Pdf File of Second Edition, January 2018
Total Page：16
File Type：pdf, Size：1020Kb
Probability on Graphs Random Processes on Graphs and Lattices Second Edition, 2018 GEOFFREY GRIMMETT Statistical Laboratory University of Cambridge copyright Geoffrey Grimmett Geoffrey Grimmett Statistical Laboratory Centre for Mathematical Sciences University of Cambridge Wilberforce Road Cambridge CB3 0WB United Kingdom 2000 MSC: (Primary) 60K35, 82B20, (Secondary) 05C80, 82B43, 82C22 With 56 Figures copyright Geoffrey Grimmett Contents Preface ix 1 Random Walks on Graphs 1 1.1 Random Walks and Reversible Markov Chains 1 1.2 Electrical Networks 3 1.3 FlowsandEnergy 8 1.4 RecurrenceandResistance 11 1.5 Polya'sÂ Theorem 14 1.6 GraphTheory 16 1.7 Exercises 18 2 Uniform Spanning Tree 21 2.1 De®nition 21 2.2 Wilson's Algorithm 23 2.3 Weak Limits on Lattices 28 2.4 Uniform Forest 31 2.5 Schramm±LownerEvolutionsÈ 32 2.6 Exercises 36 3 Percolation and Self-Avoiding Walks 39 3.1 PercolationandPhaseTransition 39 3.2 Self-Avoiding Walks 42 3.3 ConnectiveConstantoftheHexagonalLattice 45 3.4 CoupledPercolation 53 3.5 Oriented Percolation 53 3.6 Exercises 56 4 Association and In¯uence 59 4.1 Holley Inequality 59 4.2 FKG Inequality 62 4.3 BK Inequalitycopyright Geoffrey Grimmett63 vi Contents 4.4 HoeffdingInequality 65 4.5 In¯uenceforProductMeasures 67 4.6 ProofsofIn¯uenceTheorems 72 4.7 Russo'sFormulaandSharpThresholds 80 4.8 Exercises 83 5 Further Percolation 86 5.1 Subcritical Phase 86 5.2 Supercritical Phase 90 5.3 UniquenessoftheIn®niteCluster 96 5.4 Phase Transition 99 5.5 OpenPathsinAnnuli 103 5.6 The Critical Probability in Two Dimensions 107 5.7 Cardy's Formula 115 5.8 The Critical Probability via the Sharp-Threshold Theorem 126 5.9 Exercises 130 6 ContactProcess 131 6.1 StochasticEpidemics 131 6.2 CouplingandDuality 133 6.3 InvariantMeasuresandPercolation 135 6.4 The Critical Value 137 6.5 TheContactModelonaTree 139 6.6 Space±TimePercolation 142 6.7 Exercises 145 7 Gibbs States 146 7.1 DependencyGraphs 146 7.2 MarkovandGibbsRandomFields 148 7.3 IsingandPottsModels 152 7.4 Exercises 154 8 Random-Cluster Model 156 8.1 TheRandom-Cluster,Ising,andPottsModels 156 8.2 Basic Properties 159 8.3 In®nite-Volume Limits and Phase Transition 160 8.4 OpenProblems 165 8.5 InTwoDimensions 167 8.6 Proof of the Critical Point in Two Dimensions 173 8.7 RandomEvenGraphscopyright Geoffrey Grimmett 183 8.8 Exercises 186 Contents vii 9 Quantum Ising Model 189 9.1 TheModel 189 9.2 ContinuumRandom-ClusterModel 191 9.3 QuantumIsingviaRandom-ClusterModel 193 9.4 Long-RangeOrder 198 9.5 EntanglementinOneDimension 199 9.6 Exercises 203 10 Interacting Particle Systems 204 10.1 IntroductoryRemarks 204 10.2 Contact Model 206 10.3 Voter Model 207 10.4 Exclusion Model 211 10.5 StochasticIsingModel 214 10.6 Exercises 218 11 Random Graphs 219 11.1 Erdos±RÍ enyiGraphsÂ 219 11.2 Giant Component 221 11.3 IndependenceandColouring 226 11.4 Exercises 231 12 Lorentz Gas 233 12.1 Lorentz Model 233 12.2 TheSquareLorentzGas 234 12.3 In thePlane 237 12.4 Exercises 238 References 240 Index 261 copyright Geoffrey Grimmett copyright Geoffrey Grimmett Preface Within the menagerie of objects studied in contemporaryprobability theory, a number of related animals have attracted great interest amongst proba- bilists and physicists in recent years. The inspiration for many of these objects comes from physics, but the mathematical subject has taken on a life of its own and many beautiful constructions have emerged. The overall target of these notes is to identify some of these topics, and to develop their basic theory at a level suitable for mathematics graduates. If the two principal characters in these notes are random walk and per- colation, they are only part of the rich theory of uniform spanning trees, self-avoiding walks, random networks, models for ferromagnetism and the spread of disease, and motion in random environments. This is an area that has attracted many ®ne scientists, by virtue, perhaps, of its special mixture of modelling and problem-solving. There remain many open problems. It is the experience of the author that these may be explained successfully to a graduate audience open to inspiration and provocation. The material described here may be used for personal study and also as the bases of lecture courses of between 16 and 48 hours duration. Little is assumed about the mathematical background of the audience beyond some basic probability theory, but students should be willing to get their hands dirty if they are to pro®t. Care should be taken in the setting of examinations, since problems can be unexpectedly dif®cult. Successful examinations may be designed, and some help is offered through the inclusion of exercises at the ends of chapters. As an alternative to a conventional examination, students could be asked to deliver presentations on aspects and extensions of the topics studied. Chapter 1 is devoted to the relationship between random walks (on graphs) andelectricalnetworks. This leadsto the ThomsonandRayleigh principles, andthencetoaproofofPolya'sÂ theorem. In Chapter2, we describe Wilson's algorithm for constructing a uniform spanning tree (UST), and we discuss boundary conditionscopyright and weak limits forGeoffrey UST on a lattice. Grimmett This chapter includes a brief introduction to Schramm±LownerÈ evolutions (SLEs). x Preface Percolation theory appears ®rst in Chapter 3, together with a short intro- duction to self-avoiding walks. Correlation inequalities and other general techniques are described in Chapter 4. A special feature of this part of the book is a fairly full treatment of in¯uence and sharp-threshold theorems for product measures, and more generally for monotone measures. We return to the basic theory of percolation in Chapter 5, including a full account of Smirnov's proof of Cardy's formula. This is followed in Chapter 6 by a study of the contact model on lattices and trees. Chapter 7 begins with a proof of the equivalence of Gibbs states and Markov ®elds, and continues with an introduction to the Ising and Potts models. Chapter 8 contains an account of the random-cluster model. The quantum Ising model features in the nextchapter, particularly through its re- lationship to a continuum random-clustermodeland theconsequent analysis using stochastic geometry. Interacting particle systems form the basis of Chapter 10. This is a large ®eld in its own right, and little is done here beyond introductions to the contact, voter, and exclusion models, and to the stochastic Ising model. Chapter 11 is devoted to random graphs of Erdos±RÍ enyiÂ type. There are accountsofthe giantcluster, and of the chromaticnumbervia an application of Hoeffding's inequality for the tail of a martingale. The ®nal Chapter 12 contains one of the most notorious open problems in stochastic geometry, namely the Lorentz model (or Ehrenfest wind±tree model) on the square lattice. This text is based in part on courses given by the author within Part 3 of the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge University over a period of several years. They have been prepared in the present form as background mate- rial for lecture courses presented to outstanding audiences of students and professors at the 2008 PIMS±UBC Summer School in Probability and dur- ing the programme on Statistical Mechanics at the Institut Henri Poincare,Â Paris, during the last quarter of 2008. The book was written in part during a visit to the Mathematics Department at UCLA (with partial support from NSF grant DMS-0301795), to which the author expresses his gratitude for the warm welcome received there, and in part during programmes at the Isaac Newton Institute and the Institut Henri Poincare±CentreÂ Emile Borel. Throughout this work, pointers are included to more extensive accounts of the topics covered. The selection of references is intended to be useful rather than comprehensive. The author thanks four artists for permission to include their work: Tom Kennedy (Figure 2.1),Odedcopyright Schramm (Figures Geoffrey 2.2±2.4),Raph GrimmettaelÈ Cerf (Fig- ure5.2),andJulienDubedat(Figure5.17).Â Thesectiononin¯uencehasben- Preface xi e®ted from conversations with Rob van den Berg and Tom Liggett. Stanislav Smirnov and Wendelin Werner have consented to the inclusion of some of their neat arguments, hitherto unpublished. Several readers have proposed suggestions and corrections. Thank you, everyone! G. R. G. Cambridge April 2010 Preface to the Second Edition The major additions in this new edition include: a proof of the connective constant of the hexagonal lattice (Theorem 3.14), an improved in¯uence theorem for general product spaces (Theorem 4.38), a streamlined proof of exponential decay for subcritical percolation (Theorem 5.1), and a proof of the critical point of therandom-clustermodel onthe square lattice (Theorem 8.25). The author is grateful to students and colleagues for their suggestions for improvements. Special thanksare due to NaserTalebizadeh Sardari, Claude Belisle,Â Svante Janson, and Russell Lyons. Some of the writing was done during a visit to the Statistics Department of the University of California at Berkeley, with partial support from UC Berkeley and from the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council under grant EP/I03372X/1. July 2017 copyright Geoffrey Grimmett copyright Geoffrey Grimmett 1 Random Walks on Graphs The theory of electrical networks is a fundamental tool for studying the recurrence of reversible Markov chains. The Kirchhoff laws and Thomson principle permit a neat proof of Polya'sÂ theorem for random walk on a d-dimensional grid. 1.1 Random Walks and Reversible Markov Chains A basic knowledgeof probabilitytheoryis assumedin this volume. Readers keen to acquire this are referred to [150] for an elementary introduction, and to [148] for a somewhat more advancedaccount. We shall generally use the letter P to denote a generic probability measure, with more speci®c notation when helpful. The expectation of a random variable f will be written as either P( f ) or E( f ).