CHINESE which (energy) crystallizes and forms all living things. CHINESE RELIGIONS There was one universal and primordial (principle) that is objectively descriptive (i.e., it describes why things are) A generic term often used to indicate the various reli- and morally prescriptive (it prescribes what can be done gious traditions that emerged in over its long histo- to these things). Adapting the Mencian assertion that ry. There are four basic categories of Chinese religions: ‘‘original human ’’ (benxing) is wholly good, (1) , (2) DAOISM, (3) and (4) Xi claimed that li (principle) is wholly good, and Chinese folk religions. Throughout China’s history, these arises not from li (principle) but turgid qi (bad energy), religious traditions have interacted with, shaped and which can be clarified through disciplined self- transformed each other. The boundaries of these religious cultivation. The purpose of education is to acquire knowl- traditions have remained fluid, with a significant amount edge of the descriptive and prescriptive aspects of li of mutual interaction and sharing of common elements. (principle) through the ‘‘investigation of all things’’ (ge In their later developed form, Neo-Confucianism and ). Neo-Daoism resembled each other to the extent that it was difficult to tell where one ended and the other began. and the School of the The traditional Chinese term sanjiao (‘‘Three Ways’’) (Xinxue). Wang Yangming (1472–1529), the idealist best exemplifies this complex interaction. Sanjiao refers Neo-Confucian of the who synthe- to the three Chinese great religious traditions of Confu- sized the principal teachings of the School of the Mind cianism, Daoism and Buddhism. A person can practice (Xinxue), rejected the rationalist approach of . He any one or more, or even all three religious traditions - propounded a doctrine of the ‘‘unity of and multaneously, according to the specific needs in the action’’ ( xing he ) based on the notion that principle course of one’s life. One could be a Confucian in public (li) is found wholly within the mind (), because the life, a Daoist adept searching for immortality, and offer- mind is the repository of the innate knowledge of all ing sacrifices to local for good fortune. goodness (liangzhi). To investigate these moral princi- ples is to ‘‘rectify the mind’’ (chengyi). Thus, for Wang Neolithic Origins. The earliest Chinese settlements Yangming, the ‘‘investigation of things for attaining emerged during the Neolithic period (circa 5,000 B.C.) knowledge’’ (ge wu zhi zhi) is unnecessary, all that is and the Bronze Age (circa 3,000 B.C.). No unified Chi- needed is a contemplative and introspective ‘‘rectifica- nese civilization existed during these two periods, merely tion of the mind’’ (chengyi). pockets of Chinese settlements known as Yangshao Cul- ture, Dawenko Culture, Liangche Culture, Hungshan See Also: BUDDHISM-CHINA; CHINESE RELIGIONS; Culture, Longshan Culture and Erligang Culture, named CHINESE CONTROVERSY; CONFUCIANISM AND after their achaeological sites. Archaeological excava- NEO-CONFUCIANISM; (KONG FUZI); tions have uncovered burial sites with graves arranged hi- DAOISM (); (LAO-TZU); erarchically. Remains of graveside offerings of (MENGZI); (-TZU); (CHUANG-TZU). food and drink and pig skulls were unearthed at some sites, while primitive amulets and statues were found at [J. Y. TAN] others. These discoveries point to rudimentary forms of Bibliography: D. BODDE, Chinese Thought, , and Sci- ancestor veneration in ancient Chinese religious practice. ence (Honolulu 1991) W. T. CHAN, A Sourcebook in Chinese Philos- ophy (Princeton 1963) K. CH’EN, Buddhism in China: a Historical (circa 1751–1045 B.C.). The period Survey (Princeton 1964) W. T. BARY, et al., eds. Sources of Chi- of the Shang dynasty witnessed the emergence of a dis- nese Tradition (New York 1960) W. T. DE BARY, et al, The Unfold- tinct class of shamans tasked with bone ing of Neo-Confucianism (New York 1975) W. T. DE BARY, The (jiagu). These shamans inscribed questions to the spirits Trouble with Confucianism (Cambridge, MA 1991) A. C. GRAHAM, Later Mohist , and Science ( Kong 1978) A. C. on pieces of tortoise or oxen bones using the earliest ex- GRAHAM, Disputers of the : Philosophical Argument in Ancient tant form of the Chinese script. These questions were China (La Salle, IL 1989). A. C. GRAHAM, Studies in Chinese Phi- phrased in a way that could be answered by a ‘‘yes’’ (i.e., losophy and Philosophical Nature (Albany, NY 1990) D. L. HALL auspicious) or ‘‘no’’ (i.e., inauspicious). The two possi- and R. T. AMES, Thinking Through Confucius (Albany, NY 1987) ble answers were also inscribed, and the bones heated to D. L. HALL and R. T. AMES, Anticipating China: Thinking Through the Narratives of Chinese and (Albany, NY 1995) induce splitting. The split-line nearest the word ‘‘auspi- D. L. HALL and R. T. AMES, Thinking from the Han: Self, and cious’’ or ‘‘inauspicious’’ was taken as the answer. Al- in Chinese and Western Culture (Albany, NY 1997) though some of the questions were addressed to either the J. B. HENDERSON, The Development and Decline of Chinese Cos- supreme (the Most High ) or other mology (New York 1984) L. M. JENSEN, Manufacturing Confucian- lesser deities of the wind and grain, celestial bodies, ism: Chinese traditions & universal civilization (Durham 1997) B. I. SCHWARTZ, The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, mountains and rivers, the majority of the questions were MA 1985). directed at the ancestors of the Shang ruling . Other

512 NEW CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA CHINESE RITES CONTROVERSY evidence indicates that the Shang ruling house also of- ties are sometimes adopted from the great religions, e.g., fered sacrifices to their ancestors and to Shangdi. Taken the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara the ‘‘ together, the oracle bones and ancestral sacrifices indi- of mercy’’ Guanyin in Chinese folk religious tradition. cate the emergence of a state-sanctioned religious frame- Devotees offer , , sacrifices and other ritu- work that was built upon ancestral veneration. als, in return for favors, good fortune, divination, as well think that the concept of Shangdi originated as a deified as protection from malevolent or hungry ghosts. primeval ancestor spirit or spirits. Central to the Chinese folk religious traditions is the (1045–249 B.C.). The Zhou dynasty annual cycle of religious feasts that combines elements introduced the cult of sacrifices to (‘‘’’). Re- from popular customs, Daoism, Confucianism and Bud- searchers remain uncertain whether Tian was an anthro- dhism. Highlights of this cyclical calendar include the pomorphic or impersonal entity. Scholars who argue for Spring Festival or Lunar New Year (first day of the first the anthropomorphic origin of Tian have pointed to the moon), the Feast of the Earth (second day of the sec- fact that etymologically, the ideography for Tian is a per- ond moon), the birth of the goddess of mercy, Guanyin son with outstretched arms and wearing a hat, perhaps (19th day of the second moon), the day of ‘‘sweeping the evocative of a deified primordial ancestral guardian pro- ancestral graves,’’ Qingming (105 days after winter sol- tecting the ruling house. During this period, large scale stice), the birth of Sakyamuni Buddha or Vesak day (eighth day of the fourth moon), the Festival of the Drag- ancestral veneration evolved and took root. on Boats and Dumplings (fifth day of the fifth moon), the The ‘‘Three Ways’’ (Sanjiao). Major develop- hungry ghosts’ month (seventh moon), the Festival of the ments took place during the tumultuous period of the Two Lovers – the Cowherd and Weaving Maid (seventh Hundred Schools (Bai jia), straddling the latter part of the day of the seventh moon), the Mid-autumn Festival or the (722–481 B.C.), the twilight Festival of the Moon (15th day of the eighth moon), the years of the Zhou dynasty, and the Winter Solstice, and the Feast of the Ascension of the (481–221 B.C.), when Zhou rule collapsed and feudal to Heaven (a week before the Spring Festi- states vied for power. This was a period of terrible suffer- val). ing for the ordinary folk caught in the crossfire of ma- See Also: LAOZI (LAO-TZU). rauding armies. The old cultural-religious order had collapsed and created a spiritual vacuum. Bibliography: A.P. WOLF, ed., and Ritual in Chinese Society (Stanford, Calif. 1974). J. BERLING, Pilgrimage to Lion’s and scholars from rival schools offered competing solu- Head Mountain: The Many Levels and Layers of Chinese Religious tions to the existential questions on human suffering and Life (Macomb, IL 1993). J. CHING, Chinese Religions (Maryknoll, social disorder. Promoters of the two emerging traditions NY: 1993). D. SOMMER, Chinese Religion: An Anthology of Sources of Confucianism and Daoism battled one another and (New York 1995). D. S. LOPEZ, Religions of China in Practice with other rivals such as the Legalists, Mohists, and the (Princeton 1996). M. SHAHAR and R.P. WELLER, Unruly : - vinity and Society in China (Honolulu 1996). M.-C. POO, In Search Naturalists. During this chaotic period, the Daoist classic of Personal Welfare: A View of Ancient Chinese Religion (Albany, Daodejing () was written. The two eventual NY 1998) K. M. SCHIPPER and J. DE MEYER, eds. Linked : Es- victors, Daoism and Confucianism would face a third re- says on Chinese Religions and Traditional Culture in Honor of ligious force, BUDDHISM that arrived on Chinese soil in Kristofer Schipper (Leiden 2000). S. FEUCHTWANG, Popular Reli- gion in China: The Imperial Metaphor (Richmond 2001). the 2nd century A.D. [J. Y. TAN] Chinese Folk Religions. The popular level wit- nessed the gradual evolution of vibrant Chinese folk reli- gious traditions that combine elements from the three CHINESE RITES CONTROVERSY great religious traditions. A defining characteristic of all Chinese folk religious traditions is its large of Spanning three centuries from the 1630s to 1939, the provincial, city and clannic deities, ancestral spirits and Chinese Rites Controversy arose from a disagreement be- ghosts, presided over by the Jade (Yuhuang). tween the Jesuits on the one hand, and the Dominicans, Some of the more popular folk religious traditions in- and the Paris Foreign , on the clude the cult of the Kitchen God (who makes an annual other, on the various rituals that were used in the cult of report to the on the behavior and conduct Confucius and the veneration of ancestors (the so-called of the family), the ubiquitous cult of the Earth God (Tudi- ‘‘Chinese rites’’). The dispute centered on whether these gong) who protects households from wandering malevo- rites were purely civil in nature, or religious and therefore lent ghosts, and the cult of the City God (Chenghuang) amounted to superstition. who guards the city and escorts departed to the sub- The Rites. The ancestral veneration rituals are com- terranean netherworld realm of the Yellow Springs. Dei- monly associated with the cult of Confucius and his