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Study of Habitat and Population of Endangered gangeticus in Narayani River of ,

Sunil L Rajbhandari, Principal Investigator

Paras M Acharya, Co-Investigator

1st Phase Final Report submitted to

The Rufford Small Grants Foundation, UK

28 March, 2013

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Acknowledgement

Our sincere thanks go to THE RUFFORD FOUNDATION, Small Grants Program, and U.K. for the funding of the 1st phase research. The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the following institutions and individuals for their valuable support:

Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) for granting permission to carry out this research in Chitwan National Park (CNP)

Megh Bahadur Pandey, Director-General, DNPWC

Krishna Acharya, Former Director-General, DNPWC

Phanendra Kharel, Chief Warden, CNP

Jhamak B Karki, Former Chief Warden, CNP

Prativa Rajbhandari, Jawalakhel

Kunta Adhikari, Bhaktapur

Ram Prit Yadav, Coordinator/TAL/WWF

Pradeep Khanal, TAL/WWF

Maheshwor Dhakal, Ecologist, DNPWC

Bishnu Thapaliya, Assistant Conservation Officer

Amir Maharjan, Assistant Warden, Sauraha, CNP

Bhumi R Upadhaya, Assisstant Warden, Amaltari Western Sector, CNP

Santosh Bhagat, Ranger, DNPWC

Naresh Subedi, Chief, Nepal Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC)

Bed B Khadka, Assistant Warden, Breeding Centre, CNP

Mahesh Pathak, GIS Expert, Nepal Engineering College

Megh R Giri, Senior Game Scout, Laukhani Post, CNP

Rishi Bhurtel, Game Scout, Laukhani Post, CNP

Ram Nath Yadav, Game Scout, Giddeni Post, CNP

Padam Mahato, Game Scout, Giddeni Post, CNP

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Ram Sewak Yadav, Game Scout, Kujouli Post, CNP

Santosh Dotel Jha, Game Scout, Kujouli Post, CNP

Tula Ram Mahato, Game Scout, Dibyapuri Post, CNP

Bhim Shrestha, Game Scout, Dibyapuri Post, CNP

Sukaram Darai, Game Scout, Laukhani Post, CNP

Basanta Lamichhane, Game Scout, Amaltari Sector, CNP

Bhim R Sedai, Game Scout, Amaltari Sector, CNP

Juthhe Ram Bote, Gharial Project, Amaltari, CNP

Sante Bote, Gharial Project, Amaltari, CNP

Army posts of Dibyapuri, Bandarjolla Island, Amaltari, Seri and Bagwan

Fishermen of Project

Local community/Forest users

Elephant Drivers of Giddeni, Kujouli and Dibyapuri

Island Jungle Resort

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Acronyms

CITES Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species

CNP Chitwan National Park

DNPWC Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation

GBC Gharial Breeding Center

GCA Gharial Conservation Alliance

IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature

NTNC Nepal Trust for Nature Conservation

TAL Arc Landscape

WWF Worldwide Fund for Nature

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.

Acknowledgement ------2

Acronyms ------4

Abstract ------6

Introduction ------6-8

Study Area ------8-9

Methodology------10-13

Results ------13-17

Discussion ------18

Conclusion and recommendations ------19

References ------20-21

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Abstract

A study carried out in Narayani River of Chitwan National Park from 2012 to 2013 to investigate the habitats and abundances of the has recorded the total number of 38 gharials including 3 hatchlings, 8 juveniles, 12 sub-adults and 15 adults. Only one breeding male was observed reflecting the critical condition for the breeding in the wild within Chitwan Nation Park. The abundance of the gharial was restricted in 2 areas, namely Khoria Muhan and Bhelaugi due to suitability of the habitat conditions and minimum human disturbances. The Basking activities in relation to depth showed that > 80 % of the gharials selected sandy banks. Among the 2 populations, the gharials in Khoria Muhan preferred shallow to moderate depth of water because of presence of braided channels in the area. In contrast, the gharials in Bhelaugi select deep water course of the main channel. The park management must adopt conservation measures such as ban of fishing and regular monitoring of habitats and population to maintain long term conservation of gharials in Narayani River.

Introduction

Background

The Crocodile (Family Crocodylidae) is a large aquatic that lives throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. , and are all scaled diapsids but crocodiles are which means they are genetically closer to and the extinct dinosaurs. Crocodylidae is classified as a biological family.

The term can also be used more loosely to include all extant members of the order which includes the crocodiles of Crocodylidae, the and (family ) and the gharials (family ), and the rest of , which includes prehistoric crocodile relatives and ancestors.

Crocodiles tend to congregate in freshwater habitats such as rivers, lakes, wetlands and sometimes in brackish water. They feed mostly on (fish, , and ), and sometimes on invertebrates (molluscs and ), depending on species. They first appeared during the epoch, about 55 million ago.

Ecology and Natural History

The Gharial is characterised by its extremely long, thin jaws, one of the largest of the living crocodilians (males up to 6 m, and average weight of around 160 kg). The species is the only member of the Family Gavialidae, although recent molecular evidence suggests that Tomistoma schlegelii also belongs to this family (Densmore 1983; Willis et al. 2007). The Gharial is the most thoroughly aquatic of the extant crocodilians, and adults apparently do not have the ability to walk in a semi-upright stance as other crocodilians do (Bustard and Singh 1978; Whitaker and Basu 1983). Adult males grow a bulbous nasal appendage, which resembles an Indian pot called a ‘ghara’, from which the species derives its name.

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Historically, G. gangeticus was found in the northern part of the , in the Indus (), ( and Nepal), (India) and Brahmaputra (, India and ) River systems. The presence of the species in the system in has also been reported (Smith 1931) (Fig. 1). The Gharial is typically a resident of flowing rivers with deep pools that have high sand banks and good fish stocks (Whitaker and Basu 1983; GCA 2008). Exposed sand banks are used for nesting. Although the function of the ‘ghara’ is not well understood, it is apparently used as a visual sex indicator, as a sound resonator, or for bubbling or other associated sexual behaviors (Martin and Bellairs 1977).

Figure 1: Distributional range of gharial Source: Stevenson, C. and Whitaker, R. (2010)

Gharial was previously present in all the gangetic plain in several countries of South-East Asia – Pakistan, Bhutan, Myanmar (ex-Burma), India, Nepal and Bangladesh. In the 1940's, gharial population was estimated from 5000 to 10000 individuals. It declined to 150-200 individuals in the 1960's principally due to habitat destruction and uncontrolled exploitation. It's now only present in India and Nepal, about 2000 individuals in India and 81 in Nepal.

Status of gharial in Nepal

Gharial conservation began in 1971 in Nepal with the help of the Frankfurt Zoological Society. It consists of population reintroduction by collection, gharial breeding and juvenile release. Until now, nearly 700 individuals were released in 4 different rivers of Nepal (Andrews and Mc Achernar, 1994; DNPWC, 2005).

The gharial crocodile (Gavialis gangeticus) is a globally threatened and endangered reptilian species of Nepal. It is included as endangered in IUCN red list category and Appendix I by CITES. The natural population of gharial in the world is estimated at about 200 of which remnant population of about 80 was

7 estimated recently by the government of Nepal. The gharials are found in the Narayani, Rapti, Babai and Karnali rivers of Nepal which are under tremendous threats from human disturbances such as overfishing, grazing, dam construction and over-exploitation of natural resources.

Objectives

The overall objectives of the study is to strengthen the gharial conservation in Nepal through the understanding of critical habitats, population, nesting ecology and in raising the public awareness with active participation of local communities to maintain viable population of gharial. The specific objectives are: 1) assess the population status of Gavialis gangeticus in Narayani river; 2) assess the habitat utilization by gharials; 3) prepare GIS maps of distribution and habitat; 4) raise the level of awareness on gharial conservation among the local communities.

Rationale

The gharial is one of the key predators of the Narayani river system which helps in maintaining the health of the river and biotic integrity. The species is protected by Nepal Government under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973. The population of gharial crocodile in the Narayani is estimated at 44 (DNPWC, 2011). This remnant fragmented population is under continuous pressure from different human activities. On the other hand, the construction of Gandak barrage along the international border with India has further threatened the population through rapid loss of habitats. The government of Nepal has given priority towards the conservation of gharial. Realizing the declining trend of population and loss of habitat of gharial, the government has formulated the Gharial Conservation Action Plan (DNPWC, 2012). However, detailed research studies on habitat requirement, population, reproductive success and nesting and hatching behavior are lacking, which may be one of the constraint in gharial conservation.

This research has to some extent derived valuable information on habitat requirements and hatchling success which could contribute in designing the effective conservation strategies to maintain long term conservation of gharials in the river basins of Nepal.

Study Area

The study was carried out in Narayani river of Chitwan National park (270 34' to 270 68' N and 830 87' to 840 74' E) including the buffer zones from northern boundary of park (Sikrauli) to Tribeni barrage at international border with India. Chitwan National Park is renowned for the conservation of some of the world’s most endangered species, including rhinoceros, , gaur, gangetic dolphin, otter and gharial in their natural habitat (CNP Management Plan 1975- 1979). The Park occupies an area of 932 km2 in the Rapti Valley of the Siwalik physiographic region, while the buffer zone (270 28' N to 270 70' N and 830 83' E to 840 77' E) extends 750 km2 area (Fig. 2).

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Figure 2: Narayani River The Narayani River ((also called the Gandaki} is a snow fed river, formed by the confluence of Kaligandaki and Trisuli rivers. The total length of this river is about 338 km, and the average flow ranges between 1000 to 1700 cum/s but maximum flow ranges from 10 to 700, 000 cum/s during the season from June to September (Panday, 1987; Maskey, 1989).

The Narayani river flows southwest for 30 kilometers from a gorge in the Mahabharat Range to the Rapti confluence and then flows westward for a further 25 kilometers along the base of the Someswar Hills before turning south through a very narrow gorge in the Siwaliks between the Dauney and Someswar Hills until it reaches the Nepal-India border (Laurie, 1978). The bed of the Narayani River is very broad consisting of a large number of channels and islands with a width of up to 4 kilometers. The floodplain varies with the altitude, ranging from 250 meters to 150 meters.

The climate of Chitwan is subtropical with a summer monsoon from mid-June to late September and a relatively dry winter. The average annual rainfall is about 250 cm, with the most occurring between June and September. The post-monsoon season between November and January is cool with the daily average temperature reaching 24 0 C during the day and droppings to about 7 0 C at night.

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Methodology

Research design

Stage 1 Stage 2

Statement of the Problem Field Activities

Scoping Survey/Observation Habitat Primary field information Focus group characterization Delineation of study area meeting Nesting ecology Data collection planning Interviews Develop transects/sample plots Consultation with key stakeholders

Stage 3 Stage 4

Data Analysis Ecology and Conservation and Human 1. Ecological analysis Perception: An Empirical Study of Gharial a. Statistical

2. Human perception analysis a. Qualitative analysis

3. Validation a. Literature/experience Stage 5

Discussion and conclusion

Validation

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Scoping The scoping was conducted prior to embarking a detailed field study to collect the primary field information.

Field activities

Survey

The survey of gharial was conducted in January 2013 from Rapti-Narayani confluence area to Tribeni barrage along Nepal-India border.

The survey was conducted in two dugout canoes with four fishermen. The details of the gharial sighted with the help of Olympus binoculars were recorded with their habitat features and GPS location (Annex 1).

Figure 3: Gharial survey locations - GPS points

The gharials were classified into different size classes in 30 cm increments. The individuals < 120 cm long were considered as hatchlings, > 120-180 cm as juveniles, > 180-270 cm as sub- adults and those > 270 cm as adults (Hussain, 2009).

The sex of the sighted crocodile was also determined by presence or absence of nasal orifice.

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Distribution and Abundance

The census of gharial was conducted to evaluate the population abundance in the different blocks of the study area. The details of the sighted gharials such as substrate , river width; mid-river depth and degree of human disturbances were estimated.

Figure 4: Sightings of gharials Basking

The study of basking activity was conducted in the two areas, namely Khoriya Muhan and Velaunji for three and two days respectively. The details of the sighted gharials on both banks of the river as well as the mid-sandbars and islands were noted. These include approximate size, basking site topography, substrate characteristics and the mid-river water depth and width.

Hatching success

Hatching success of the artificially incubated in Gharial Project were studied. The details of the eggs such as the number of eggs hatched, eggs damaged, and hatchling mortality in each clutch collected from different nests were recorded.

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GIS study

The field data such as GPS locations of sign survey and riverine habitat features have been visually interpreted from the Google Image 2010 after ground truthing. The data were generated by the screen digitization in Arc GIS 10.0 version.

Awareness raising

The awareness materials in the form of brochure was prepared in the native language and distributed widely among the school students adjoining the park area, buffer zone communities and information centers of the national park. This will promote awareness and develop stewardship towards conservation of aquatic fauna, particularly gharials among the different target groups.

The focal group/stakeholder meetings in collaboration with the park were conducted in Khoriya Muhan, Gharial Project Camp, Amaltari and Gharial Breeding Center, Kasara. The participants included the fishermen, nature guide, park staff and buffer zone communities representing different places adjoining the park area. These meetings were fruitful in developing strong linkage between stakeholders regarding the conservation of gharial. The meetings will also help in understanding people's perception and identifying conservation problems as well as suggestions for means of gharial conservation.

Result

Hatching success

S. Egg Location Clutch Hatched Incubation Hatchling % of Death Post- Infertile No. laying size date period no. eggs during hatching eggs date hatched hatching mortality 1 5 April Khoriya Muhan 18 14 June 71 9 50.0 0 0 9 2 31 Hattisar,Khoriya 36 16 June 78 8 22.2 0 7 21 March 3 31 Bhelauji 41 16 June NA 0 0.0 0 40 1 March 4 4 April Bhelauji 33 15 June 71 12 36.3 0 19 2 5 5 April Bhelauji 30 15 June 70 2 6.6 0 10 18 Sub- 158 31 19.6 0 76 51 Total Table 1: Reproductive effort of gharial in Narayani River, CNP in 2012

The average clutch size of the gharials that were collected during 2012 is 31.6 with a maximum clutch size 41 and a minimum of 18. The average percentage of eggs hatched is 19.6 with a maximum 50 percentage and a minimum 0. Almost 50 percent of the eggs that were hatched was lost due to death by various reasons.

The review of hatching success of gharial in the river system of CNP from the 1977 to 2011 is presented in Annex 2.

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Abundance and Distribution

A survey was carried out in the Narayani River from Narayani – Rapti confluence to Tribeni at the international border with India. The survey recorded a total number of 38 gharials. Among the observed gharials, 3 were hatchlings, 2 juveniles, 12 sub-adults and 15 adults. Only one breeding male was recorded. The abundance of the gharial population was mostly confined largely in three areas, namely, Khoriya, Seri and Bhelauji (Table 2 & 3). Among the gharials observed in these areas, Khoriya had the largest congregation and Seri had only few numbers of gharials.

River Hatchlings Juveniles Sub-adults Adults Totals Remarks Narayani River 3 8 12 15 38 One breeding male Total 3 8 12 15 38 Table 2: Gharial survey in the Nayanari River, January 2013

Size class of gharial 2013 <120 cm 3 >120 – 180 cm 8 >180 – 270 cm 12 >270 115 Total 38 Table 3: Size classes of gharial seen in the Narayani River, CNP during 2013.

Recent monitoring survey in Narayani and Rapti rivers carried out by Chitwan National Park in November 2012 recorded altogether 87 gharials, of which 52 were recorded in the 100 km stretch of Narayani River. The census of gharial according to the age classes had maximum of sub-adults representation with a total number of 28 individuals and hatchling represents a minimum number with only 4 individuals (Tables 4 & 5).

River/Location of sightings km Hatchlings Juveniles Sub- Adults Totals Remarks adults (M.F) Rapti River 50.0 0 9 22 4 f 35 No male Narayani River 100 4 6 28 14 52 One male Grand Total 150 4 15 50 18 87 Table 4: Results of Gharial counts in the Rapti and Nayanari Rivers, November 2012 (Source: GBC, CNP, 2012)

Size class of gharial 2012 <120 cm 4 >120 – 180 cm 6 >180 – 270 cm 28 >270 14 Total 52 Table 5: Size classes of gharial sen in the Narayani River, CNP during 2012 (Source: GBC, CNP, 2012)

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Habitat

In the basking areas, the water channels were from 1.2 m – 4.5 m deep. In Khoriya population, the gharials used the sand bars and rocks for basking with the river channels having 1.2 m – 2.7 m deep whereas in Bhelauji, the basking sites were only on sand with maximum water depth of 3.6 m (Figs. 5 & 6).

The field observation showed that more than 80 percent of gharials select sandy areas for basking activities followed by rocks with about 15 percent. No gharials were observed in clay (Table 6).

Basking site type Number of gharial observed Percentage of habitat use Sandy 32 84.21 Rocky 6 15.78 Clay 0 0 Total 38 100 Table 6: Preference of basking types by gharials in the Narayani River, CNP during January 2013

Figure 5: Habitat utilization by gharials

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Figure 6: Water depth selection by gharials Human disturbances

Despite of all the conservation actions, gharial population in Nepal is staying at a critically low level. The major threats to the gharials are identified as:

Poaching: it has been clearly identified by Maskey in 1998 and the last observations show that still exist in Nepal. Before it was mainly aimed on males.

Industrial pollution: The most widespread form of pollution is organic waste from domestic and industrial sources. There is a little doubt that pollution could be the cause of gharial population decline. Increasing industrialization is leading to increase in pollution loads from factories. Discharges from the Gorkha Brewery and Bhrikuti Paper and Pulp factory and Pharmaceutical and Gill Mary were the major sources of pollution in Narayani River affecting the gharial crocodiles.

Dams: The large dam in Tribeni has been built between Nepal and India that allow gharials to go in India following the stream, but once in the Indian side, they can't go back in Nepal. During the monsoon season, the huge stream bring a large number of gharial to India. Thus, it's impossible for them to return to their original habitat, decreasing the Nepalese population.

Overfishing: The Chitwan National Park have provided the fishing license to the traditional fishermen to support their livelihood. Besides, this wetland dependent communities, others are also intensively fishing in the river on both banks resulting to scarcity of fish prey base, disturbances to the gharials and loss of habitat. The fisher men use large fishing net (gill net) which largely threatens the gharial population due to risk of being entrapped. Small sized mesh nets are often used which removes both adult breeding stock

16 and fingerlings from the populations reducing the possibilities of future breeding and recruitment from the areas.

Figure 7: Human disturbances in Narayani River

Awareness

A brochure in on the importance and values of gharial was prepared and distributed to the park offices and the local communities around CNP to enhance the level of awareness on gharial conservation (Annex 3).

Discussion

The population census survey carried out in Narayani river showed the congregations of gharials, particularly in two sections of the river, Rapti confluence-Khoria Muhan and Velaungi in the downstream section. This study showed that less human disturbances because of restriction on fishing activities have resulted the presence of gharials in large numbers. In other sections of the river, the January 2012 survey did not sighted the gharials . This is due to the presence of high human disturbances such as fishing, grazing, extraction of sand and boulder and construction of Tribeni dam (Acharya & Rajbhandari, 2009; Acharya & Rajbhandari, 2012). Other studies also have indicated the threats to the gharial population by human disturbances and dam construction

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(Maskey, 1987; Collares et al). The gharials from different areas tend to migrate to the habitats with sand bars and sandy islands with deep water courses for safety and availability of its prey.

The presence of main channel, braided channels with sandy bars and patches of sandy islands within the main channels reflects the availability of sites for basking and food resources. These habitat features in Narayani and Rapti river confluences where the riverine habitat is characterized by main channel with braided channels, large areas of sand bars in between these channels, moderate to deep water and regular monitoring of habitats have tended the gharials ro select these areas during the winter season.

In the downstream areas such as Velaungi, the riverine habitat is characterized by the stagnant conditions of thenriver due to Tribeni dam. The river here flows in between the foothills of Mahabharat range and churia range. The presence of single deep water channels and occurrence of elevated sandy areas on the eastern banks with low human disturbances have caused gharials to prefer these sites. Additionally, these sites are important sites for breeding of gharials where eggs are collected annually for artificial hatching. This year, 3 nests of gharial eggs were collected from the Velaungi area (personal communication, Juthe Ram and Sante Bote, 2013).

Altogether 53 nests were collected from the Narayani River during the 6 nesting seasons of 1977-81 and 1987 (Maskey, 1987). During the study, only 5 nests with a total of 158 eggs were collected from from Velaungi, Khoria Muhan and Hattisar Khoria. The significant reduction in the number of nesting sites over years is due to high fishing pressures. The fishermen use large gill nets (Tiyari) for fishing which collect many small to large fish causing reduction in the prey base. Occasionally, the gharials get entangled in these nets.

Conclusion

The gharials in Narayani are under immense pressure from anthropogenic disturbances and barrage construction. On the other hand, one of the major obstacle in the conservation of gharials in the river basins of Nepal is the wide gap in their researches. Such gaps have hindered the conservation due to the lack of basic information. The park should adopt appropriate conservation measures such as ban of fishing, promotion of prioritized researches and strengthen the policies to address the conservation of gharials so that their long term existence is ensured.

Recommendations

Conduct regular monitoring and patrolling of gharial habitats and population and ban the fishing activities in these areas.

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Conduct scientific researches on the gharials in Narayani on habitat requirements, home range and reproductive activities.

The prime concern is the protection of a single breeding male in Narayani River. Use of radio- telemetry to monitor its movement and behavioral activity is necessary to ensure the maintenance of gene pool.

References Acharya P.M., Lamsal P., Rajbhandari S.L., Shrestha P., Neupane D., Pathak M., Niraula M., Lama H.M., and Lama B.2010. Status and distribution of otters in Narayani River, Chitwan National park. A fist phase research report submitted to Rufford Foundation, U.K. 52 pp. Acharya P.M. & Rajbhandari S.L. 2012. Investigation of population status and habitats of Lutrogale perspicillata in Narayani River, Chitwan National park. A second phase research report submitted to Rufford Foundation, U.K. 50 pp. Andrews, H. V. & Mc Eachen, P. 1994. Crocodile conservation in Nepal. IUCN Nepal and USAID NGO Environmental management program, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Bustard, H.R. and Singh, L.A.K. (1978). Studies on the Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) (Reptilia, Crocodilia). Change in terrestrial locomotory pattern with age. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 74: 534-536.

Collares-Pereira M.J., Cowx I., Ribeiro F., Rodrigues J. and Rogado L. 2000. Threats imposed by water resource development schemes on the conservation of endangered fish species in the Guadiana River basin in . Fisheries Manage. Ecol., 7: 167-178. Densmore III, L.D. (1983). Biochemical and immunological systematics of the Order Crocodilia. Evolutionary Biology 16: 397-465.

DNPWC, 2005. Annual Report (Sharwan 2061 – Asadh 2062).

DNPWC, 2011. Annual Report (Sharwan 2067 – Asadh 2068).

DNPWC, 2012. Annual Report (Sharwan 2068 – Asadh 2069).

GCA (Gharial Conservation Alliance) (2008). International Gharial Recovery Action Plan. http://www. gharialconservation.org/PDF/GRAP.pdf.

Hussain, S. A. 2009. Basking site and water depth selection by gharial Gavialis gangeticus Gmelin 1789 (Crocodylia, Reptilia) in National Chambal Sanctuary, India and its implication for river conservation. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19:127-133.

Laurie, A. 1978. The ecology and behavior of the greater onehorned rhinoceros. Ph. D. Dissertation, Univ. Cambridge. 450 pp.

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Martin, B.G.H. and Bellairs, A.D’A. (1977). The narial excresence and pterygoid bulla of the gharial, Gavialis gangeticus (Crocodilia). J. Zool. Lond. 182: 541-558.

Maskey, T.M. 1989, Movement and survival of captive –reared gharial, Gavialis gangeticus in the Narayani River, Nepal, A dissertation presented to the graduate school of the University of in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Panday, R. K. 1987. Effect of Altitude on the Ge-ography of Nepal. Cent. Altitude Geography. Kathmandu.

Smith, M.A. (1931). , Testudines. In The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. I. Taylor and Francis: London.

Stevenson, C. and Whitaker, R. (2010). Indian Gharial Gavialis gangeticus. Pp. 139-143 in Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Third Edition, ed. by S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.

Willis, R.E., McAliley, L.R., Neeley, E.D. and Densmore III, L.D. (2007). Evidence for placing the (Tomistoma schlegelii) into the family Gavialidae: Inferences from nuclear gene sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43: 787-794.

Whitaker, R. and Basu, D. (1983). The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus): A review. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 79: 531-548.

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Annex 1: GPS locations of gharial survey, January 2013

River River IDENT LAT LONG DATE ALTITUDE Width Depth Habitat Place Slope Remarks 251 27.55782872 84.12037463 20-JAN-13 11:01:15AM 145 Gharial Project 252 27.55530065 84.12032576 20-JAN-13 11:16:21AM 139 Project-Khoriya confluence 253 27.54867098 84.13845255 20-JAN-13 12:32:31PM 117 121 2.1 Sand 4 Khoriya Flat 254 27.54977672 84.13912822 20-JAN-13 1:27:13PM 120 151 2.7 Sand 8 Khoriya 30˚ 255 27.5514236 84.13870996 20-JAN-13 1:42:55PM 133 242 1.2 Sand 1 Khoriya 15˚ 256 27.54762417 84.1360109 20-JAN-13 1:49:31PM 118 121 2.4 Sand 3 Khoriya 20˚ 257 27.54752652 84.13590873 20-JAN-13 1:49:41PM 117 121 2.4 Sand 1 Khoriya 20˚ 258 27.54704791 84.13288915 20-JAN-13 1:53:22PM 143 181 1.6 water 2 Khoriya 90˚ 259 27.55491718 84.12208764 21-JAN-13 11:55:36AM 116 303 2.4 Rocky Chitwan-Nawalparasi confluence 260 27.5507186 84.1312856 21-JAN-13 12:15:49PM 114 151 2.1 Rocky 6 Khoriya Flat 261 27.55213363 84.13993824 21-JAN-13 12:59:53PM 113 121 2.1 Sand 5 Khoriya Flat 262 27.55923947 84.14762654 21-JAN-13 1:30:09PM 116 242 1.8 Clay Khoriya Flat 263 27.56112171 84.1499205 21-JAN-13 1:42:57PM 115 212 1.8 Sand 1 Rapti Dovan Flat 264 27.56070111 84.14194051 21-JAN-13 1:52:37PM 113 545 2.1 Sand/rock 1 Khoriya 15˚ 265 27.55082002 84.1383746 21-JAN-13 2:02:46PM 111 121 2.4 Sand 14 Khoriya 266 27.54725017 84.13319835 22-JAN-13 12:02:13PM 118 106 1.8 Rocky 2 Khoriya 267 27.54811803 84.13612163 22-JAN-13 12:12:38PM 114 121 2.4 Rocky 3 Khoriya 268 27.54999692 84.13741764 22-JAN-13 12:20:12PM 117 151 1.8 Sand 10 Khoriya 269 27.55024075 84.13910609 22-JAN-13 12:45:40PM 123 181 1.5 Sand 2 Khoriya 270 27.55515589 84.14450898 22-JAN-13 1:06:57PM 121 75 1.6 Sand 5 Khoriya 271 27.56158146 84.15032267 22-JAN-13 1:41:28PM 119 303 1.5 Sand 1 Khoriya Flat 272 27.56124225 84.14322244 22-JAN-13 1:50:18PM 112 151 1.8 Sand 2 Khoriya 10˚ 273 27.55310157 84.13868406 22-JAN-13 1:58:50PM 114 136 1.8 Sand 2 Khoriya 274 27.56289952 84.12367048 22-JAN-13 2:54:46PM 117 90 2.7 Sand 2 Project area 275 27.5511019 84.10951956 23-JAN-13 12:10:18PM 112 545 2.1 Rocky Amaltari Human disturbance 276 27.55389593 84.09265366 23-JAN-13 12:22:56PM 113 606 2.1 Rocky Temple Ghat Human disturbance

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277 27.55747542 84.08213429 23-JAN-13 12:32:34PM 116 606 3 Rocky Bramahasthan Human disturbance 278 27.56482928 84.06452576 23-JAN-13 12:48:55PM 122 181 1.8 Rocky Bramahasthan-Ratanpur Kholsa Human disturbance 279 27.55166014 84.04737194 23-JAN-13 1:06:12PM 112 151 1.8 Sand/rock Ratanpur-Nandapur boundary Human disturbance 280 27.5383226 84.0334465 23-JAN-13 1:23:21PM 101 136 3 Sand/rock Nandapur Human disturbance 281 27.53608983 84.02517993 23-JAN-13 1:31:29PM 100 106 4.5 Sand/rock Laidaghat Human disturbance 282 27.54222362 84.01018756 23-JAN-13 1:49:50PM 99 181 2.4 Sand 2 Lower Seri 283 27.54557907 84.00443707 23-JAN-13 1:55:14PM 98 181 1.8 Sand 1 Seri 284 27.54752945 84.00132855 23-JAN-13 1:57:33PM 99 121 3.9 Sand 2 Seri Human disturbance 285 27.54636336 83.97532236 23-JAN-13 2:16:02PM 92 151 2.4 Rocky Kolkatta Human disturbance 286 27.54833085 83.95596134 23-JAN-13 2:39:49PM 97 545 3.3 Sand Tamaspur Human disturbance 287 27.54334822 83.93617652 23-JAN-13 2:58:41PM 92 151 3.6 Sand/rock Tamaspur 288 27.53540059 83.91938447 23-JAN-13 4:14:47PM 92 121 3.6 Sand 1 Darasingh 15˚ 289 27.52634478 83.92097267 24-JAN-13 11:02:26AM 141 90 4.5 Sand Malebagar 45˚ 290 27.51412019 83.92773234 24-JAN-13 11:30:29AM 92 90 4.8 Rocky Bhimban 70˚ 291 27.51703391 83.94302077 24-JAN-13 11:46:08AM 92 151 3.9 Rocky Kathana 292 27.5255858 83.95968709 24-JAN-13 12:05:55PM 92 151 3.6 Sand 3 Bhelauji 293 27.52465842 83.96134185 24-JAN-13 12:08:28PM 90 151 3.6 Sand Bhelauji 294 27.52358763 83.96157922 24-JAN-13 12:25:17PM 90 212 3.6 Sand 4 Bhelauji 40˚ 295 27.51052938 83.96845917 24-JAN-13 12:49:01PM 89 181 2.7 Sand Bhelauji 296 27.50398228 83.9623154 24-JAN-13 12:59:58PM 90 212 3.6 Rocky Simrada 297 27.49328672 83.93889134 24-JAN-13 1:40:06PM 92 181 3.6 Sand Odrandri

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Annex 2: Trend of hatching success of gharial in the river system of CNP

Year No. of Eggs No. of % of No. of Hatchling % of Hatchling Collection Hatchlings Hatchling Survival after 1 Survival after year age 1 year age 1977 592 438 73.99 NA NA 1978 310 162 52.26 NA NA 1979 543 294 54.14 NA NA 1980 264 187 70.83 NA NA 1981 259 64 24.71 NA NA 1982 90 38 42.22 NA NA 1983 296 124 41.89 NA NA 1984 40 33 82.50 NA NA 1985 158 116 73.42 NA NA 1989 253 144 56.92 NA NA 1990 395 237 60.00 NA NA 1991 359 281 78.27 NA NA 1992 490 230 46.94 NA NA 1993 428 280 65.42 11 3.93 1994 437 144 32.95 10 6.94 1995 221 97 43.89 17 17.53 1996 577 276 47.83 17 6.16 1997 311 106 34.08 20 18.87 1998 302 19 6.29 2 10.53 1999 408 101 24.75 10 9.90 2000 244 141 57.79 30 21.28 2001 291 81 27.84 27 33.33 2002 466 229 49.14 32 13.97 2003 347 169 48.70 3 1.78 2004 521 298 57.20 157 52.68 2005 510 333 65.29 80 24.02 2006 382 262 68.59 95 36.26 2007 343 117 34.11 53 45.30 2008 369 133 36.04 32 24.06 2009 101 71 70.30 41 57.75 2010 508 355 69.88 133 37.46 2011 634 256 40.38 141 55.08 Total 11449 5816 911

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Annex 3: Brochure in Nepali language

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