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Chapter 7 – Kinetic , energy, I. . II. Work. III. Work - Kinetic energy theorem. IV. Work done by a constant : Gravitational force V. Work done by a variable force. - force. - General: 1D, 3D, Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem VI. VII.  Energy of configuration VIII. Work and potential energy IX. Conservative / Non-conservative X. Determining potential energy values: energy, elastic potential energy Energy: quantity associated with a state (or condition) of one or more objects. I. Kinetic energy 1 Energy associated with the state of of an object. K  mv2 (7.1) 2 Units: 1 = 1J = 1 kgm2/s2 = N m II. Work Energy transferred “to” or “from” an object by means of a force acting on the object. To  +W From  -W

- Constant force: Fx  max v2  v2 v2  v2  2a d  a  0 0 x x 2d 1 1 1 F  ma  m(v2  v2 )  ma d  m(v2  v2 ) x x 2 0 d x 2 0 1 Work done by the force = Energy  m(v2  v2 )  K  K  F d  W  F d 2 0 f i x x transfer due to the force. - To calculate the work done on an object by a force during a , we use only the force component along the object’s displacement. The force component perpendicular to the displacement does zero work. F   cos φ W  Fxd  F cos d  F d (7.3) d

 - Assumptions: 1) F=cte, 2) Object -like.  90  W 180   90  W Units: 1 Joule = 1J = 1 kgm2/s2    90  0 A force does +W when it has a vector component in the same direction as the displacement, and –W when it has a vector component in the opposite direction. W=0 when it has no such vector component.

Net work done by several forces = Sum of works done by individual forces.

Calculation: 1) Wnet= W1+W2+W3+…

2) Fnet  Wnet=Fnet d II. Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

K  K f  Ki  W (7.4)

Change in the kinetic energy of the particle = Net work done on the particle

III. Work done by a constant force

  - Gravitational force: W  F d  mgd cos (7.5)

Rising object: W= mgd cos180º = -mgd  Fg transfers mgd energy from the object’s kinetic energy.

Falling object: W= mgd cos 0º = +mgd  Fg transfers mgd energy to the object’s kinetic energy. - External applied force + Gravitational force:

K  K f  Ki  Wa Wg (7.6)

Object stationary before and after the lift: Wa+Wg=0 The applied force transfers the same amount of energy to the object as the gravitational force transfers from the object.

IV. Work done by a variable force   - Spring force: F  kd (7.7)

Hooke’s law

k = spring constant  measures spring’s stiffness. Units: N/m Hooke’s law

1D  Fx  kx

Work done by a spring force:

- Assumptions: • Spring is massless  mspring << mblock • Ideal spring  obeys Hooke’s law exactly. • Contact between the block and floor is frictionless. • Block is particle-like. Fx

- Calculation: xi ∆x x f x

1) The block displacement must be divided into Fj many segments of width, ∆x.

2) F(x) ≈ cte within each short ∆x segment. x f x f Ws   Fjx  x  0  Ws   F dx   (kx) dx xi xi

x f  1  2 x f  1  2 2 WS  k x dx   k x x   k (x f  xi ) x i i  2   2 

1 2 1 2 W =0  If Block ends up at x =x . W  k x  k x s f i s 2 i 2 f

1 W   k x2 if x  0 s 2 f i

Work done by an applied force + spring force: K  K f  Ki  Wa Ws

Block stationary before and after the displacement: ∆K=0 Wa=-Ws The work done by the applied force displacing the block is the negative of the work done by the spring force. Work done by a general variable force:

1D-Analysis

Wj  Fj,avg x

W  Wj  Fj,avg x better approximation  more x, x  0

x f W  F x  W  F(x)dx (7.10) lim j,avg  x0 xi

Geometrically: Work is the between the curve F(x) and the x-axis. 3D-Analysis  ˆ ˆ ˆ F  Fxi  Fy j  Fzk ; Fx  F(x), Fy  F(y), Fz  F(z)

dr  dx iˆ  dy ˆj  dz kˆ r x y z   f f f f dW  F dr  Fxdx  Fydy  Fzdz  W   dW   Fxdx   Fydy   Fzdz

ri xi yi zi

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem - Variable force

x f x f W   F(x)dx   ma dx xi xi dv dv ma dx  m dx  m v dx  mvdv dt dx

 dv dv dx dv     v  dt dx dt dx 

v f v f 1 2 1 2 W   mv dv  m  v dv  mv f  mvi  K f  Ki  K 2 2 vi vi V. Power

Time at which the applied force does work.

- Average power: amount of work done in an amount of ∆t by a force. W P  (7.12) avg t

- Instantaneous power: instantaneous time rate of doing work.

dW P  (7.13) F dt φ x  dW F cos dx  dx   P    F cos    Fv cos  F v (7.14) dt dt  dt 

Units: 1Watt=1W=1J/s

1 kilowatt-hour = 1 kW·h = 3.60 x 106 J=3.6MJ 54. In the figure (a) below a 2N force is applied to a 4kg block at a downward θ as the block moves rightward through 1m across a frictionless floor. Find

an expression for the vf at the end of that if the block’s initial is: (a) 0 and (b) 1m/s to the right. (c) The situation in (b) is similar in that the block is initially moving at 1m/s to the right, but now the 2N force is directed downward to the left. Find an expression for the speed of the block at the end of the 1m distance.   W  F d  (F cos )d N F 2 2 x N W  K  0.5m(v f  v0 ) Fx 2 (a) v0  0  K  0.5mv f mg mg F Fy y  2 (2N)cos  0.5(4kg)v f

 v f  cos m / s

2 2 2 (b) v0 1m / s  K  0.5mv f  0.5(4kg)(1m / s) (c) v0 1m / s  K  0.5mv f  2J   2 2 (2N)cos  0.5(4kg)v f  2J  (2N)cos  0.5(4kg)v f  2J  v  1 cos m / s f  v f  1 cos m / s 18. In the figure below a horizontal force Fa of magnitude 20N is applied to a 3kg psychology book, as the book slides a distance of d=0.5m up a frictionless ramp.

(a) During the displacement, what is the net work done on the book by Fa,the gravitational force on the book and the normal force on the book? (b) If the book has zero kinetic energy at the start of the displacement, what is the speed at the end of the displacement?   N  d W  0 y Only F , F do work x gx ax N   (a) W  WFa WFg or Wnet  Fnet d Fgx x x F   mg gy Fnet  Fax  Fg x  20cos30  mg sin 30

Wnet  (17.32N 14.7N)0.5m 1.31J

(b) K0  0 W  K  K f 2 W 1.31J  0.5mv f  v f  0.93m / s 55. A 2kg lunchbox is sent over a frictionless surface, in the positive direction of an x axis along the surface. Beginning at t=0, a steady pushes on the lunchbox in the negative direction of x, Fig. below. Estimate the kinetic energy of the lunchbox at (a) t=1s, (b) t=5s. (c) How much work does the force from the wind do on the lunch box from t=1s to t=5s?

Motion  concave downward parabola 1 x  t(10  t) 10

dx 2 v  1 t dt 10 dv 2 a     0.2m / s2 dt 10

F  cte  ma  (2kg)(0.2m / s2 )  0.4N (b) t  5s  v f  0 W  F  x  (0.4N)(t  0.1t 2 ) K f  0J

(a) t 1s  v f  0.8m / s (c) W  K  K f (5s)  K f (1s) K  0.5(2kg)(0.8m / s)2  0.64J f W  0  0.64  0.64J 74. (a) Find the work done on the particle by the force represented in the graph below as the particle moves from x=1 to x=3m. (b) The curve is given by F=a/x2, with a=9Nm2. Calculate the work using integration

(a) W  Area under curve W  (11.5squares)(0.5m)(1N)  5.75J

3 3 9 1 1 (b) W  dx  9  9( 1)  6J  2   1 x  x1 3

73. An elevator has a of 4500kg and can carry a maximum load of 1800kg. If the cab is moving upward at full load at 3.8m/s, what power is required of the force moving the cab to maintain that speed?

F m  4500kg 1800kg  6300kg a total      P  F v  (61.74kN)(3.8m / s) Fa  mg  Fnet  0  Fa  Fg  0  P  234.61kW 2 Fa  mg  (6300kg)(9.8m / s )  61.74kN mg A single force acts on a body that moves along an x-axis. The figure below shows the velocity component versus time for the body. For each of the intervals AB, BC, CD, and DE, give the sign (plus or minus) of the work done by the force, or state that the work is zero.

1 W  K  K  K  mv2  v2  v f 0 2 f 0

BC AB  vB  vA W  0 D A t BC  vC  vB W  0 E

CD  vD  vC W  0

DE  vE  0, vD  0 W  0 50. A 250g block is dropped onto a relaxed vertical spring that has a spring constant of k=2.5N/cm. The block becomes attached to the spring and compresses the spring 12 cm before momentarily stopping. While the spring is being compressed, what work is done on the block by (a) the gravitational force on it and (b) the spring force? (c) What is the speed of the block just before it hits the spring? ( negligible) (d) If the speed at is doubled, what is the maximum compression of the spring?

  2 (a) WFg  Fg d  mgd  (0.25kg)(9.8m / s )(0.12m)  0.29J

1 2 2 (b) Ws   kd  0.5(250N / m)(0.12m)  1.8J mg 2 F 2 2 s (c) Wnet  K  0.5mv f  0.5mvi d mg 2 v f  0  K f  0  K  Ki  0.5mvi  WFg Ws 2 0.29J 1.8J  0.5(0.25kg)vi

 vi  3.47m / s

(d) If vi ' 6.95m / s  Maximum spring compressio n ?v f  0 2 2 Wnet  mgd '0.5kd '  K  0.5mvi ' d' 0.23m 62. In the figure below, a cord runs around two massless, frictionless pulleys; a canister with mass m=20kg hangs from one pulley; and you exert a force F on the free end of the cord. (a) What must be the magnitude of F if you are to lift the canister at a constant speed? (b) To lift the canister by 2cm, how far must you pull the free end of the cord? During that lift, what is the work done on the canister by (c) your force (via the cord) and (d) the gravitational force on the canister?

(a) Pulley 1: v  cte  Fnet  0  2T  mg  0  T  98N mg Hand  cord : T  F  0  F   98N P2 2 (b) To rise “m” 0.02m, two segments of the cord must T be shorten by that amount. Thus, the amount of the T T string pulled down at the left end is: 0.04m

P1 (c) WF  F  d  (98N )(0.04m)  3.92J mg 2 (d) WFg  mgd  (0.02m)(20kg)(9.8m / s )  3.92J

WF+WFg=0 There is no change in kinetic energy. I. Potential energy

Energy associated with the arrangement of a system of objects that exe forces on one another. Units: J Examples:

- Gravitational potential energy: associated with the state of separation between objects which can attract one another via the gravitational for - Elastic potential energy: associated with the state of compression/extension of an elastic object. II. Work and potential energy If tomato rises  gravitational force transfers energy “from” tomato’s kinetic energy “to” the gravitational potential energy of the tomato- system.

If tomato falls down  gravitational force transfers energy “from” the gravitational potential energy “to” the tomato’s kinetic energy. U  W Also valid for elastic potential energy

Spring compression

Spring force does –W on block  energy fs transfer from kinetic energy of the block to potential of the spring.

Spring extension

f Spring force does +W on block  s energy transfer from potential energy of the spring to kinetic energy of the block.

General:

- System of two or more objects.

- A force acts between a particle in the system and the rest of the system. - When system configuration changes  force does work on the

object (W1) transferring energy between KE of the object and some other form of energy of the system.

- When the configuration change is reversed  force reverses the energy

transfer, doing W2.

III. Conservative / Nonconservative forces

- If W1=W2 always  . Examples: Gravitational force and spring force  associated potential .

- If W1≠W2  nonconservative force. Examples: force, frictional force  KE transferred into . Non-reversible process.

- Thermal energy: Energy associated with the random movement of and molecules. This is not a potential energy. - Conservative force: The net work it does on a particle moving around every closed path, from an initial point and then back to that point is zero. - The net work it does on a particle moving between two points does not depend on the particle’s path.

Conservative force  Wab,1= Wab,2 Proof:

Wab,1+ Wba,2=0  Wab,1= -Wba,2

Wab,2= - Wba,2  Wab,2= Wab,1 IV. Determining potential energy values

x W   f F(x)dx  U Force F is conservative xi

Gravitational potential energy: Change in the gravitational y y U   f (mg)dy  mgy f  mg(y  y )  mgy potential energy of the y yi f i i particle-Earth system. Ui  0, yi  0 U(y)  mgy Reference configuration

The gravitational potential energy associated with particle-Earth system depends only on particle’s vertical “y” relative to the reference position y=0, not on the horizontal position.

x k x f 1 1 Elastic potential energy: U   f (kx)dx  x2   kx2  kx2 x xi f i i 2 2 2 Change in the elastic potential energy of the spring-block system.

Reference configuration  when the spring is at its relaxed length and th

block is at xi=0. 1 U  0, x  0 U(x)  kx2 i i 2 Remember! Potential energy is always associated with a system. V. Conservation of Mechanical energy of a system: Sum of its potential (U) and kinetic (K) energies. Emec=U+K Assumptions: - Only conservative forces cause energy transfer within the system. - The system is isolated from its  No external force from an object outside the system causes energy changes inside the system. W  K K  U  0  (K2  K1)  (U2 U1)  0  K2 U2  K1 U1 W  U

∆Emec= ∆K+∆U=0

- In an where only conservative forces cause energy changes, the kinetic energy and potential energy can change, but their sum, the mechanical energy of the system cannot change.

- When the mechanical energy of a system is conserved, we can relate the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy at one instant to that at another instant without considering the intermediate motion and without finding the work done by the forces involved. y Emec= constant x

Emec  K  U  0

K2 U2  K1 U1

Potential energy curves

Finding the force analytically:

dU(x) U (x)  W  F(x)x  F(x)   (1D motion) dx

- The force is the negative of the of the curve U(x) versus x.

- The particle’s kinetic energy is: K(x) = Emec –U(x) Turning point: a point x at which the particle reverses its motion (K=0).

K always ≥0 (K=0.5mv2 ≥0)

Examples:

x= x1 Emec= 5J=5J+K  K=0

x5J+K K<0  impossible

Equilibrium points: where the slope of the U(x) curve is zero  F(x)=0 ∆U = -F(x) dx  ∆U/dx = -F(x) ∆U(x)/dx = -F(x)  Slope

Equilibrium points Emec,1

Emec,2

Emec,3

Example: x ≥ x5  Emec,1= 4J=4J+K  K=0 and also F=0 x5 neutral equilibrium

x2>x>x1, x5>x>x4  Emec,2= 3J= 3J+K  K=0  Turning points

x3  K=0, F=0  particle stationary  Unstable equilibrium

x4  Emec,3=1J=1J+K  K=0, F=0, it cannot move to x>x4 or x

W=-∆U

- The zero is arbitrary  Only potential energy differences have physical meaning.

- The potential energy is a scalar function of the position.

- The force (1D) is given by: F = -dU/dx P1. The force between two atoms in a can be represented by the following potential energy function:

 12 6   a   a  where U and a are constants. U (x)  U0    2   0  x   x  

11 5 dU (x)    a  a    a   a   i) Calculate the force Fx F(x)    U 0 12 2    2 2 6    dx   x  x   x   x    13 7  12 13 6 7 12U 0  a   a  U 0 12a x 12a x        a  x   x   ii) Minimum value of U(x).

 13 7  dU (x) 12U 0  a   a  U (x)min if  F(x)  0         0 dx a  x   x  

 x  a U (a)  U 0 1 2  U 0

U0 is approx. the energy necessary to dissociate the two atoms.