# PHYSICS 430 Lecture Notes on Quantum Mechanics

Total Page：16

File Type：pdf, Size：1020Kb

391
Recommended publications
• Glossary Physics (I-Introduction)
1 Glossary Physics (I-introduction) - Efficiency: The percent of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output; = work done / energy used [-]. = eta In machines: The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input (<=100%); in an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into heat: work(input) = work(output), =100%. Energy: The property of a system that enables it to do work. Conservation o. E.: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Equilibrium: The state of an object when not acted upon by a net force or net torque; an object in equilibrium may be at rest or moving at uniform velocity - not accelerating. Mechanical E.: The state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancels to zero and no acceleration occurs. Dynamic E.: Object is moving without experiencing acceleration. Static E.: Object is at rest.F Force: The influence that can cause an object to be accelerated or retarded; is always in the direction of the net force, hence a vector quantity; the four elementary forces are: Electromagnetic F.: Is an attraction or repulsion G, gravit. const.6.672E-11[Nm2/kg2] between electric charges: d, distance [m] 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (q1q2/d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] m,M, mass [kg] Gravitational F.: Is a mutual attraction between all masses: q, charge [As] [C] 2 2 2 2 F = GmM/d [Nm /kg kg 1/m ] = [N] 0, dielectric constant Strong F.: (nuclear force) Acts within the nuclei of atoms: 8.854E-12 [C2/Nm2] [F/m] 2 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (e /d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] , 3.14 [-] Weak F.: Manifests itself in special reactions among elementary e, 1.60210 E-19 [As] [C] particles, such as the reaction that occur in radioactive decay.
[Show full text]
• The Particle Zoo
219 8 The Particle Zoo 8.1 Introduction Around 1960 the situation in particle physics was very confusing. Elementary particlesa such as the photon, electron, muon and neutrino were known, but in addition many more particles were being discovered and almost any experiment added more to the list. The main property that these new particles had in common was that they were strongly interacting, meaning that they would interact strongly with protons and neutrons. In this they were different from photons, electrons, muons and neutrinos. A muon may actually traverse a nucleus without disturbing it, and a neutrino, being electrically neutral, may go through huge amounts of matter without any interaction. In other words, in some vague way these new particles seemed to belong to the same group of by Dr. Horst Wahl on 08/28/12. For personal use only. particles as the proton and neutron. In those days proton and neutron were mysterious as well, they seemed to be complicated compound states. At some point a classification scheme for all these particles including proton and neutron was introduced, and once that was done the situation clarified considerably. In that Facts And Mysteries In Elementary Particle Physics Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com era theoretical particle physics was dominated by Gell-Mann, who contributed enormously to that process of systematization and clarification. The result of this massive amount of experimental and theoretical work was the introduction of quarks, and the understanding that all those ‘new’ particles as well as the proton aWe call a particle elementary if we do not know of a further substructure.
[Show full text]
• Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics
Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics Dennis V. Perepelitsa MIT Department of Physics 70 Amherst Ave. Cambridge, MA 02142 Abstract We present the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and demon- strate its equivalence to the Schr¨odinger picture. We apply the method to the free particle and quantum harmonic oscillator, investigate the Euclidean path integral, and discuss other applications. 1 Introduction A fundamental question in quantum mechanics is how does the state of a particle evolve with time? That is, the determination the time-evolution ψ(t) of some initial | i state ψ(t ) . Quantum mechanics is fully predictive [3] in the sense that initial | 0 i conditions and knowledge of the potential occupied by the particle is enough to fully specify the state of the particle for all future times.1 In the early twentieth century, Erwin Schr¨odinger derived an equation speciﬁes how the instantaneous change in the wavefunction d ψ(t) depends on the system dt | i inhabited by the state in the form of the Hamiltonian. In this formulation, the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian play an important role, since their time-evolution is easy to calculate (i.e. they are stationary). A well-established method of solution, after the entire eigenspectrum of Hˆ is known, is to decompose the initial state into this eigenbasis, apply time evolution to each and then reassemble the eigenstates. That is, 1In the analysis below, we consider only the position of a particle, and not any other quantum property such as spin. 2 D.V. Perepelitsa n=∞ ψ(t) = exp [ iE t/~] n ψ(t ) n (1) | i − n h | 0 i| i n=0 X This (Hamiltonian) formulation works in many cases.
[Show full text]
• Department of Physics College of Arts and Sciences Physics
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES PHYSICS Faculty I. Major in Physics—38 hours William Nettles (2006). Professor of Physics, Department A. Physics 231-232, 311, 313, 314, 420, 424(1-3 Chair, and Associate Dean of the College of Arts and hours), 430, 498—28–30 hours Sciences. B.S., Mississippi College; M.S., and Ph.D., B. Select three or more courses: PHY 262, 325, 350, Vanderbilt University. 360, 395-6-7*, 400, 410, 417, 425 (1-2 hours**), 495* Ildefonso Guilaran (2008). Associate Professor of Physics. C. Prerequisites: MAT 211, 212, 213, 314 B.S., Western Kentucky University; M.S. and Ph.D., *Must be approved Special/Independent Studies Florida State University. **Maximum 3 hours from 424 and 425 apply to major. Geoffrey Poore (2010). Assistant Professor of Physics. B.A., II. Major in Physical Science—44 hours Wheaton College; M.S. and Ph.D., University of Illinois. A. CHE 111, 112, 113, 211, 221—15 hours David A. Ward (1992, 1999). Professor of Physics, B.S. B. PHY 112, 231-32, 311, 310 or 301—22 hours and M.A., University of South Florida; Ph.D., North C. Upper Level Electives from CHE and PHY—7 Carolina State University. hours; maximum 1 hour from 424 and 1 from 498 III. Minor in Physics—24 semester hours Staff Physics 231-232, 311, + 10 hours of Physics electives Christine Rowland (2006). Academic Secretary— except PHY 111, 112, 301, 310 Engineering, Physics, Math, and Computer Science. IV. Teacher Licensure in Physics (Grades 6–12) A. Complete the requirements shown above for the Physics or Physical Science major.
[Show full text]
• Quantum Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
Quantum Theory of the Hydrogen Atom Chemistry 35 Fall 2000 Balmer and the Hydrogen Spectrum n 1885: Johann Balmer, a Swiss schoolteacher, empirically deduced a formula which predicted the wavelengths of emission for Hydrogen: l (in Å) = 3645.6 x n2 for n = 3, 4, 5, 6 n2 -4 •Predicts the wavelengths of the 4 visible emission lines from Hydrogen (which are called the Balmer Series) •Implies that there is some underlying order in the atom that results in this deceptively simple equation. 2 1 The Bohr Atom n 1913: Niels Bohr uses quantum theory to explain the origin of the line spectrum of hydrogen 1. The electron in a hydrogen atom can exist only in discrete orbits 2. The orbits are circular paths about the nucleus at varying radii 3. Each orbit corresponds to a particular energy 4. Orbit energies increase with increasing radii 5. The lowest energy orbit is called the ground state 6. After absorbing energy, the e- jumps to a higher energy orbit (an excited state) 7. When the e- drops down to a lower energy orbit, the energy lost can be given off as a quantum of light 8. The energy of the photon emitted is equal to the difference in energies of the two orbits involved 3 Mohr Bohr n Mathematically, Bohr equated the two forces acting on the orbiting electron: coulombic attraction = centrifugal accelleration 2 2 2 -(Z/4peo)(e /r ) = m(v /r) n Rearranging and making the wild assumption: mvr = n(h/2p) n e- angular momentum can only have certain quantified values in whole multiples of h/2p 4 2 Hydrogen Energy Levels n Based on this model, Bohr arrived at a simple equation to calculate the electron energy levels in hydrogen: 2 En = -RH(1/n ) for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, .
[Show full text]
• Identical Particles
8.06 Spring 2016 Lecture Notes 4. Identical particles Aram Harrow Last updated: May 19, 2016 Contents 1 Fermions and Bosons 1 1.1 Introduction and two-particle systems .......................... 1 1.2 N particles ......................................... 3 1.3 Non-interacting particles .................................. 5 1.4 Non-zero temperature ................................... 7 1.5 Composite particles .................................... 7 1.6 Emergence of distinguishability .............................. 9 2 Degenerate Fermi gas 10 2.1 Electrons in a box ..................................... 10 2.2 White dwarves ....................................... 12 2.3 Electrons in a periodic potential ............................. 16 3 Charged particles in a magnetic ﬁeld 21 3.1 The Pauli Hamiltonian ................................... 21 3.2 Landau levels ........................................ 23 3.3 The de Haas-van Alphen eﬀect .............................. 24 3.4 Integer Quantum Hall Eﬀect ............................... 27 3.5 Aharonov-Bohm Eﬀect ................................... 33 1 Fermions and Bosons 1.1 Introduction and two-particle systems Previously we have discussed multiple-particle systems using the tensor-product formalism (cf. Section 1.2 of Chapter 3 of these notes). But this applies only to distinguishable particles. In reality, all known particles are indistinguishable. In the coming lectures, we will explore the mathematical and physical consequences of this. First, consider classical many-particle systems. If a single particle has state described by position and momentum (~r; p~), then the state of N distinguishable particles can be written as (~r1; p~1; ~r2; p~2;:::; ~rN ; p~N ). The notation (·; ·;:::; ·) denotes an ordered list, in which diﬀerent posi­ tions have diﬀerent meanings; e.g. in general (~r1; p~1; ~r2; p~2)6 = (~r2; p~2; ~r1; p~1). 1 To describe indistinguishable particles, we can use set notation.
[Show full text]
• The Concept of Quantum State : New Views on Old Phenomena Michel Paty
The concept of quantum state : new views on old phenomena Michel Paty To cite this version: Michel Paty. The concept of quantum state : new views on old phenomena. Ashtekar, Abhay, Cohen, Robert S., Howard, Don, Renn, Jürgen, Sarkar, Sahotra & Shimony, Abner. Revisiting the Founda- tions of Relativistic Physics : Festschrift in Honor of John Stachel, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 451-478, 2003. halshs-00189410 HAL Id: halshs-00189410 https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00189410 Submitted on 20 Nov 2007 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci- destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents entific research documents, whether they are pub- scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, lished or not. The documents may come from émanant des établissements d’enseignement et de teaching and research institutions in France or recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires abroad, or from public or private research centers. publics ou privés. « The concept of quantum state: new views on old phenomena », in Ashtekar, Abhay, Cohen, Robert S., Howard, Don, Renn, Jürgen, Sarkar, Sahotra & Shimony, Abner (eds.), Revisiting the Foundations of Relativistic Physics : Festschrift in Honor of John Stachel, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 451-478. , 2003 The concept of quantum state : new views on old phenomena par Michel PATY* ABSTRACT. Recent developments in the area of the knowledge of quantum systems have led to consider as physical facts statements that appeared formerly to be more related to interpretation, with free options.
[Show full text]
• Degenerate Eigenvalue Problem 32.1 Degenerate Perturbation
Physics 342 Lecture 32 Degenerate Eigenvalue Problem Lecture 32 Physics 342 Quantum Mechanics I Wednesday, April 23rd, 2008 We have the matrix form of the ﬁrst order perturbative result from last time. This carries over pretty directly to the Schr¨odingerequation, with only minimal replacement (the inner product and ﬁnite vector space change, but notationally, the results are identical). Because there are a variety of quantum mechanical systems with degenerate spectra (like the Hydrogen 2 eigenstates, each En has n associated eigenstates) and we want to be able to predict the energy shift associated with perturbations in these systems, we can copy our arguments for matrices to cover matrices with more than one eigenvector per eigenvalue. The punch line of that program is that we can use the non-degenerate perturbed energies, provided we start with the \correct" degenerate linear combinations. 32.1 Degenerate Perturbation N×N Going back to our symmetric matrix example, we have A IR , and 2 again, a set of eigenvectors and eigenvalues: A xi = λi xi. This time, suppose that the eigenvalue λi has a set of M associated eigenvectors { that is, suppose a set of eigenvectors yj satisfy: A yj = λi yj j = 1 M (32.1) −! 1 of 9 32.1. DEGENERATE PERTURBATION Lecture 32 (so this represents M separate equations) that are themselves orthonormal1. Clearly, any linear combination of these vectors is also an eigenvector: M M X X A βk yk = λi βk yk: (32.2) k=1 k=1 M PM Deﬁne the general combination of yi to be z βk yk, also an f gi=1 ≡ k=1 eigenvector of A with eigenvalue λi.
[Show full text]
• Principal, Azimuthal and Magnetic Quantum Numbers and the Magnitude of Their Values
268 A Textbook of Physical Chemistry – Volume I Principal, Azimuthal and Magnetic Quantum Numbers and the Magnitude of Their Values The Schrodinger wave equation for hydrogen and hydrogen-like species in the polar coordinates can be written as: 1 휕 휕휓 1 휕 휕휓 1 휕2휓 8휋2휇 푍푒2 (406) [ (푟2 ) + (푆푖푛휃 ) + ] + (퐸 + ) 휓 = 0 푟2 휕푟 휕푟 푆푖푛휃 휕휃 휕휃 푆푖푛2휃 휕휙2 ℎ2 푟 After separating the variables present in the equation given above, the solution of the differential equation was found to be 휓푛,푙,푚(푟, 휃, 휙) = 푅푛,푙. 훩푙,푚. 훷푚 (407) 2푍푟 푘 (408) 3 푙 푘=푛−푙−1 (−1)푘+1[(푛 + 푙)!]2 ( ) 2푍 (푛 − 푙 − 1)! 푍푟 2푍푟 푛푎 √ 0 = ( ) [ 3] . exp (− ) . ( ) . ∑ 푛푎0 2푛{(푛 + 푙)!} 푛푎0 푛푎0 (푛 − 푙 − 1 − 푘)! (2푙 + 1 + 푘)! 푘! 푘=0 (2푙 + 1)(푙 − 푚)! 1 × √ . 푃푚(퐶표푠 휃) × √ 푒푖푚휙 2(푙 + 푚)! 푙 2휋 It is obvious that the solution of equation (406) contains three discrete (n, l, m) and three continuous (r, θ, ϕ) variables. In order to be a well-behaved function, there are some conditions over the values of discrete variables that must be followed i.e. boundary conditions. Therefore, we can conclude that principal (n), azimuthal (l) and magnetic (m) quantum numbers are obtained as a solution of the Schrodinger wave equation for hydrogen atom; and these quantum numbers are used to define various quantum mechanical states. In this section, we will discuss the properties and significance of all these three quantum numbers one by one. Principal Quantum Number The principal quantum number is denoted by the symbol n; and can have value 1, 2, 3, 4, 5…..∞.
[Show full text]
• Simple Harmonic Motion
[SHIVOK SP211] October 30, 2015 CH 15 Simple Harmonic Motion I. Oscillatory motion A. Motion which is periodic in time, that is, motion that repeats itself in time. B. Examples: 1. Power line oscillates when the wind blows past it 2. Earthquake oscillations move buildings C. Sometimes the oscillations are so severe, that the system exhibiting oscillations break apart. 1. Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse "Gallopin' Gertie" a) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j‐zczJXSxnw II. Simple Harmonic Motion A. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__2YND93ofE Watch the video in your spare time. This professor is my teaching Idol. B. In the figure below snapshots of a simple oscillatory system is shown. A particle repeatedly moves back and forth about the point x=0. Page 1 [SHIVOK SP211] October 30, 2015 C. The time taken for one complete oscillation is the period, T. In the time of one T, the system travels from x=+x , to –x , and then back to m m its original position x . m D. The velocity vector arrows are scaled to indicate the magnitude of the speed of the system at different times. At x=±x , the velocity is m zero. E. Frequency of oscillation is the number of oscillations that are completed in each second. 1. The symbol for frequency is f, and the SI unit is the hertz (abbreviated as Hz). 2. It follows that F. Any motion that repeats itself is periodic or harmonic. G. If the motion is a sinusoidal function of time, it is called simple harmonic motion (SHM).
[Show full text]
• DEGENERACY CURVES, GAPS, and DIABOLICAL POINTS in the SPECTRA of NEUMANN PARALLELOGRAMS P Overfelt
DEGENERACY CURVES, GAPS, AND DIABOLICAL POINTS IN THE SPECTRA OF NEUMANN PARALLELOGRAMS P Overfelt To cite this version: P Overfelt. DEGENERACY CURVES, GAPS, AND DIABOLICAL POINTS IN THE SPECTRA OF NEUMANN PARALLELOGRAMS. 2020. hal-03017250 HAL Id: hal-03017250 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03017250 Preprint submitted on 20 Nov 2020 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci- destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents entific research documents, whether they are pub- scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, lished or not. The documents may come from émanant des établissements d’enseignement et de teaching and research institutions in France or recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires abroad, or from public or private research centers. publics ou privés. DEGENERACY CURVES, GAPS, AND DIABOLICAL POINTS IN THE SPECTRA OF NEUMANN PARALLELOGRAMS P. L. OVERFELT Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of solving the Helmholtz equation over the space of all parallelograms subject to Neumann boundary conditions and determining the degeneracies occurring in their spectra upon changing the two parameters, angle and side ratio. This problem is solved numerically using the ﬁnite element method (FEM). Speciﬁcally for the lowest eleven normalized eigenvalue levels of the family of Neumann parallelograms, the intersection of two (or more) adjacent eigen- value level surfaces occurs in one of three ways: either as an isolated point associated with the special geometries, i.e., the rectangle, the square, or the rhombus, as part of a degeneracy curve which appears to contain an inﬁnite number of points, or as a diabolical point in the Neumann parallelogram spec- trum.
[Show full text]
• Entanglement of the Uncertainty Principle
Open Journal of Mathematics and Physics | Volume 2, Article 127, 2020 | ISSN: 2674-5747 https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/9jhwx | published: 26 Jul 2020 | https://ojmp.org EX [original insight] Diamond Open Access Entanglement of the Uncertainty Principle Open Quantum Collaboration∗† August 15, 2020 Abstract We propose that position and momentum in the uncertainty principle are quantum entangled states. keywords: entanglement, uncertainty principle, quantum gravity The most updated version of this paper is available at https://osf.io/9jhwx/download Introduction 1. [1] 2. Logic leads us to conclude that quantum gravity–the theory of quan- tum spacetime–is the description of entanglement of the quantum states of spacetime and of the extra dimensions (if they really ex- ist) [2–7]. ∗All authors with their aﬃliations appear at the end of this paper. †Corresponding author: [email protected] | Join the Open Quantum Collaboration 1 Quantum Gravity 3. quantum gravity quantum spacetime entanglement of spacetime 4. Quantum spaceti=me might be in a sup=erposition of the extra dimen- sions [8]. Notation 5. UP Uncertainty Principle 6. UP= the quantum state of the uncertainty principle ∣ ⟩ = Discussion on the notation 7. The universe is mathematical. 8. The uncertainty principle is part of our universe, thus, it is described by mathematics. 9. A physical theory must itself be described within its own notation. 10. Thereupon, we introduce UP . ∣ ⟩ Entanglement 11. UP α1 x1p1 α2 x2p2 α3 x3p3 ... 12. ∣xi ⟩u=ncer∣tainty⟩ +in po∣ sitio⟩n+ ∣ ⟩ + 13. pi = uncertainty in momentum 14. xi=pi xi pi xi pi ∣ ⟩ = ∣ ⟩ ∣ ⟩ = ∣ ⟩ ⊗ ∣ ⟩ 2 Final Remarks 15.
[Show full text]