within a sheath. Dicots, like beans, have 2 cotyledons for the growing plant and develops 2 first leaves.

In both cases, when the leaves grow above ground they can start . Plants make through photosynthesis.

.unm.edu Let’s go back to monocot and dicot seeds for a quick review.

What is the name of the food storage part of a seed?

What part sprouts from the growing seed first? Root or shoot?

Corn is a monocot, beans are dicots. How many first leaves will a corn have?

How many first leaves will a sprout have?

What part of the flower does the seed come from?

You’re almost a plant expert! Let’s move to other important parts of a plant.

Roots: tap and fibrous roots anchor plants and absorb and water.

Stems: hold the plant upright, and conduct water and nutrients up and down the plant.

Leaves: come in many shapes and sizes and make food for the plant through photosynthesis.

Plants usually have two types of roots

Dandelions are dicots with tap roots. Grasses are monocots with fibrous roots Remember the root radicle part of the at the base of the stem. These do not seed? This grows into more roots. Tap have a single large root, but have many roots grows deep into the to anchor small roots. Fibrous roots spread out to the plant and absorb water. capture water near the surface of the soil. As the seed grows, it develops a shoot. Shoots grow above ground and become stems & . A stem can be hard and woody or soft and herbaceous. Stems hold plant upright to reach the sun. Stems may have buds. Buds may contain baby leaves, some buds contain baby flowers.

This picture shows a plant from root tip to shoot tip. Look for all the parts of the plant. Can you find them all? Some stems grow under or along the ground. These are called and are special underground stems. is a kind of . Leaves are an important plant part. A leaf ’s job is to collect . They can be or . Here are pictures of leaves found in Michigan.

From top to bottom: , , , , cedar, . Some evergreen leaves are flat and broad. These prefer to live in warm , or have waxy coverings to keep them from drying out in the winter. But their main job to capture sunlight.

Rhododendron Banana

Boxwood Bromeliad Now that you now are a plant expert, let’s explore seeds, fruits and twigs up close!

Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum, University of Michigan