10/5/2016 ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Guglielmo Marconi From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (Italian: [ɡuʎ ˈʎɛlmo marˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian Guglielmo Marconi inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long­distance transmission[1] and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. He is often credited as the inventor of radio,[2] and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of telegraphy".[3][4][5]

Marconi was an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Company in the in 1897 (which became the ). He succeeded in making a commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists.[6][7] In 1929, the King of ennobled Marconi as a Marchese (marquis). Born Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi Contents 25 April 1874 Palazzo Marescalchi, , 1 Biography Italy 1.1 Early years 1.2 Radio work Died 20 July 1937 (aged 63) 1.2.1 Developing radio telegraphy Rome, Italy 1.2.2 Transmission breakthrough Residence Italy 1.2.3 The British become interested 1.2.4 Transatlantic transmissions Nationality Italian 1.2.5 Alma mater 1.2.6 Continuing work 1.3 Later years Academic Augusto Righi 2 Personal life advisors 3 Legacy and honours Known for Radio 3.1 Honours and awards 3.2 Tributes Notable awards Matteucci Medal (1901) 3.3 Places and organizations named after Nobel Prize for Physics (1909) Marconi Albert Medal (1914) 3.3.1 Outer space Franklin Medal (1918) 3.3.2 Europe Italy IEEE Medal of Honor (1920) 3.3.3 Oceania John Fritz Medal (1923) Australia Signature 3.3.4 North America Canada California Massachusetts New Jersey https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 1/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia New Jersey New York Pennsylvania 4 Patents 4.1 British patents 4.2 US patents 4.3 Reissued (US) 5 See also 6 References 7 Cited sources 8 Further reading 9 External links


Early years

Marconi was born into the Italian nobility as Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi[8] in Bologna on 25 April 1874, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi (an Italian aristocratic landowner from Porretta Terme) and his Irish/Scots wife Annie Jameson (daughter of Andrew Jameson of Daphne Castle in County Wexford, and granddaughter of John Jameson, founder of whiskey distillers Jameson & Sons[9]). Between the ages of two and six, Marconi and his elder brother Alfonso were brought up by his mother in the English town of Bedford.[10][11] After returning to Italy, at age 18 University of Bologna physicist Augusto Righi, neighbour of Marconi who had done research on 's work, permitted Marconi to attend lectures at the university and use the lab and library as well.[12] Marconi received further education in Florence at the Istituto Cavallero and, later, in Livorno.[13] Marconi did not do well in school, according to Robert McHenry,[14] though historian Giuliano Corradi characterizes him in his biography as a true genius.[15] He was baptized as a Catholic but had been brought up as a member of the Anglican Church, being married into it (although this marriage was later annulled). Marconi was confirmed in the Catholic faith and became a devout member of the Church before his marriage to Maria Christina in 1927.[16]

Radio work

During his early years, Marconi had an interest in science and electricity and in the early 1890s he began working on the idea of ""—i.e., the transmission of telegraph without connecting wires as used by the electric telegraph. This was not a new idea; numerous investigators and inventors had been exploring wireless telegraph and even building systems using electric conduction, electromagnetic induction and optical (light) signalling for over 50 years, but none had proven technically and commercially successful. A relatively new development came from Heinrich Hertz, who demonstrated beginning in 1888 that one could produce and detect electromagnetic radiation—now generally known as radio waves, at the time more commonly called "Hertzian waves" or "aetheric waves".

There was a great deal of interest in radio waves in the physics community, but the interest was in radio as a scientific phenomenon, not in its potential as a method. Physicists generally looked on radio waves as an invisible form of light, a short range phenomenon which could only travel along a line of sight path, and thus its range was limited to the visual horizon like existing forms of visual signaling, making it unsuitable for long distance communication.[17] Hertz's death in 1894 brought published reviews of his earlier discoveries including a demonstration on the transmission and detection of radio waves by the British physicist and an https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 2/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia article about Hertz's work by Marconi's teacher, Augusto Righi. Righi's article renewed Marconi's interest in developing a wireless telegraphy system based on radio waves,[18] a line of inquiry that he noted other inventors did not seem to be pursuing.[6]

Developing radio telegraphy

Marconi, just twenty years old, began to conduct experiments, building much of his own equipment in the attic of his home at the Villa Griffone in Pontecchio, Italy with the help of his butler Mignani. In the summer of 1894, he built a storm alarm made up of a battery, a (an early detector that changed resistance when exposed to radio waves), and an electric bell, which went off if there was lightning. Soon after he was able to make a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench.[19]

One night in December 1894, Guglielmo woke his mother and invited her into his secret workshop and showed her the experiment that he had created. The next day, he also showed his work to his father, who gave his son all of the money he had in his wallet when he was certain that there were no wires, so that Guglielmo could buy more materials.

Marconi read through the literature and picked up on the ideas of physicists who were experimenting with radio waves, but did a great deal to develop devices, such as portable and receiver systems, that could work over long distances,[6] turning what was essentially a laboratory experiment Marconi's first into a useful communication system.[20] Marconi came up with a functional incorporating a monopole . It consisted of an elevated copper sheet system with many components:[21] (top) connected to a Righi spark gap A relatively simple oscillator or spark­producing radio transmitter; (left) powered by an induction coil A wire or metal sheet capacity area suspended at a height above the (center) with a telegraph key (right) ground; to switch it on and off to spell out A coherer receiver, which was a modification of Edouard Branly's text messages in Morse . original device with refinements to increase sensitivity and reliability; A telegraph key to operate the transmitter to send short and long pulses, corresponding to the dots­and­ dashes of ; and A telegraph register activated by the coherer which recorded the received Morse code dots and dashes onto a roll of paper tape.

In the summer of 1895, Marconi moved his experimentation outdoors and continued to experiment on his father's estate in Bologna. He tried different arrangements and shapes of antenna but even with improvements he was only able to transmit up to one­half mile, a distance Oliver Lodge had predicted in 1894 as the maximum transmission distance for radio waves.

Transmission breakthrough

A breakthrough came that summer when Marconi found that much greater range could be achieved after he raised the height of his antenna and, borrowing from a technique used in wired telegraphy, grounding his transmitter and receiver. With these improvements the system was capable of transmitting signals up to 2 miles (3.2 km) and over hills.[22][23] The monopole antenna reduced the frequency of the waves compared to the dipole antennas used by https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 3/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hertz, and radiated vertically polarized radio waves which could travel longer distances. By this point, he concluded that a device could become capable of spanning greater distances, with additional funding and research, and would prove valuable both commercially and militarily. Marconi's experimental apparatus proved to be the first engineering­complete, commercially successful radio transmission system.[24][25][26]

Marconi wrote to the Ministry of Post and Telegraphs, then under the direction of the honorable Pietro Lacava, explaining his wireless telegraph and asking for funding. He never received a response to his which was eventually dismissed by the Minister who wrote "to the Longara" on the document, referring to the insane asylum on Via della Lungara in Rome.[27]

In 1896, Marconi spoke with his family friend Carlo Gardini, Honorary Consul at the United States Consulate in Bologna, about leaving Italy to go to England. Gardini wrote a letter of introduction to the Ambassador of Italy in , Annibale Ferrero, explaining who Marconi was and about these extraordinary discoveries. In his response, Ambassador Ferrero advised them not to reveal the results until after they had obtained the copyrights. He also encouraged him to come to England where he believed it would be easier to find the necessary funds to convert the findings from Marconi's experiment into a practical use. Finding little interest or appreciation for his work in Italy, Marconi travelled to London in early 1896 at the age of 21, accompanied by his mother, to seek support for his work. (He spoke fluent English in addition to Italian.) Marconi arrived at and the Customs officer opened his case to find various contraptions and apparatus. The customs officer immediately contacted the Admiralty in London. While there, Marconi gained the interest and support of William Preece, the Chief Electrical Engineer of the British Post Office.

The British become interested

Marconi made his first demonstration of his system for the British government in July 1896.[28] A further series of demonstrations for the British followed—by March 1897, Marconi had transmitted Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) across Salisbury Plain. On 13 May 1897, Marconi sent the world's first ever wireless communication over open sea. The experiment, based in , witnessed a transversed over the Bristol Channel from Island to Point in , a distance of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). The message read "Are you ready".[29] The transmitting equipment was almost immediately relocated to Brean Down Fort on the Somerset coast, stretching the range to British Post Office engineers inspect Marconi's 16 kilometres (9.9 mi). radio equipment during demonstration on Flat Holm Island, 13 May 1897. The transmitter is at Impressed by these and other demonstrations, Preece introduced center, the coherer receiver below it, the pole Marconi's ongoing work to the general public at two important supporting the wire antenna is visible at top. London lectures: "Telegraphy without Wires", at the Toynbee Hall on 11 December 1896; and "Signaling through Space without Wires", given to the Royal Institution on 4 June 1897.

Numerous additional demonstrations followed, and Marconi began to receive international attention. In July 1897, he carried out a series of tests at La Spezia, in his home country, for the Italian government. A test for Lloyds between Ballycastle and Rathlin Island, Ireland, was conducted on 6 July 1898. The was crossed on 27 March 1899, from Wimereux, to South Foreland Lighthouse, England, and in the autumn of 1899, the first demonstrations in the United States took place, with the reporting of the America's Cup international yacht races at New York. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 4/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Marconi sailed to the United States at the invitation of the New York Herald newspaper to cover the America's Cup races off Sandy Hook, NJ. The transmission was done aboard the SS Ponce, a passenger ship of the Porto Rico Line.[30] Marconi left for England on 8 November 1899 on the American Line's SS Saint Paul, and he and his assistants installed wireless equipment aboard during the voyage. On 15 November Saint Paul became the first ocean liner to report her imminent return to Great Britain by wireless when Marconi's Royal Needles Hotel radio station contacted her sixty­six nautical miles off the English coast.

Transatlantic transmissions

At the turn of the 20th century, Marconi began investigating the means to signal Plaque on the outside of BT completely across the Atlantic in order to compete with the transatlantic telegraph Centre commemorates cables. Marconi established a wireless transmitting station at Marconi House, Marconi's first public Rosslare Strand, Co. Wexford in 1901 to act as a link between Poldhu in transmission of wireless Cornwall, England and Clifden in Co. Galway, Ireland. He soon made the signals. announcement that the message was received at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland (now part of Canada) on 12 December 1901, using a 500­foot (150 m) kite­supported antenna for reception— signals transmitted by the company's new high­power station at Poldhu, Cornwall. The distance between the two points was about 2,200 miles (3,500 km). It was heralded as a great scientific advance, yet there also was —and continues to be— considerable skepticism about this claim. The exact wavelength used is not known, but it is fairly Marconi watching associates raising the kite (a "Levitor" by B.F.S. Baden­Powell[31]) reliably determined to have used to lift the antenna at St. John's, Newfoundland, December 1901 been in the neighborhood of 350 meters (frequency ≈850 kHz). The tests took place at a time of day during which the entire See if you can hear transatlantic path was in daylight. We now know (although Marconi did anything, Mr. not know then) that this was the worst possible choice. At this medium “ Kemp![32] ” wavelength, long distance transmission in the daytime is not possible because of heavy absorption of the in the . It was not a blind test; Marconi knew in advance to listen for a repetitive signal of three clicks, signifying the Morse code letter S. The clicks were reported to have been heard faintly and sporadically. There was no independent confirmation of the reported reception, and the transmissions were difficult to distinguish from atmospheric noise. (A detailed technical review of Marconi's early transatlantic work appears in John S. Belrose's work of 1995.) The Poldhu transmitter was a two­stage circuit.[33][34]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 5/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Feeling challenged by skeptics, Marconi prepared a better organized and documented test. In February 1902, the SS Philadelphia sailed west from Great Britain with Marconi aboard, carefully recording signals sent daily from the Poldhu station. The test results produced coherer­tape reception up to 1,550 Marconi demonstrating apparatus he Magnetic detector by Marconi used miles (2,490 km), and audio used in his first long distance radio during the experimental campaign reception up to 2,100 miles transmissions in the 1890s. The aboard a ship in summer 1902, (3,400 km). The maximum transmitter is at right, the receiver exhibited at the Museo nazionale distances were achieved at night, with paper tape recorder at left. della scienza e della tecnologia and these tests were the first to Leonardo da Vinci of Milan. show that radio signals for and transmissions travel much farther at night than in the day. During the daytime, signals had only been received up to about 700 miles (1,100 km), less than half of the distance claimed earlier at Newfoundland, where the transmissions had also taken place during the day. Because of this, Marconi had not fully confirmed the Newfoundland claims, although he did prove that radio signals could be sent for hundreds of kilometres, despite some scientists' belief that they were essentially limited to line­of­sight distances.

On 17 December 1902, a transmission from the Marconi station in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada became the world's first radio message to cross the Atlantic from North America. In 1901, Marconi built a station near South Wellfleet, Massachusetts that sent a message of greetings on 18 January 1903 from United States President Theodore Roosevelt to King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. However, consistent transatlantic signalling was difficult to establish.

Marconi began to build high­powered stations on both sides of the Atlantic to communicate with ships at sea, in competition with other inventors. In Marconi caricatured by Spy for 1904, a commercial service was established to transmit nightly news Vanity Fair, 1905 summaries to subscribing ships, which could incorporate them into their on­board newspapers. A regular transatlantic radio­telegraph service was finally begun on 17 October 1907[35][36] between Clifden Ireland and Glace Bay, but even after this the company struggled for many years to provide reliable communication to others.


The role played by Marconi Co. wireless in maritime rescues raised public awareness of the value of radio and brought fame to Marconi, particularly the sinkings of the RMS Titanic on 15 April 1912 and the RMS Lusitania on 7 May 1915.

RMS Titanic radio operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were not employed by the White Star Line but by the Marconi International Marine Communication Company. After the sinking of the ocean liner on 15 April 1912, survivors were rescued by the RMS Carpathia of the Cunard Line.[37] Also employed by the Marconi Company was David Sarnoff, who later headed RCA. Wireless were reportedly maintained for 72 hours

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 6/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia between Carpathia and Sarnoff,[38] but Sarnoff's involvement has been questioned by some modern historians. When Carpathia docked in New York, Marconi went aboard with a reporter from to talk with Bride, the surviving operator.[37]

On 18 June 1912, Marconi gave evidence to the Court of Inquiry into the loss of Titanic regarding the marine telegraphy's functions and the procedures for emergencies at sea.[39] Britain's postmaster­general summed up, referring to the Titanic disaster: "Those who have been saved, have been saved through one man, Mr. Marconi...and his marvelous invention."[40] Marconi was offered free passage on Titanic before she sank, but had taken Lusitania three days earlier. As his daughter Degna later explained, he had paperwork to do and preferred the public stenographer aboard that vessel.[41]

Continuing work

Over the years, the Marconi companies gained a reputation for being Have I done the technically conservative, in particular by continuing to use inefficient world good, or have spark­transmitter which could only be used for “ I added a radiotelegraph operations, long after it was apparent that the future of menace?[42] ” radio communication lay with continuous­wave transmissions which were more efficient and could be used for audio transmissions. Somewhat belatedly, the company did begin significant work with continuous­wave equipment beginning in 1915, after the introduction of the oscillating vacuum tube (valve). The factory in was the location for the first entertainment radio broadcasts in the United Kingdom in 1920, employing a vacuum tube transmitter and featuring Dame Nellie Melba. In 1922, regular entertainment broadcasts commenced from the at , forming the prelude to the BBC, and he spoke of the close association of aviation and wireless in that same year at a private gathering with Florence Tyzack Parbury, and even spoke of interplanetary wireless communication.

Later years

In 1914, Marconi was made a Senator in the Italian Senate and appointed Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in the UK. During , Italy joined the Allied side of the conflict, and Marconi was placed in charge of the Italian military's radio service. He attained the rank of lieutenant in the Italian Army and of commander in the Italian Navy. In 1929, he was made a marquess by King Victor Emmanuel III.

Marconi joined the Italian Fascist party in 1923. In 1930, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini appointed him President of the Royal Academy of Italy, which made Marconi a member of the Fascist Grand Council.

Marconi died in Rome on 20 July 1937 at age 63, following a series of heart attacks, and Italy held a state funeral for him. As a tribute, shops on the street where he lived were "Closed for national mourning".[43] In addition, at 6 pm the next day, the time designated for the funeral, all BBC Marconi with his wife c. 1910 transmitters and wireless Post Office transmitters in the British Isles observed two minutes of silence in his honor. The British Post Office also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 7/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia sent a message requesting that all ships honor Marconi with two minutes of broadcasting silence as well.[43] His remains are housed in the Villa Griffone at Sasso Marconi, Emilia­Romagna, which assumed that name in his honour in 1938.[44][45]

In 1943, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down a decision on Marconi's radio patents restoring some of the prior patents of Oliver Lodge, John Stone Stone, and .[46][47] The decision was not about Marconi's original radio patents[48] and the court declared that their decision had no bearing on Marconi's claim as the first to achieve radio transmission, just that since Marconi's claim to certain patents were questionable, he could not claim infringement on those same patents.[49] (There are claims the high court was trying to nullify a World War I claim against the United States government by the Marconi Company via simply restoring the non­ Marconi prior patent.)[46] Personal life

Marconi had a brother, Alfonso, and a stepbrother, Luigi.

On 16 March 1905, Marconi married the Hon. Beatrice O'Brien (1882– 1976), a daughter of Edward O'Brien, 14th Baron Inchiquin, having met her in Poole in 1904.[50] They had three daughters, Degna (1908–1998), Gioia (1916–1996), and Lucia (born and died 1906), and a son, Giulio, 2nd Marchese Marconi (1910–1971).

In 1913, the Marconis returned to Italy and became part of Rome society. Beatrice served as a lady­in­waiting to Queen Elena. The Marconis divorced in 1924, and, at Marconi's request, the marriage was annulled on American electrical engineer Alfred 27 April 1927, so he could remarry.[51] Beatrice Marconi married her Norton Goldsmith and Marconi on 26 second husband, Liborio Marignoli, Marchese di Montecorona, on 3 March June 1922. 1924 and had a daughter, Flaminia.[52]

On 12 June 1927 (religious 15 June), Marconi married Maria Cristina Bezzi­Scali (1900–1994), only daughter of Francesco, Count Bezzi­Scali. They had one daughter, Maria Elettra Elena Anna (born 1930), who married Prince Carlo Giovannelli (born 1942) in 1966; they later divorced. For unexplained reasons, Marconi left his entire fortune to his second wife and their only child, and nothing to the children of his first marriage.[53]

Later in life, Marconi was an active Italian Fascist[54] and an apologist for their ideology and actions such as the attack by Italian forces in Ethiopia.

Marconi wanted to personally introduce in 1931 the first radio broadcast of a Pope, Pius XI, and did announce at the microphone: "With the help of God, who places so many mysterious forces of nature at man's disposal, I have been able to prepare this instrument which will give to the faithful of the entire world the joy of listening to the voice of the Holy Father".[55] Legacy and honours

Honours and awards

In 1909, Marconi shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Braun for his contributions to radio communications.[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 8/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In 1918, he was awarded the Franklin Institute's Franklin Medal. In 1929, he was made a marquess by King Victor Emmanuel III, thus becoming Marchese Marconi. In 1931, he was awarded with John Scott Medal by wireless telegraphy In 1934, he was awarded the Wilhelm Exner Medal. In 1977, Marconi was inducted into the National Broadcasters Hall of Fame.[56] In 1988, the Radio Hall of Fame (Museum of Broadcast Communications, Chicago) inducted Marconi as a Pioneer (soon after the inception of its awards).[57] In 1990, the Bank of Italy issued a 2000 lire banknote featuring his portrait on the front and on the back his accomplishments.[58] In 2001, Great Britain released a commemorative British two pound coin celebrating the 100th anniversary of Marconi's first wireless communication. Marconi's early experiments in wireless telegraphy were the subject of two IEEE Milestones; one in Switzerland in 2003[59] and most recently in Italy in 2011.[60] In 2009, Italy issued a commemorative silver €5 coin honouring the centennial of Marconi's Nobel Prize. In 2009, he was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.[61] The Dutch bestows the Marconi Awards annually for outstanding radio programmes, presenters and stations. The National Association of Broadcasters (US) bestows the annual NAB Marconi Radio Awards also for outstanding radio programs and stations.


A funerary monument to the effigy of Marconi can be seen in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence but his remains are in near the Mausoleum of Guglielmo Marconi in Pontecchio Marconi, near Bologna. His former villa, adjacent to the mausoleum is the Marconi Museum (Italy) with much of his equipment. A statue of Guglielmo Marconi stands in Church Square Park in Hoboken, NJ. A Guglielmo Marconi sculpture by Attilio Piccirilli stands in Washington, D.C. A large collection of Marconi artifacts was held by The , p.l.c. (GEC) of the United Kingdom which later renamed Marconi plc and Marconi Corporation plc. In December 2004 the extensive Marconi Collection, held at the former Marconi Guglielmo Marconi Memorial in Research Centre at Great Baddow, Chelmsford, Essex UK was Washington, D.C. donated to the nation by the Company via the University of Oxford.[62] This consisted of the BAFTA award­winning MarconiCalling website, some 250+ physical artifacts and the massive ephemera collection of papers, books, patents and many other items. The artifacts are now held by The Museum of the History of Science and the ephemera Archives by the nearby Bodleian Library.[63] Following three years work at the Bodleian, an Online Catalogue to the Marconi Archives was released in November 2008. A granite obelisk stands on the clifftop near the site of Marconi's Marconi's Poldhu Wireless Station in Cornwall, commemorating the first transatlantic transmission.

Places and organizations named after Marconi

Outer space

The asteroid 1332 Marconia is named in his honor.

Europe https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 9/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Italy

Bologna Guglielmo Marconi Airport (IATA: BLQ – ICAO: LIPE), of Bologna, is named after Marconi, its native son. Open University Guglielmo Marconi in Rome, Italy (Università Telematica "Guglielmo Marconi") Ponte Guglielmo Marconi, bridge that connects Piazza Augusto Righi with Piazza Tommaso Edison, in Rome Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering "Guglielmo Marconi" (DEI), Università di Bologna



Australian football (soccer) and social club Marconi Stallions

North America


The 'Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company of Canada' (now CMC Electronics, of Montreal, Canada, was created in 1903 by Guglielmo Marconi.[64] In 1925 the company was renamed to the 'Canadian Marconi Company', which was acquired by in 1953.[64] The company name changed again to CMC Electronics Inc. (French: CMC Électronique) in 2001. The Marconi National Historic Sites of Canada was created by Parks Canada as a tribute to Marconi's vision in the development of radio . The first official wireless message was sent from this location by the to England in 1902. The museum site is located in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, at Table Head on Timmerman Street.

As of 2016 the Canadian Marconi Company and CMC Electronics no longer exist. Most bought up by Esterline in Ottawa. The Marine Service Group was acquired by MacKay Marine but many of the employees left the group at transition.

United States


Marconi Conference Center and State Historic Park, site of the transoceanic Marshall Receiving Station, Marshall


Marconi Beach in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, part of the Cape Cod National Seashore, located near the site of his first transatlantic wireless signal from the United States to England. There are still remnants of the wireless tower at this beach and at Forest Road Beach in Chatham, Massachusetts.[65]

New Jersey

New Brunswick Marconi Station, now the Guglielmo Marconi Memorial Plaza in Somerset, NJ. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points speech was transmitted from the site in 1918. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 10/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia New York

La Scuola d'Italia Guglielmo Marconi on 's Upper East Side


Marconi Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Roman terrace­styled plaza originally designed by the architects Olmsted Brothers in 1914–1916, built as the grand entrance for the 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition and renamed to honor Marconi. Patents

British patents

British patent No. 12,039 (1897) (http://www.earlyradiohistory.us/1901fae.htm) "Improvements in Transmitting Electrical impulses and Signals, and in Apparatus therefor". Date of Application 2 June 1896; Complete Specification Left, 2 March 1897; Accepted, 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent). British patent No. 7,777 (1900) (http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/marconi/exhibition/7777.htm) "Improvements in Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy". Date of Application 26 April 1900; Complete Specification Left, 25 February 1901; Accepted, 13 April 1901. British patent No. 10245 (1902) (http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/marconi/marconi.html#m arconi.B.2.1.a) British patent No. 5113 (1904) "Improvements in Transmitters suitable for Wireless Telegraphy". Date of Application 1 March 1904; Complete Specification Left, 30 November 1904; Accepted, 19 January August 1905. British patent No. 21640 (1904) "Improvements in Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy". Date of Application 8 October 1904; Complete Specification Left, 6 July 1905; Accepted, 10 August 1905. British patent No. 14788 (1904) "Improvements in or relating to Wireless Telegraphy". Date of Application 18 July 1905; Complete Specification Left, 23 January 1906; Accepted, 10 May 1906.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 11/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

US patents

U.S. Patent 586,193 (https://www.google.com/patents/US586193) "Transmitting electrical signals", (using Ruhmkorff coil and Morse code key) filed December 1896, patented July 1897 U.S. Patent 624,516 (https://www.google.com/patents/US624516) "Apparatus employed in wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 627,650 (https://www.google.com/patents/US627650) "Apparatus employed in wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 647,007 (https://www.google.com/patents/US647007) "Apparatus employed in wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 647,008 (https://www.google.com/patents/US647008) "Apparatus employed in wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 647,009 (https://www.google.com/patents/US647009) "Apparatus employed in wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 650,109 (https://www.google.com/patents/US650109) "Apparatus employed in wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 650,110 (https://www.google.com/patents/US650110) "Apparatus employed in wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 668,315 (https://www.google.com/patents/US668315) "Receiver for electrical oscillations". U.S. Patent 760,463 (https://www.google.com/patents/US760463) "Wireless signaling system". U.S. Patent 792,528 (https://www.google.com/patents/US792528) "Wireless telegraphy". Filed 13 October 1903; Issued 13, 1905. U.S. Patent 676,332 (https://www.google.com/patents/US676332) "Apparatus for wireless telegraphy" (later practical version of system) U.S. Patent 757,559 (https://www.google.com/patents/US757559) "Wireless telegraphy system". Filed 19 November 1901; Issued 19 April 1904. U.S. Patent 760,463 (https://www.google.com/patents/US760463) "Wireless signaling system". Filed 10 September 1903; Issued 24 May 1904. U.S. Patent 763,772 (https://www.google.com/patents/US763772) "Apparatus for wireless telegraphy" (Four tuned system; this innovation was predated by N. Tesla, O. Lodge, and J. S. Stone) U.S. Patent 786,132 (https://www.google.com/patents/US786132) "Wireless telegraphy". Filed 13 October 1903 U.S. Patent 792,528 (https://www.google.com/patents/US792528) "Wireless telegraphy". Filed 13 October 1903; Issued 13 June 1905. U.S. Patent 884,986 (https://www.google.com/patents/US884986) "Wireless telegraphy". Filed 28 November 1902; Issued 14 April 1908. U.S. Patent 884,987 (https://www.google.com/patents/US884987) "Wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 884,988 (https://www.google.com/patents/US884988) "Detecting electrical oscillations". Filed 2 February 1903; Issued 14 April 1908. U.S. Patent 884,989 (https://www.google.com/patents/US884989) "Wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 935,381 (https://www.google.com/patents/US935381) "Transmitting apparatus for wireless telegraphy". Filed 10 April 1908; Issued 28 September 1909. U.S. Patent 935,382 (https://www.google.com/patents/US935382) "Apparatus for wireless telegraphy". U.S. Patent 935,383 (https://www.google.com/patents/US935383) "Apparatus for wireless telegraphy". Filed 10 April 1908; Issued 28 September 1909. U.S. Patent 954,640 (https://www.google.com/patents/US954640) "Apparatus for wireless telegraphy". Filed 31 March 1909; Issued 12 April 1910. U.S. Patent 997,308 (https://www.google.com/patents/US997308) "Transmitting apparatus for wireless telegraphy". Filed 15 July 1910; Issued 11 July 1911. U.S. Patent 1,102,990 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1102990) "Means for generating alternating electric currents". Filed 27 January 1914; Issued 7 July 1914. U.S. Patent 1,148,521 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1148521) "Transmitter for wireless telegraphy". Filed 20 July 1908. U.S. Patent 1,226,099 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1226099) "Transmitting apparatus for use in wireless telegraphy and telephony". Filed 31 December 1913; Issued 15 May 1917. U.S. Patent 1,271,190 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1271190) "Wireless telegraph transmitter". U.S. Patent 1,377,722 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1377722) "Electric accumulator". Filed 9 March 1918 U.S. Patent 1,148,521 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1148521) "Transmitter for wireless telegraphy". Filed 20 July 1908; Issued 3 August 1915. U.S. Patent 1,981,058 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1981058) "Thermionic valve". Filed 14 October 1926; Issued 20 November 1934.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 12/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reissued (US)

U.S. Patent RE11,913 (https://www.google.com/patents/USRE11913) "Transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus, there­for". Filed 1 April 1901; Issued 4 June 1901. See also

History of radio List of people on stamps of Ireland List of covers of Time magazine during the 1920s – 6 December 1926 References

1. Bondyopadhyay, Prebir K. (1995). "Guglielmo Marconi – The father of long distance radio communication – An engineer's tribute". 25th European Conference, 1995. p. 879. doi:10.1109/EUMA.1995.337090. 2. Hong, p. 1 3. "Guglielmo Marconi: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909 (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1909/marconi ­bio.html)". nobelprize.org 4. Bondyopadhyay, P.K. (1998). "Sir J.C. Bose detector received Marconi's first transatlantic wireless signal of December 1901 (the 'Italian Navy Coherer' Scandal Revisited)". Proceedings of the IEEE. 86: 259. doi:10.1109/5.658778. 5. Roy, Amit (8 December 2008). "Cambridge 'pioneer' honour for Bose". The Telegraph. Kolkota. Retrieved 10 June 2010. 6. Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC­CLIO. 2009. p. 162. ISBN 978­0­ 313­34743­6. 7. Mulvihill, Mary (2003). Ingenious Ireland: A County­by­County Exploration of the Mysteries and Marvels of the Ingenious Irish. Simon and Schuster. p. 313. ISBN 978­0­684­02094­5. 8. Atti della Accademia di scienze, lettere e arti di Palermo: Scienze (https://books.google.com/books?id=QA0oAQAAIAAJ &q=), Presso l'accademia, 1974, p. 11. 9. Sexton, Michael (2005) Marconi: the Irish connection Four Courts Press. 10. Alfonso, not Guglielmo, was a pupil at Bedford School; 'It is not generally known that the Marconi family at one time lived in Bedford, in the house on Bromham Road on the western corner of Ashburnham Road, and that the elder brother of the renowned Marchese Marconi attended this School for four years', The Ousel (June 1936), p. 78 (Alfonso's obituary) 11. Bedfordshire Times. 23 July 1937, p. 9 (Marconi's obituary) 12. Guglielmo Marconi (Fabrizio Bònoli, Giorgio Dragoni) (http://www.scienzagiovane.unibo.it/English/scientists/marconi­1. html). Scienzagiovane.unibo.it. Retrieved on 10 June 2016. 13. "Guglielmo Marconi and Early Systems of Wireless Communication" (PDF). Retrieved 15 February 2014. 14. McHenry, Robert, ed. (1993). "Guglielmo Marconi". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Corradi, Giuliano, "Guglielmo Marconi," Guglielmo Marconi. Tracce di un genio nel Tigullio, 2009. 16. Marconi, Maria Christina (2001) Marconi My Beloved (https://books.google.com/books?id=wfSABTyeiV4C&pg=PA19& dq=marconi+catholic&hl=en&sa=X&ei=StMVVfzhMYOXNp_agPgI&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=marconi%20 catholic&f=false). Branden Books. pp. 19–24. ISBN 978­0­937832­39­4. 17. Regal, Brian (2005) Radio: The Life Story of a Technology. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 22. ISBN 0313331677 18. Hong, p. 19 19. Guglielmo Marconi, padre della radio (http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/xmarconi.html). Radiomarconi.com. Retrieved on 12 July 2012. 20. Hong, p. 22 21. Marconi delineated his 1895 apparatus in his Nobel Award speech. See: Marconi, "Wireless Telegraphic Communication: Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1909. (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1909/marconi­lecture.html)" Nobel Lectures. Physics 1901–1921. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1967: 196–222. p. 198. 22. Hong, pp. 20–22

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 13/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 23. Marconi, "Wireless Telegraphic Communication: Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1909. (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/p hysics/laureates/1909/marconi­lecture.html)" Nobel Lectures. Physics 1901–1921. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1967: 196–222. p. 206. 24. The Saturday review of politics, literature, science and art, Volume 93. "THE INVENTOR OF WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY: A REPLY. To the Editor of the Saturday Review (https://books.google.com/books?id=gHVHAAAAYA AJ&pg=PA556)" Guglielmo Marconi and "WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY: A REJOINDER. To the Editor of the Saturday Review (https://books.google.com/books?id=gHVHAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA598)," Silvanus P. Thompson. 25. Gualandi, Lodovico (26 June 2000). "MARCONI E LO STRAVOLGIMENTO DELLA VERITÀ STORICA SULLA SUA OPERA". radiomarconi.com. 26. Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 28 By Institution of Electrical Engineers. p. 294 (https://b ooks.google.com/books?id=­ZYZAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA294). 27. Solari, Luigi (February 1948) "Guglielmo Marconi e la Marina Militare Italiana", Rivista Marittima 28. "Flickr Photo". 29. BBC Wales, Marconi's Waves (https://web.archive.org/web/20070120163444/http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/historyhunters/ locations/pages/3_1_flatholm.shtml) at the Wayback Machine (archived 20 January 2007) 30. Helgesen, Henry N. "Wireless Goes to Sea: Marconi's Radio and SS Ponce". Sea History (Spring 2008): 122. 31. First Atlantic Ocean crossing by a wireless signal (http://www.carnetdevol.org/Wireless/marconi­transatlantique.html). Carnetdevol.org. Retrieved on 12 July 2012. 32. Page, Walter Hines and Page, Arthur Wilson (1908) The World's Work. Doubleday, Page & Company. p. 9625 (https://bo oks.google.com/books?vid=0jwYWoq­SQT_os3fWXLhKnc&id=hKPvxXgBN1oC&pg=PA9625&lpg=PA9625) 33. "Marconi and the ". IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine. 46 (2): 130. 2004. doi:10.1109/MAP.2004.1305565. 34. Belrose, John S. (5 September 1995) "Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of this Century (http://www.ieee.ca/millennium/radio/radio_differences.html)". International Conference on 100 Years of Radio. 35. "The Clifden Station of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph System". Scientific American. 23 November 1907. 36. Second Test of the Marconi Over­Ocean Wireless System Proved Entirely Successful (http://marconi100.ca/clip/marconi­ sydpost19071024.html). Sydney Daily Post. 24 October 1907. 37. Eaton, John P. and Haas, Charles A. (1994) Titanic – Triumph and Tragedy, A Chronicle in Words and Pictures. ISBN 0857330241. 38. Herron, Edward A. (1969). Miracle of the Air Waves: A History of Radio. Messner. ISBN 0­671­32079­3. 39. Court of Inquiry Loss of the S.S. Titanic 1912 40. "Titanic's Wireless Connection". Wireless History Foundation. April 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 41. Daugherty, Greg (March 2012). "Seven Famous People Who Missed the Titanic". Smithsonian Magazine. 42. William John (1972) History Of The Marconi Company 1874–1965. p. 296 43. "Radio falls silent for death of Marconi" (http://www.theguardian.com/news/1937/jul/21/mainsection.fromthearchive). Theguardian.com. Retrieved on 10 June 2016. 44. VILLA GRIFFONE, NEAR BOLOGNA, ITALY (https://web.archive.org/web/20140906064514/http://markpadfield.co m/marconicalling/museum/html/places/places­i=13.html). markpadfield.com 45. Guglielmo Marconi (https://www.findagrave.com/cgi­bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=9982) at Find a Grave 46. Redouté, Jean­Michel and Steyaert, Michiel (2009). EMC of Analog Integrated Circuits. Springer Science & Business . p. 3. ISBN 978­90­481­3230­0. 47. Meadow, Charles T. (2002). Making Connections: Communication through the Ages. Scarecrow Press. p. 193. ISBN 978­1­4617­0691­5. 48. White, Thomas H. (1 November 2012). "Nikola Tesla: The Guy Who DIDN'T "Invent Radio". Earlyradiohistory.us. 49. Sobot, Robert (2012). Wireless Communication Electronics: Introduction to RF Circuits and Design Techniques. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 4. ISBN 978­1­4614­1116­1. 50. Padfield, Mark. "Beatrice O'Brien". Marconi Calling. 51. Marconi, Degna (2001) My Father, Marconi. Guernica Editions. pp. 218–227 (https://books.google.com/books?id=NMm StBPCncIC&pg=PA218). ISBN 1550711512. 52. Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landed, and Official Classes (Kelly's, 1969), p. 623 53. Degna Marconi (2001), My Father, Marconi (Guernica Editions), p. 232 (https://books.google.com/books?id=NMmStBP CncIC&pg=PA232). ISBN 1550711512. 54. Physicsworld.com, "Guglielmo Marconi: radio star (http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/14/12/7)", 2001 Archived (http s://web.archive.org/web/20070714032100/http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/14/12/7) 14 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. 55. "80 Years of , Pope Pius XI and Marconi. .. and Father Jozef Murgas?". Saint Benedict Center. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 14/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 56. National Broadcasters Hall of Fame. (http://www.infoage.org/exhibits/national­broadcasters­hall­of­fame/hall­of­fame­arti cles/269­guglielmo­marconi­1977) Accessed 10 February 2009 57. "Pioneer: Guglielmo Marconi". radiohof.org. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 58. Italy 2000 lira banknote (1990) (http://banknote.ws/COLLECTION/countries/EUR/ITA/ITA0115.htm) Banknote Museum (banknote.ws). Retrieved on 17 March 2013. 59. "Milestones:Marconi's Early Wireless Experiments, 1895". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 60. "List of IEEE Milestones". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 61. New Jersey to Bon Jovi: You Give Us a Good Name (http://www.accesshollywood.com/new­jersey­to­jon­bon­jovi­you­g ive­us­a­good­name_article_13374). accesshollywood.com (2 February 2009). 62. UK | England | Berkshire | Marconi archives move to Oxford (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/berkshire/4072929.stm). BBC News (6 December 2004). Retrieved on 2016­06­10. 63. Catalogue of the Marconi Archive now available online (https://web.archive.org/web/20120404155532/http://www.bodleia n.ox.ac.uk/news/2008_nov_07). bodleian.ox.ac.uk (7 November 2008) 64. "CMC Electronics' Profile". CMC Electronics Inc. Retrieved 12 January 2007. 65. "Chatham Marconi Maritime Center". www.arrl.org. Retrieved 9 November 2015. Cited sources

Hong, Sungook (2001). Wireless: From Marconi’s Black­Box to the Audio (PDF). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0­262­08298­5. Further reading

Relatives and company publications

Bussey, Gordon, Marconi's Atlantic Leap (http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0953896706), , 2000. ISBN 0­9538967­0­6 Isted, G.A., Guglielmo Marconi and the History of Radio – Part I (https://googledrive.com/host/0B­UggpdT DpJEWnpUdGc5Tkw2aU0/p45.pdf), General Electric Company, p.l.c., GEC Review, Volume 7, No. 1, p45, 1991, ISSN 0267­9337 (https://www.worldcat.org/search?fq=x0:jrnl&q=n2:0267­9337) Isted, G.A., Guglielmo Marconi and the History of Radio – Part II (https://googledrive.com/host/0B­Uggpd TDpJEM3o0UnBqUlpIN1E/p110.pdf), General Electric Company, p.l.c., GEC Review, Volume 7, No. 2, p110, 1991, ISSN 0267­9337 (https://www.worldcat.org/search?fq=x0:jrnl&q=n2:0267­9337) Marconi, Degna, My Father, Marconi, James Lorimer & Co, 1982. ISBN 0­919511­14­7 (Italian version): Marconi, mio padre, Di Renzo Editore, 2008, ISBN 88­8323­206­2 Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, Year book of wireless telegraphy and telephony, London: Published for the Marconi Press Agency Ltd., by the St. Catherine Press / Wireless Press. LCCN 14017875 sn 86035439 Simons, R.W., Guglielmo Marconi and Early Systems of Wireless Communication (https://googledrive.com/ host/0B­UggpdTDpJEQTYwV0s4VHgwLW8/p37.htm), General Electric Company, p.l.c., GEC Review, Volume 11, No. 1, p37, 1996, ISSN 0267­9337 (https://www.worldcat.org/search?fq=x0:jrnl&q=n2:0267­93 37)


Ahern, Steve (ed), Making Radio (2nd Edition) Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 2006 ISBN 9781741149128. Aitken, Hugh G. J., Syntony and Spark: The Origins of Radio, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976. ISBN 0­471­01816­3 Aitken, Hugh G. J., The : Technology and American Radio, 1900–1932, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985. ISBN 0­691­08376­2. Anderson, Leland I., Priority in the Invention of Radio – Tesla vs. Marconi (http://www.tfcbooks.com/mall/ more/431pir.htm) Baker, W. J., A History of the Marconi Company, 1970. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 15/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Brodsky, Ira. "The History of Wireless: How Creative Minds Produced Technology for the Masses" (Telescope Books, 2008) Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out of Time" Laurel Publishing, 1981. Chapter 7, esp pp 69, re: published lectures of Tesla in 1893, copied by Marconi. Clark, Paddy, "Marconi's Irish Connections Recalled," published in ";100 Years of Radio," IEE Conference Publication 411, 1995. Coe, Douglas and Kreigh Collins (ills), Marconi, pioneer of radio, New York, J. Messner, Inc., 1943. LCCN 43010048 Garratt, G. R. M., The early history of radio: from Faraday to Marconi, London, Institution of Electrical Engineers in association with the Science Museum, series, 1994. ISBN 0­85296­845­0 LCCN gb 94011611 Geddes, Keith, Guglielmo Marconi, 1874–1937, London : H.M.S.O., A Science Museum booklet, 1974. ISBN 0­11­290198­0 LCCN 75329825 (ed. Obtainable in the United States. from Pendragon House Inc., Palo Alto, California.) Hancock, Harry Edgar, Wireless at sea; the first fifty years: A history of the progress and development of marine wireless communications written to commemorate the jubilee of the Marconi International Marine Communication Company, Limited, Chelmsford, Eng., Marconi International Marine Communication Co., 1950. LCCN 51040529 /L Hughes, Michael and Bosworth, Katherine, Titanic Calling : Wireless Communications During the Great Disaster (http://www.bodleianbookshop.co.uk/display.asp?isb=1851243771&TAG=&CID), Oxford, The Bodleian Library, 2012, ISBN 978­1­85124­377­8 Janniello, Maria Grace, Monteleone, Franco and Paoloni, Giovanni (eds) (1996), One hundred years of radio: From Marconi to the future of the telecommunications. Catalogue of the extension, Venice: Marsilio. Jolly, W. P., Marconi, 1972. Larson, Erik, Thunderstruck, New York: Crown Publishers, 2006. ISBN 1­4000­8066­5 A comparison of the lives of and Marconi. Crippen was a murderer whose Transatlantic escape was foiled by the new invention of shipboard radio. MacLeod, Mary K., Marconi: The Canada Years – 1902–1946, Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing Limited, 1992, ISBN 1551093308 Masini, Giancarlo, Guglielmo Marconi, Turin: Turinese typographical­publishing union, 1975. LCCN 77472455 (ed. Contains 32 tables outside of the text) Mason, H. B. (1908). Encyclopaedia of ships and shipping, Wireless Telegraphy (https://books.google.com/b ooks?vid=OCLC11857976&id=0O5AEbIB51sC&pg=RA14­PA686). London: Shipping Encyclopaedia. 1908. Perry, Lawrence (1902). "Commercial Wireless Telegraphy". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. V: 3194–3201. Retrieved 10 July 2009. Stone, Ellery W., Elements of Radiotelegraphy (https://books.google.com/books?vid=0BtG4iC0aqRRXaaqT h&id=MZTaMdOH7VIC) Weightman, Gavin, Signor Marconi's magic box: the most remarkable invention of the & the amateur inventor whose genius sparked a revolution, 1st Da Capo Press ed., Cambridge, MA : Da Capo Press, 2003. ISBN 0­306­81275­4 Winkler, Jonathan Reed. Nexus: Strategic Communications and American Security in World War I. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008). Account of rivalry between Marconi's firm and the United States government during World War I. External links


"Marconi, Guglielmo". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). 1922. Wikimedia Commons has General achievements media related to Guglielmo Marconi. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 16/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nobel Prize: Guglielmo Marconi biography (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1909/marc oni­bio.html) Marconi il 5 marzo 1896, presenta a Londra la prima richiesta provvisoria di brevetto, col numero 5028 e col titolo "Miglioramenti nella telegrafia e relativi apparati" (http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/brevettoma rconi.html) (Great Britain and France between 1896 and 1924) List of British and French patents (1896–1924) (http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/brevettimarconi.htm l) The first patent application number 5028 of 5 March 1896 (Provisional deprivation)

Foundations and academics

University of Oxford Introduction to the Online Catalogue of the Marconi Collection (http://www.mhs.ox.ac. uk/marconi/collection/) University of Oxford Online Catalogue of the Marconi Archives (http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/ wmss/online/modern/marconi/marconi.html) Guglielmo Marconi Foundation, Pontecchio Marconi, Bologna, Italy (http://www.fgm.it/) Galileo Legacy Foundation: pictures of the Dedication of the Guglielmo Marconi Square, Johnston RI United States Dedication Photos (http://www.galileolegacyfoundation.org/foto%20copia/NewEngland.html) History of Marconi House (http://www.arthurlloyd.co.uk/MarconiHouseStrandAldwychLondon.htm), Marconi House, Strand / Aldwych, London.

Multimedia and books

MarconiCalling – The Life, Science and Achievements of Guglielmo Marconi (http://www.MarconiCalling.c om/), part of the Marconi Collection at the University of Oxford Canadian Heritage Minute featuring Marconi (http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10189) Guglielmo Marconi documentary (http://www.revver.com/video/176379/walter­cronkite­narrates­guglielmo­ marconi­documentary/), narrated by Walter Cronkite Review of Signor Marconi's Magic Box (http://www.techsoc.com/marconi.htm)

Transatlantic "signals" and radio

Robert (Bob) White, Guglielmo Marconi – Aerial Assistance with a Kite (http://www.best­breezes.squarespa ce.com/guglielmo­marconi/). Bridging the Atlantic By Wireless Signal – 12 December 1901. Kiting, The Journal of the American Kitefliers Association. Vol. 23, Issue 5 – Winter 2002. November 2001 Faking the Waves, 1901 (http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/physicalscience/story/0,9836,616927,00.ht ml) Marconi and "wireless telegraphy" using kites (http://www.carnetdevol.org/Wireless/radio.html)

Keys and "signals"

Sparks Telegraph Key Review (http://www.zianet.com/sparks/sparkmakers2.html) An exhaustive listing of wireless telegraph key manufacturers including photos of most Marconi keys United States Senate Inquiry into the Titanic disaster – Testimony of Guglielmo Marconi (http://www.titanici nquiry.org/USInq/AmInq01Marconi01.php)

Priority of invention

vs Tesla

PBS: Marconi and Tesla: Who invented radio? (http://www.pbs.org/tesla/ll/ll_whoradio.html) United States Supreme Court, "Marconi Wireless Telegraph co. of America v. United States (http://caselaw.l p.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=320&invol=1)". 320 U.S. 1. Nos. 369, 373. Argued 9–12 April 1943. Decided 21 . 21st Century Books: Priority in the Invention of Radio – Tesla vs. Marconi (http://www.tfcbooks.com/mall/ more/431pir.htm) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi 17/18 10/5/2016 Guglielmo Marconi ­ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Personal

Information about Marconi and his yacht Elettra (http://maritime.elettra.co.uk/panfilo) I diari di laboratorio di Guglielmo Marconi (http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/gm_diari.html) (The diaries of laboratory Guglielmo Marconi.) Comitato Guglielmo Marconi International, Bologna, Italy (http://www.radiomarconi.com/) (Marconi's voice) August 1914 photo article on Marconi Belmar station in Wall, NJ (https://web.archive.org/web/20120614035 728/http://www.campevans.org/_CE/html/wa­1914­08­index.html), InfoAge. (See also, Marconi Period of Significance Historic Buildings. (http://www.campevans.org/_CE/html/nrhp.html#Mar7­1)) Marconi, Guglielmo: Statue north of Meridian Hill Park in Washington (http://www.dcmemorials.com/index _indiv0001825.htm), D.C. by Attilio Piccirilli


Guglielmo Marconi, 2000 Italian Lire (1990) (http://www­personal.umich.edu/~jbourj/money3.htm)

Academic offices Preceded by Rector of the University of St Andrews Succeeded by Jan Smuts 1934–1937 Robert MacGregor Mitchell

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guglielmo_Marconi&oldid=741838668"

Categories: Guglielmo Marconi 1874 births 1937 deaths 20th­century physicists European operators Experimental physicists Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order IEEE Medal of Honor recipients Converts to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism Italian electrical engineers Italian emigrants to the United States Italian expatriates in England Italian fascists Italian inventors Italian Nobel laureates Italian nobility Italian people of Irish descent Italian people of Scottish descent Italian Roman Catholics Members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences Members of the Royal Academy of Italy National Radio Hall of Fame inductees Nobel laureates in Physics People from Bologna People from Wall Township, New Jersey Radio pioneers Rectors of the University of St Andrews Members of the Senate of the Kingdom of Italy

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