SEALS AND SEA LIONS PDF, EPUB, EBOOK
In one legend, seals, whales and other marine mammals were formed from her severed fingers. The Greeks associated them with both the sea and sun and were considered to be under the protection of the gods Poseidon and Apollo. Pinnipeds can be found in facilities around the world, as their large size and playfulness make them popular attractions. Zoologist Georges Cuvier noted during the 19th century that wild seals show considerable fondness for humans and stated that they are second only to some monkeys among wild animals in their easily tamability. Francis Galton noted in his landmark paper on domestication that seals were a spectacular example of an animal that would most likely never be domesticated despite their friendliness and desire for comfort due to the fact that they serve no practical use for humans. Some modern exhibits have rocky backgrounds with artificial haul-out sites and a pool, while others have pens with small rocky, elevated shelters where the animals can dive into their pools. More elaborate exhibits contain deep pools that can be viewed underwater with rock-mimicking cement as haul-out areas. The most common pinniped species kept in captivity is the California sea lion as it is both easy to train and adaptable. Other species popularly kept include the grey seal and harbor seal. Larger animals like walruses and Steller sea lions are much less common. They state that the exhibits could not be large enough to house animals that have evolved to be migratory, and a pool could never replace the size and biodiversity of the ocean. They also state that the tricks performed for audiences are "exaggerated variations of their natural behaviors" and distract the people from the animal's unnatural environment. California sea lions are used in military applications by the U. Navy Marine Mammal Program , including detecting naval mines and enemy divers. In the Persian Gulf , the animals have been trained to swim behind divers approaching a U. Navy officials say that the sea lions can do this in seconds, before the enemy realizes what happened. Humans have hunted seals since the Stone Age. Originally, seals were hit with clubs during haul-out. Eventually, seal hunters used harpoons to spear the animals from boats out at sea, and hooks for killing pups on ice or land. They were also trapped in nets. The use of firearms in seal hunting during the modern era drastically increased the number of killings. Pinnipeds are typically hunted for their meat and blubber. The skins of fur seals and phocids are made into coats , and the tusks of walruses continue to be used for carvings or as ornaments. This distinction is being questioned as indigenous people are using more modern weaponry and mechanized transport to hunt with, and are selling seal products in the marketplace. Some anthropologists argue that the term "subsistence" should also apply to these cash-based exchanges as long as they take place within local production and consumption. Commercial sealing was historically just as important an industry as whaling. Exploited species included harp seals, hooded seals, Caspian seals, elephant seals, walruses and all species of fur seal. The northern elephant seal was hunted to near extinction in the late 19th century, with only a small population remaining on Guadalupe Island. It has since recolonized much of its historic range, but has a population bottleneck. Several species of pinniped continue to be harvested. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals allows limited hunting of crabeater seals, leopard seals and Weddell seals. However, Weddell seal hunting is prohibited between September and February if the animal is over one year of age, to ensure breeding stocks are healthy. Other species protected are southern elephant seals, Ross seals and Antarctic fur seals. This has been met with controversy and debate. Proponents of seal hunts insist that the animals are killed humanely and the white-coated pups are not taken, while opponents argue that it is irresponsible to kill harp seals as they are already threatened by declining habitat. The Caribbean monk seal has been killed and exploited by Europeans settlers and their descendants since , starting with Christopher Columbus himself. The seals were easy targets for organized sealers, fishermen, turtle hunters and buccaneers because they evolved with little pressure from terrestrial predators and were thus " genetically tame ". In the Bahamas , as many as seals were slaughtered in one night. Seal killings continued, and the last reliable report of the animal alive was in The IUCN declared it extinct in The last recorded individual was a juvenile in Some species have become so numerous that they conflict with local people. Since that year, California sea lion populations have risen to , These animals began exploiting more man-made environments, like docks, for haul- out sites. Many docks are not designed to withstand the weight of several resting sea lions. Wildlife managers have used various methods to control the animals, and some city officials have redesigned docks so they can better withstand use by sea lions. In the s and s, South African politicians and fisherman demanded that the fur seals be culled , believing that the animals competed with commercial fisheries. Scientific studies found that culling fur seals would actually have a negative effect on the fishing industry, and the culling option was dropped in Pinnipeds are also threatened by humans indirectly. They are unintentionally caught in fishing nets by commercial fisheries and accidentally swallow fishing hooks. Gillnetting and Seine netting is a significant cause of mortality in seals and other marine mammals. Species commonly entangled include California sea lions, Hawaiian monk seals, northern fur seals and brown fur seals. High levels of organic chemicals accumulate in these animals since they are near the top of food chains and have large reserves of blubber. Lactating mothers can pass the toxins on to their young. These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers , decreased reproductivity and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 21 October Infraorder of mammals. Further information: List of pinnipeds. Further information: List of fossil pinnipeds. Skeleton of California sea lion top and southern elephant seal. Harbor seal top and California sea lion swimming. The former swims with its hind-flippers, the latter with its fore-flippers. Further information: List of fictional pinnipeds. Main article: Seal hunting. In science, it is also sometimes restricted to the "true" seals of the family Phocidae. This article uses it for all pinnipeds. Prodromus Systematis Mammalium et Avium in Latin. Sumptibus C. Greenwood Publishing Group. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 August Mammal Review. Stanford University Press. History of North American pinnipeds, a monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America. Washington: Government Printing Office. Bibcode : Sci Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. William Benton. Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 1 July Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Molecular Biology and Evolution. BMC Evolutionary Biology. Zoological Science. Systematic Biology. Nikolaidis N ed. Bibcode : PLoSO Bibcode : Natur. Journal of Biogeography. Introduction to Marine Biology. Cengage Learning. Journal of Experimental Biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology. Journal of Zoology. The Anatomical Record. Aquatic Mammals. Experimental Brain Research. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Bibcode : ASAJ.. Biology Letters. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Marine Mammal Science. In Renouf, D. Behaviour of Pinnipeds. Chapman and Hall. Annual Review of Physiology. Respiration Physiology. The Journal of Neuroscience. The Journal of Wildlife Management. Polar Bears. Voyageur Press. Journal of Mammalogy. In Evans, P. Marine Mammals: Biology and Conservation. Ecological Monographs. Thesis, University of Alaska, College. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Behavioral Ecology. Canadian Journal of Zoology. The American Naturalist. Animal Behaviour. Arctic Studies Center —. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 10 August The Behaviour of Pinnipeds. Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Marine Ecology Progress Series. Bibcode : MEPS.. Mammalian Species. Archived from the original PDF on 18 March Psychological Record. Journal of Comparative Psychology. Retrieved 30 October The Mythical Creatures Bible: The definitive guide to legendary beings. Sterling Publishing Company. Retrieved 29 July Thames and Hudson. Selasetur Working Paper Archived from the original PDF on 15 September In Bell, C. Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos. Reaktion Books. Retrieved 30 May USA Today. Retrieved 28 April ABC News. Retrieved 30 July Navy Marine Mammal Program. Archived from the original on 19 June Marine Environmental Biology and Conservation. Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 15 August Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 21 September Japan Integrated Biodiversity Information System. Red Data Book in Japanese. Ministry of the Environment Japan. Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 20 August The last record in Japan was a juvenile, captured in off the coast of Rebun Island , northern Hokkaido. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 5 November Ecological Applications. Archived from the original PDF on 24 September Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 17 August The Daily World. Herald Net. Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 9 June Archived from the original on 16 September Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 23 May In Gales, N. Csiro Publishing. United Nations University. Retrieved 16 August Marine Mammals and Noise. New York, NY: Academic. Genera of Pinnipeds and their Stem-Allies. List of fossil pinnipeds List of pinniped species. Extant Carnivora species. Suborder Feliformia. African palm civet N. Marsh mongoose A. Bushy-tailed mongoose B. Alexander's kusimanse C. Yellow mongoose C. Pousargues's mongoose D. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Short-tailed mongoose H. White-tailed mongoose I. Liberian mongoose L. Gambian mongoose M. Selous' mongoose P. Meller's mongoose R. Meerkat S. Spotted hyena C. Brown hyena H. Aardwolf P. Family Felidae. Cheetah A. Caracal C. Bay cat C. European wildcat F. Ocelot L. Serval L. Canada lynx L. Pallas's cat O. Marbled cat P. Fishing cat P. Cougar P. Jaguarundi H. Lion P. Clouded leopard N. Family Viverridae. Binturong A. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C. Otter civet C. Hose's palm civet D. Banded palm civet H. Banded linsang P. African civet C. Abyssinian genet G. Central African oyan P. Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Family Eupleridae. Fossa C. Eastern falanouc E. Malagasy civet F. Ring-tailed mongoose G. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. Narrow-striped mongoose M. Brown-tailed mongoose S. Suborder Caniformia cont. Giant panda A. Sun bear H. Sloth bear M. Spectacled bear T. American black bear U. Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Hooded skunk M. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B. Ring-tailed cat B. White-nosed coati N. Western mountain coati N. Kinkajou P. Crab-eating raccoon P. Red panda A. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E. Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Walrus O. Hooded seal C. Bearded seal E. Grey seal H. Ribbon seal H. Leopard seal H. Weddell seal L. Crabeater seal L. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M. Ross seal O. Harp seal P. Spotted seal P. Caspian seal P. Family Canidae includes dogs. Short-eared dog A. Side-striped jackal C. Crab-eating fox C. Maned wolf C. Dhole C. Culpeo L. African wild dog L. Raccoon dog N. Bat-eared fox O. Bush dog S. Gray fox U. Bengal fox V. Family Mustelidae. Bornean ferret-badger M. Tayra E. Wolverine G. American marten M. Fisher P. Lesser grison G. Saharan striped polecat I. Patagonian weasel L. African striped weasel P. Marbled polecat V. African clawless otter A. Sea otter E. Spotted-necked otter H. North American river otter L. Eurasian otter L. Smooth-coated otter L. Giant otter P. Hog badger A. Seals find prey by detecting prey vibrations using their whiskers vibrissae. Seals and sea lions are mostly fish-eaters, although most of the species also eat squid, mollusks, crustaceans, marine worms, sea birds, and other seals. The ones that eat mostly fish specialize in oil-bearing species like eels, herrings, and anchovies because they swim in shoals and are easy to catch, and are good energy sources. Crabeater seals feed almost entirely on Antarctic krill, while sea lions eat sea birds and Antarctic fur seals are fond of penguins. Seals can dive deeply and for extended periods up to 2 hours for some species because they have a higher concentration of hemoglobin in their blood and their large amounts of myoglobin in their muscles both hemoglobin and myoglobin are oxygen-carrying compounds. When diving or swimming, they store oxygen in their blood and muscles and dive for longer periods than humans can. Like cetaceans, they conserve oxygen when diving by restricting blood flow to only vital organs and slowing their heart rates by about 50 percent to 80 percent. In particular, elephant seals exhibit tremendous stamina while diving for their food. Each elephant seal dive averages about 30 minutes in length, with only a couple of minutes between dives, and they have been seen maintaining that schedule for months on end. Elephant seals can dive up to 4, feet deep and stay down as long as two hours. One study of northern elephant seals showed that their heart rates dropped from a resting rate at the water's surface of beats per minute, to 20—50 beats per minute when diving. Pinnipeds produce a variety of sounds, both in air and water. Many of the sounds are apparently individual recognition or reproductive displays, but some have been taught to learn human phrases. The most famous is a captive male harbor seal at the New England Aquarium named "Hoover" — Hoover was trained to produce a variety of phrases in English, such as " Hey! Come over here! Although little is known about sound production and acoustic communications as of yet, seals, sea lions, and walruses do have some voluntary control over their sound emissions, perhaps related to their ability to adapt to diving. In polar environments, seals restrict blood flow to their skin surface to keep from releasing internal body heat to the ice and freezing water. In warm environments, the reverse is true. Blood is sent toward the extremities, allowing heat to release into the environment and letting the seal cool its internal temperature. Because of their highly developed insulating fur—polar seals and sea lions must regulate their body temperatures between In many cases, mother seals must be separated from their foraging grounds to take care of their offspring: if they can locate on ice, they can still feed and not abandon the pups, but on land, in groups called rookeries, they must limit their lactation periods so they can go without eating for a period of four or five days. Once the pups have been born, there is a postpartum estrus period, and most females are mated within a few days of the last birth. Mating takes place at the rookeries, and the males exercise extreme polygyny in these dense aggregations, with one male fertilizing many females. In most seals and sea lions, gestation lasts just under a year. It takes between three and six years for pups to reach sexual maturity; females produce only one pup a year, and only about 75 percent survive. Female seals and sea lions live between 20 and 40 years. Natural predators of seals include sharks , orcas killer whale , and polar bears. Seals have long been commercially hunted for their pelts, meat, and blubber. The Caribbean monk seal was hunted to extinction, with the last record reported in Seal and Sea Lion Facts
Next, there is a pretty significant difference in flipper length and mobility. Sea lions and fur seals have long flippers. Most importantly, they are able to rotate their back flippers under their body, which allows them to walk on land. So, seals are forced to flop around on their bellies when onshore, similar to the motion of a caterpillar. The differences in flipper style also change the way these aquatic mammals swim: seals move their back flippers side to side like a fish tail when swimming, while sea lions and fur seals propel themselves with their long front flippers, moving them like oars. Finally, sea lions and fur seals are really noisy. This is partly because they congregate in groups on land, while true seals spend more time in the water and are less social. Also, sea lions and fur seals communicate through loud barking or bellowing, while seals usually grunt softly to communicate. Home Demystified Science. She received her B. Like our britannica stories? Sign up here to get more Demystified stories delivered right to your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Load More. Yellow mongoose C. Pousargues's mongoose D. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Short- tailed mongoose H. White-tailed mongoose I. Liberian mongoose L. Gambian mongoose M. Selous' mongoose P. Meller's mongoose R. Meerkat S. Spotted hyena C. Brown hyena H. Aardwolf P. Family Felidae. Cheetah A. Caracal C. Bay cat C. European wildcat F. Ocelot L. Serval L. Canada lynx L. Pallas's cat O. Marbled cat P. Fishing cat P. Cougar P. Jaguarundi H. Lion P. Clouded leopard N. Family Viverridae. Binturong A. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C. Otter civet C. Hose's palm civet D. Banded palm civet H. Banded linsang P. African civet C. Abyssinian genet G. Central African oyan P. Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Family Eupleridae. Fossa C. Eastern falanouc E. Malagasy civet F. Ring- tailed mongoose G. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. Narrow-striped mongoose M. Brown-tailed mongoose S. Suborder Caniformia cont. Giant panda A. Sun bear H. Sloth bear M. Spectacled bear T. American black bear U. Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Hooded skunk M. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B. Ring-tailed cat B. White-nosed coati N. Western mountain coati N. Kinkajou P. Crab-eating raccoon P. Red panda A. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E. Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Walrus O. Hooded seal C. Bearded seal E. Grey seal H. Ribbon seal H. Leopard seal H. Weddell seal L. Crabeater seal L. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M. Ross seal O. Harp seal P. Spotted seal P. Caspian seal P. Family Canidae includes dogs. Short-eared dog A. Side-striped jackal C. Crab-eating fox C. Maned wolf C. Dhole C. Culpeo L. African wild dog L. Raccoon dog N. Bat-eared fox O. Bush dog S. Gray fox U. Bengal fox V. Family Mustelidae. Bornean ferret-badger M. Tayra E. Wolverine G. American marten M. Fisher P. Lesser grison G. Saharan striped polecat I. Patagonian weasel L. African striped weasel P. Marbled polecat V. African clawless otter A. Sea otter E. Spotted-necked otter H. North American river otter L. Eurasian otter L. Seals Versus Sea Lions | National Geographic Society
The body is slender and tapering, the flippers are relatively small, and the rear flippers can be rotated beneath the body for moving on land. The short, course pelage lacks dense underfur; when dry, it usually is chocolate brown, but individuals with light-tan pelage are known to occur. The pelage appears black when wet. In older males, the pate is tan. The occurrence of the California sea lion along the Oregon coast is seasonal. Many enter rivers to feed and some individuals migrate far up the larger rivers. These sea lions are superb swimmers and divers. They can stay under water for as long as 20 minutes. The Northern elephant seal is the largest pinniped carnivore that occurs along the North Pacific coast. The flippers are relatively small, the rear ones directed posteriorly. Its most distinctive feature is the elongated tubular proboscis with a deep transverse cleft among adult males. This proboscis can be inflated and directed into the open mouth to produce vocalizations. Also among males, the neck and chest lose most of their hair and the skin becomes rough and thickened at puberty. The adult pelage consists of course grayish or brownish hairs without any underfur. During the molt, not only is the pelage shed, but the entire cornified epidermis sloughs off in large patches, creating a mottled appearance. In Oregon, individual elephant seals reportedly were sited ashore south of Bandon and at Simpson Reef, in Coos County. Except for the time spent on the rookery during the breeding season and a month or so ashore while undergoing the molt, the Northern elephant seal is truly a pelagic mammal. They have set records for the deepest dives recorded for any mammal. The body of the Pacific harbor seal is plump but tapers to small rear flippers permanently extended posteriorly. The head is large and rounded, the eyes are large, the limbs are short, and the nostrils sit dorsally on the muzzle. The nostrils can be closed when this seal dives. The tongue is notched at the tip. The pelage consists of long overhairs that overlay short underhairs. Markings are extremely variable, but in general the pelage is gray or brownish gray with numerous small spots of black that may coalesce to form splotches. Most are found along the northern coast. They commonly come ashore on estuarine mud flats, sandy beaches, rocky headlands and offshore rocks and islands. These seals are solitary in the water, but commonly assemble in small groups of mixed sexes and ages when they come ashore. Current bird and wildlife viewing opportunities. Updated weekly by wildlife biologists throughout the state. Sign up for ODFW email updates. Do you have a question or comment for ODFW? Do you want to enter your opinion about a specific issue into the public record? Contact: odfw. Visit the ODFW's agency site. Seals and Sea Lions. Harbor seals are quite common and may be seen lounging on flat-topped near shore rocks, or hauled out sandy beaches, primarily around the Redwood Creek estuary. They are often seen bobbing in the surf, checking out the shoreline. Harbor seals come in a variety of colors from almost pure white to mottled gray or brown, but usually some form of color patterning is visible. Elephant seals, on the other hand, are uniformly tan colored all over, and seen only rarely within the parks. Usually there's only one subadult animal at a time hauled out on a sandy beach undergoing its annual molt. One must travel somewhere else along the California coast to see a spectacular adult male elephant seal, with its long proboscis, or nose, for which the species is named. Fur seals and sea lions are also known as eared seals. In and around Redwood National and State Parks, the most commonly seen eared seal is the California sea lion Zalophus californianus. These animals may be seen hauled out on off shore rocks, and occasionally on sandy beaches. Most of the California sea lions in RNSP are adult and subadult males that migrate north after the breeding season in southern California. California sea lions are the "trained seal" of marine parks and circuses. They are uniformly dark brown and vocalize with the notable sea lion "bark". The other resident eared seal is the Steller, or Northern, sea lion Eumetopias jubata , a federally threatened species. Steller males are massive, the largest of the eared seals, weighing in at 1, lbs 0. Females are much smaller. Steller sea lions have golden-colored fur with darker extremities, and instead of the "bark" of the California sea lion, Stellers vocalize by growling or "bellowing". Explore This Park.
What's the difference between seals and sea lions?
The differences in flipper style also change the way these aquatic mammals swim: seals move their back flippers side to side like a fish tail when swimming, while sea lions and fur seals propel themselves with their long front flippers, moving them like oars. Finally, sea lions and fur seals are really noisy. This is partly because they congregate in groups on land, while true seals spend more time in the water and are less social. Also, sea lions and fur seals communicate through loud barking or bellowing, while seals usually grunt softly to communicate. Home Demystified Science. She received her B. Like our britannica stories? Sign up here to get more Demystified stories delivered right to your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. They also bleat, growl and roar. So what does a seal sound like? Seals have their own means of communicating, including hissing, growling and moaning. Did you know? The word pinniped stems from the Latin terms pinna and ped, meaning fin-footed. See if you can spot the difference between the California sea lions and gray and harbor seals at American Trail. Skip to main content. Plan Your Visit. We're excited to welcome you back to the Zoo, and we've made a few changes. Here's everything you need to know before you visit. Giant Panda Cam. The California sea lion shares the genus Zalophus with the Galapagos sea lion Z. Both species are similar in appearance, the Galapagos sea lion being the smaller of the two. Adult males weigh as much as kg pounds , and adult females weigh between 50 and kg and pounds. Although most of the Galapagos sea lion population is concentrated in the waters surrounding the Galapagos archipelago, some individuals have established a semipermanent colony at Isla de la Plata near the coast of Ecuador. The northern , or Steller, sea lion Eumetopias jubatus is a pale- to golden-brown sea lion of the Bering Sea and both sides of the North Pacific Ocean. It is the largest member of the eared seals. Males are about 3. Northern sea lions eat fish, octopus, and squid, as well as bivalve s, other mollusk s, and crustacean s. Because of their massive size and aggressive nature, they are rarely kept in captivity. The southern , or South American, sea lion Otaria byronia is generally brown with a yellowish orange belly. It swims in coastal waters from northern Peru southward to Tierra del Fuego and even around the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. The male is about 2. South American sea lions eat mostly fish, squid, and crustaceans but occasionally kill and eat other seals. Adult males are 2. Males are 2. Their weight is slightly less than that of Australian sea lions. The five genera of sea lions, together with fur seal s genus Arctocephalus and northern fur seals Callorhinus , constitute the family Otariidae eared seals. All seals and sea lions, along with the walrus , are grouped together as pinniped s. Sea lion Article Media Additional Info. Home Science Mammals Carnivores. https://files8.webydo.com/9589885/UploadedFiles/A3309991-B8FE-DCA6-9429-4E025C554358.pdf https://files8.webydo.com/9587631/UploadedFiles/694AFB24-C769-A1C5-23F1-B26B0731263F.pdf https://static.s123-cdn-static.com/uploads/4637155/normal_60203d6ff2815.pdf https://files8.webydo.com/9586323/UploadedFiles/2FA02816-621B-D878-604A-015E12D180F1.pdf https://static.s123-cdn-static.com/uploads/4640501/normal_601edc125e8d0.pdf https://files8.webydo.com/9592258/UploadedFiles/642B43AB-B8E0-2B8E-6FE7-73BBE44F8654.pdf https://static.s123-cdn-static.com/uploads/4640778/normal_602088281a4d9.pdf