REG. NO. 132202066








Dra. Siti Norma Nasution, M.Hum. NIP. 19570720198303 2 001

Submitted to Faculty of Cultural Study, University of Sumatera Utara

In partial fulfilment of the requirements for Diploma-III in English study program

Approved by

Head of English Diploma Study Program,

Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A NIP. 19521126198112 1 001

Approved by the Diploma-III of English Study Program

Faculty of Cultural Study, University of Sumatera Utara

As a paper for the Diploma-III Examination


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Accepted by the Board of Examiner in partial of the requirements for the

Diploma-III Examination of the Diploma-III of English Study Program, Faculty of Cultural Study, University of Sumatera Utara.

The Examination is held on the -- of May 2016

Faculty of Cultural Study University of Sumatera Utara


Dr. Budi Agustono M.S. NIP. 19600805198 03 1 001

Board of Examiners/Readers: Signature

1. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. (Head of ESP)

2. Dra. Siti Norma Nasution,M. Hum (Supervisor)

3. Drs. Siamir Marulafau,M.Hum (Reader)



I am, MUHAMMAD RIDHO, declare that I am sole of author of this paper.

Except where reference is made in the next of this paper, this paper contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree.

No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another degree in any tertiary education.

Signed: ......

Date : May 2016




The Title of the paper : The Analysis of Theme Used by Rick Yordan Novel The

Mark of Athena

Qualification : D-III/ Ahli Madya

Study Program : English

1. I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the

discretion of the librarian of the Diploma-III English Study Program

Faculty of Cultural Studies USU on the understanding that users are made

aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia.

Signed :......

Date : May 2016



This paper entitled “An Analysis of Theme in Rick Riordan’s Novel The Mark of Athena”. It is aimed to describe the theme of novel finding the idea and analyze in The Mark of Athena by Rick Riordan novel To describes about which friends there is a story or event that h as a nice theme that makes the reader feel interested to read the novel. Athena in which the novel is about Annabeth is looking for its identity is lost and also to save the Greek town from destruction of the attack the soldiers roman and for the sake of saving the nation Olympia by displaying a background a historic building located in the town of Greece is a story previously contained in the lost hero and later the son of Neptune and final mark of Athena. Method research library to find the data is collected some that are relevant to the analysis of this piece of paper and a copy of the material in the and the internet for reference. The author analyzes the elements of the theme in the novel, especially the main theme (major themes), and additional themes (theme minor) This paper made use of to make the reader understand the elements of the theme in the novel and as reference materials on elements of the theme in the novel. The conclusion of the analysis in this thesis is to find elements of the theme in the novel the mark of Athena.

Keyword : Theme, Annabeth, Athena



Sastra adalah sebuah karangan fiksi dalam bentuk tulisan, dalam tulisan itu menggambarkan masalah yang dialami oleh manusia. Novel adalah salah satu karya sastra yang memiliki unsur intrinsik (unsur dalaman). Mempelajari unsur intrinsik dalam sebuah novel sama dengan mempelajari pengalaman hidup dari sekelompok manusia melalui novel.Kertas karya ini membahas tentang tema yang terdapat pada novel Rick Riordan’s Novel “The Mark of Athena” tujuan kertas karya ini adalah untuk menentukan tema yang terdapat di novel mark of athena yang mana novel ini membahas tentang annabeth yang mencari jati dirinya yang hilang dan juga untuk menyelamatkan kota yunani dari kehancuran dari serangan para prajurit romawi dan demi menyelamatkan bangsa olympia dengan menampilkan latar latar tempat bangunan bersejarah yang terdapat di kota yunani yang cerita sebelumnya terdapat di the lost hero dan selanjutnya the son of neptune dan terakhir the mark of athena.Metode penelitian perpustakaan untuk mencari data adalah mengumpulkan beberapa buku yang relevan dengan analisis bagian ini kertas dan salinan dari materi dalam buku dan internet untuk referensi.

Penulis menganalisis unsur tema dalam novel tersebut khususnya tema pokok

(tema mayor), dan tema tambahan (tema minor) Paper ini bemanfaat untuk membuat pembaca mengerti tentang unsur tema dalam novel dan sebagai bahan acuan tentang unsur tema dalam novel. Kesimpulan dari analisis dalam tugas akhir ini adalah menemukan unsur tema dalam novel the mark of athena.



First of all, I would like to thank and praise to the ALLAH SWT for giving me health, strength, and continuously hope in every single minute in the process of accomplishing this paper and to finish my study at Diploma III English Study

Program University of North Sumatera. And i present shalawat to prophet

Muhammad SAW as my good example in my life and i hipe his blessing in the beyond.

Then, I would also like to express a deep gratitude, love, and appreciation to:

Dr. Budi Agustono, M.S., as the Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies,

University of Sumatera Utara.

Dr. Matius C.A Sembiring MA., as the Head of English Diploma Study

Program, who has given me directions in doing this paper.

Dra.Siti Norma Nasution M.Hum as my supervisor. I am thankful for your valuable time in directing, teaching, and inspiring me to complete this paper.

Drs. Siamir Marulafau.M.Hum as my reader. Thank you very much also for the valuable time for reading this paper.

All the lecturers in English Diploma. Thank you for all the knowledge and experience that you have shared to me.

The greatest thanks are fully dedicated to both of my beloved parents

Musliono, and Karmila. I am here today because of your prayer, love, support, care, and continuously financial. Thank you also to my brother, Adi Cipta

Pratama thank you for your unending support and prayer.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Thanks to my dearest friend in English Diploma 2013, Geta Brenaita

Saragie, Nurhalimah Gurning Annisa Almabina Rangkuti ,Sigih Fitono,Maruli

Tua Siagian, Oprilta Ginting, Cephas Soplanit, Wahyudi Syahid Siregar Arfie

Dibyo Hutomo, Samuel A.P.Sitorus and all that I can not mention one by one.

Thank for all the time we have filled together. I love them all.

Thanks to all my friends in English Diploma III, all my senior, all my junior, and SOLIDAS organization. Thank for being part of story of my life.

Thank so much for everybody who has been mentioned; be sure that they will be always remembered forever.

Medan, May 2016

The ,

Muhammad Ridho

Reg. No. 132202066





ABSTRACT ...... v

ABSTRAK ...... vi




1.1 Background of the Study ...... 1

1.2 Problems of the Study ...... 4

1.3 Objectives of the Study ...... 4

1.4 Scope of the Study ...... 5

1.5 Significances of the Study ...... 5

1.6 Method of the Study ...... 5


2.1 Definition of novel ...... 5

2.2 Definition of theme ...... 10



3.1 Description ...... 16

3.2 Findings ...... 26


4.1 Conclusions ...... 28

4.2 Suggestions ...... 30

REFERENCES ...... 32




1.1 Background

Literature is the art of written work, and is not confined to published sources

(although, under some circumstances, unpublished sources can also be exempted.

Roberts (1993: 1) says that literature also refers to compositions that tell stories, dramatize situations, express emotions, and analyze and advocate ideas. Before the invention of writing, literary works were necessarily spoken or sung, and were retained only as long as living people performed them. From the statement, it is concluded that there are 3 kinds of literature, namely: (1) novel (a work of prose written in the , usually in the form of stories), (2) drama (literature designed to be performed by actors who played works of art orally among the players (dialogue), (3) (expresses a conversation or interchange that is grounded in the most deeply felt experiences of human beings).

Terri Eagleton (1983:1) states that “ there “ have been various attempts to define literature. You can define it, for example, as “imaginative” writing in the sense of fiction-writing which is not really true. But even the briefest reflection on what people commonly include under the heading of literature suggests that this will do”.

The literature as imaginative writing is not really true because sometimes it lifted up from someone’s imagination or dream. A distinction between ‘fact’ and ‘fiction’, then , seems unlikely to get us very far, not least because the distinction itself is often questionable one. Novel is a long story that narrates the life experience.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA have extrinsic and intrinsic elements. Intrinsic elements in a novel are , setting, , and theme. Character is a human being that plays actions in a novel. Setting is the place and time in a novel. Plot is sequence of events that contain in a novel. And theme is central idea in a novel

Theme is the main idea that the writer expresses. Theme can also be defined as the underlying meaning of the story. It is simple thing that means the reader of novel can be understood about the novel story from theme.

Jacobs (1993:18) says, "The theme of a novel is its message, its central concern-in short, what is about. It is by no means a simple thing to decide what the theme of novel is, and many novels contain several rather than just a single theme. Often, the search for a theme tempts us to a relatively simple catchphrase." In this paper a novel’s theme is used as the material of the discussion.

Tarigan (1993:125) says that theme is a specific outlook on life or certain feelings about lives or definite system of points which make of made main idea of literature.

Another opinion expressed also by

Aminudin (1995:91). "Theme is the underlying idea of a story to a role and used as the author starting base in describing fiction he created." Theme is a main idea which based the story and had a dominant position with the result that concentrates the elements according to made a literature together. Theme typically contains familiar, old or given information. Theme provides the settings for the remainder of sentence. Some of novels are fiction and some based on true stories.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Both of those not only entertain but also give meaning messages and impression to readers.

Roberts and Jacobs (1993:1) say, “Literature refers to compositions that tell stories, dramatize situations, express emotions, and analyze and advocate ideas.”

Taylor (1981:1) says, “Literature like other arts, is essentially an imaginative , that is, an act of the writer’s imagination in selecting, ordering, and interpreting life experience.” Based on the statements, it means that literature is a kind of art that usually tells, dramatizes, analyzes, expresses the emotions, and advocates the ideas where the imagination of the author ordering the experience of life into written or oral by offers the pleasure.

Roberts and Jacobs (1993:2) say, “Literature may be classified into four categories or genres: prose fiction, poetry, drama, and non-fiction prose which classed as imaginative literature.” The genres of imaginative literature have much in common, but they also have distinguishing characteristics. Prose fiction, or narrative fiction, includes , , romances, novels, and short stories. Originally, fiction meant anything made up, crafted, or shaped, but today the word refers to prose stories based in the author’s imagination. Fiction is distinguished from the works it imitates, like historical accounts, reports, biographies, autobiographies, letters, personal memoirs and meditations. From the major forms, the writer chooses the fiction prose, exactly in novel. Novel is a picture of real life and manners, and of the time in which it was written. Novel describes the true event (nonfiction) or fiction event which the novelist wants to present in the novel. In nonfiction novel the


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA novelist. Present the actual and the sequence of real event from their life experience.

The novel that used in this paper is nonfiction novel, in which the novelist presents

actual people and events in story form.

1.2 Problem of study

The problem in study of this paper is as in the following

1) What is the main theme of this novel?

2) How is the picture of the war?

1.3 Scope of Study

This novel just talks about themes contained in the mark of Athena novel which tells about the social life that occurred in the ancient Greek kingdom which many experienced pros and cons in a state of society in Greece

1.4 Purpose of study

The purpose in study of this paper is as in the following

1) To describe the theme of novel finding the idea and analyze in The Mark

of Athena by Rick Riordan novel

2) To describes about which friends there is a story or event that h as a nice

theme that makes the reader feel interested to read the novel


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA 1.5 Reason for Choosing the topic

The writer chooses the topic because the writer want introduce the novel to the readers that novel really talks about mystery social life in Greece I believed this novel will interesting by the readers to read especially discussing theme in the novel of the Mark of Athena

1.6 Method of the study

Writing this paper needed some data which are relevant to the paper. Without data in writing paper it will be difficult to finish because of some errors. To complete this paper the author applies two methods to collect the data, they are library research and internet. Method of library research for finding data is collect some book which are relevant with the analysis of this paper and copy part of material in the book and internet to be reference. The method of study, the writer uses descriptive qualitative technique to write this paper. The writer collects the quotations of the novel and selects the quotations which contents events. The quotation is interpreted and analyzed, from the analysis takes the conclusion

1.7 Significance of the study

This paper had the main significances, Firstly I hope from this paper will give the readers about the struggle of theme in the novel The Mark Of Athena and also the intrinsic elements. Secondly, I hope this paper will increase the knowledge about theory of English Literature. Thirdly, to fulfill the partial fulfillment of the


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA requirement for the Diploma III of English Study program in University of North



2.1. Definition of Novel

A novel is a name of a literary kind and there is a story to tell about how, over centuries, its substance has widened and convention changed. Henry James in an excited moment, called the novel ‘independent elastic prodigious, and its story is as untidy as some of its masterpieces. If Aristotle had ever read any novels, he would have needed a far wider canvas than he allowed to tragedy in that surviving fragment of analysis known as poetics. The word “novel” comes from the Italian, “”.

Novella literary means ‘a small new item’ and then interpreted as ‘a in the form of prose’

Abraham, (1981: 119). The novel developed in England and America. The novel was originally developed in region from other forms of narrative nonfiction, such as letters, biographies, and history. But with a shift in society and development time, the novel is not only based on nonfiction data, author of novels can change according to the desire imagination. Novels and short stories are two form of literature that called fiction. Differences between novels and short stories are in formality in terms of shape and story length. A long story, let’s say hundreds of pages, clearly cannot be called as a short stories, but more appropriately called a novel. Because of its length, the novel cannot inherit the solid unity that belongs to a short story.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA The novel is also not able to make the subject stand out like a microcosmic principle of short story. Instead the novels is able to present the development of one character, a complicated social situation, relationship that involve many of few characters, and a variety of complicated events occurring in greater detail. The novel is able to create a complete universe at once complicated. This means that the novel is both easy and more difficult to read when compare with the short story. It is said more easily because the novel is not burdened with the responsibility to deliver something quickly or with solid form and said to be more difficult because the novel was written in large scale units that contain a larger organization rather than short stories. The novel tells about someone life. Novels do not however, present a documentary picture of life. Alongside the fact that novels look at people in society, the other major characteristic of the genre is that novels tell a story. In fact, novels tend to tell the some few stories time and time. A novel is a totally a comprehensiveness that artistic. As a totally, the novel has passages elements, most related to one another in close and mutually dependent. The elements of a novel builder who is then collectively form a totality that in addition to formal elements of language, there many more kinds. The division of the element in question is the intrinsic and extrinsic elements. Intrinsic elements are the elements that build the literary work itself. Extrinsic elements are the elements that are beyond the work of martial arts, but indirectly affect the building or system of the organism martial arts.

Sumardjo (1998: 29) said that “novel is a story with the prose form in long shape, this long shape means the story including the complex plot, many character and various


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA setting”. Novel is as a length story about life experience of human being. It can be made base on imagination. The imagination is not really life experience, it is impossible in real life. Novel also identified as narrative text informing of prose with long shape that including some figure and fiction event and theme. The source or the inspiration of writing novels can be based on true story. Theirs true story re-telling in a story that we called as life experience. This true story is more reliable than the other one that which based on imagination. It is because the second one sometimes could not happened in the real life. Novel can be reflecting of our daily living around them.

It could be easier because we just need to take from our daily activities and our experiences. Put the ordinary story and also tells about the ordinary person stories.

Lift up from a social problems, economic or culture. John Peck and Martin Coyle said that a lot of novels have young people as the main character, for it is often the young who feel them to be most at odds with conventional standards. You will have made considerable progress in understanding the particular novel you are reading if you can see how it sets certain individuals against society or their family. The most important element is the author. The events of the novel and the reaction of the reader depend upon what he or she chooses to do. Because without an author there could be no book at all, but there is also a much more important reason: a novel is a world specially made in words by an author. “ have, of course, always been interested in the world around them, but the development of the novel reflects a move away from an essentially religious view of live towards a new interest in the complexities of


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA everyday experience. Most of novels are concerned with ordinary people and their problems in societies in which they find themselves”

John Peck and Martin Coyle, (1984:102) Like other kind of stories, a novel is a way of learning about how things were cognitive instrument and those who distrust stories as evidence should consider how often in conversation we use them to make points or answer question. For one thing, a novel is to untidy an object, often, to be seen as regulated in it is entirely and the patterns offered can be impoverishing the figure in the carpet is not itself the carpet, or anything like it. A novel is a fund of knowledge as well as literary form and any pure and exclusive formalism whether structuralize or other, flies in the face of much of the ordinary experience of reading fiction.

Richard Gill in his book (1985:78) said that in the writing, there is a recognition that a novel is something specially made by an author so that a reader will respond to it in a particular way. The good candidate has recognized three things about a novel: the events of the novel, three author who has created them, and the reader for whom the novel is written. In any good writing about a novel, these three things should be mentioned. There are however not separable. For instance, the events of a novel are only there because the author has put them there, and they are only recognized as events when read by a reader. Novel is a way to send message in social, such as in novel find character that plays role hero and felon. Hero in a novel will be success but the felon will be loser. From this message the reader can get inspiration that hero is good but felon is bad. Some novels are moralist, novel is written to put across the


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA point. The message of their novels tells about the update reality in our society. Now days the novel not only tells about the young people love relationship but also the crisis, education and other social life. But it would so simple to say that the important thing about their novel message they preach.

2.2. Definition of theme

This is the central idea which runs through the novel; the author’s purpose in

writing. There may be a moral in the story- such as the need for social reform in

many novels. It is the message that author whishes to convey or the lesson author

wants the reader to learn. Theme is revealed through the values of characters when

confronting obstacles and resolving conflict in pursuit of their goal. It can be

considered the foundation and purpose of your novel. Without purpose, the story

becomes trivial. Theme or themes refers to the result of general and abstract

thinking of a writing .In this part, idea become the general thinking of the novel. In

literary study the consideration of themes relates to meaning, interpretation,

explanation, and significance. Though themes are usually extensive and complex,

separate ideas may be named by a single word.

According to Stanton (1965: 20) and Kenney (1966: 88) is the meaning

contained by a story. But there are many meanings conceived and offered by the

story the novel, then the problem is a special meaning which can be expressed as the

theme. The theme is the ideas of common bases that sustains a work of literature

and are contained in the text semantic structure and as regarding commonality or



UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Hartoko and Rahmanto, (1986: 142.) Themes distilled from the motifs contained in the relevant work that determines the presence of events, conflicts and situations. The theme became the basis of development of the whole story, so he is animating the whole story. A common theme has a generalization, wider, and abstract. Principal themes as the meaning of a work of fiction is not deliberately hidden because precisely this that is offered to the reader. However, the overall theme is the meaning of which supported his story by itself would be hidden behind a story that supports it. Theme is the main idea that the writer expresses. Theme can also be defined as the underlying meaning of the story. Theme is another prime element of literature, which contains the central idea of all literary forms such as a novel, drama and short story. It reflects innocence, experience, live, death, reality, fate, madness, sanity, love, society, individual, etc.

Stanton and Kenney Nurgiyantoro, (1965: 70) have stated that theme is a

meaning of story which especially explains a big part of its elements in the simple

way. It is more or less synonymous the central idea and central purpose. The

expanding of story does not always parallel with the framework because the idea

will often develop suitable with the author’s will.

This is approved by Hamalian and Frederick R Karl, (1976: 23) where they

claim that before writing a story, the author will frame his ideas first. But when he

thinks that the idea has become so usual in life and bored, he develops it out of the

basic framework and makes his story more interesting to be enjoyed and

implemented his readers. Theme is one of the fundamental components of fiction.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Theme means what the novel can be summed up as saying. Another way of putting it would be theme is a broad idea, message or moral of a story. The message may be about life, society or human nature. Theme often explores timeless and universal ideas and are almost implied rather than stated explicitly. To determine the main meaning in a novel, we should know the definition of theme itself. As a necessary part in a novel, it is important to know clearly what the theme is. Because it just have a little bit different with an ordinary sentence. “Although a single word may name an idea, it does not operate as an idea until it is put into a sentence or assertion. In other words, an idea needs a subject and a predicate before we can use it as basis of understanding. It is important to recognize than an assertion of an idea is not the same as an ordinary sentence.”

Edgar V. Roberts & Henry E. Jacobs, (1993:361) We can say that a single word as an idea after we build into a sentence. Need a subject, predicate and the other supporting parts like in an ordinary sentence. But we need to know deeper that even though both build on subject and predicate, an idea is not the same as an ordinary sentence. We need to recognize the both parts by analyzing the meaning of the sentence or the idea. Without any consideration to analyze the sentences, it could be difficult to recognize which one of both. Ideas are presented along with the expression or implication that certain conditions and standards should be highly valued. “All the stories have a theme or purpose, no matter how deviously the author chooses to present it. At one time authors state their purpose, but such a process more than imply this theme. He suggests it through character, atmosphere,


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA setting, plot, and style-thus theme is a kind of composite statement which requires our comprehension of numerous other elements.”

Hamalian and Karl, (1967:323) Burton Goodman said that theme is a main idea or the main point in a story. A theme must represent the whole part of the story, because theme is a basic development of a whole story. Actually it is not easy to find out the theme in a novel. The reader has to read the novel and understand what the story tells about. The theme of a piece of fiction such as novels is it views about life and how people behave. In fiction, the theme is not intended to teach or preach.

In fact, it is not presented directly at all. You extract it from the characters, , and setting that make up the story. In other words, you must figure out the theme yourself. Theme, plot, and structure are inseparable to inform and reflect back on each other. A theme from a story never completely explains the story. It is simply one of the elements that make up the whole. Theme of novels is a universal idea or message that stretches through an entire story. A theme may show up in a pattern or a theme may come through as the result of buildup. It is often a lesson that we learn about life or people. To show the theme, the author may tell by other element parts of the novel such as: character, atmosphere, setting, plot, and style. It could be more interesting to concluding the theme if we recognize it. Theme as a deliver part in a novel must be related well with other elements to build a good story. The theme in a novel is more than it is subject matter, because an author’s technique can play as strong a role in developing theme as the actions of dire has become old fashioned; no self respecting writer at present will do the character do. In other word, theme in


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA a novel is the central or overriding idea of the novel, or the message the author wants to reader to gain from reading the novel. There can certainly be secondary themes, as well. A common theme of many works is man’s inhumanity to man. A novel may have several themes. Themes often explore historically common or cross culturally recognizable ideas, such as ethical questions, and are usually implied rather than stated explicitly. Along with plot, character, setting, and style, theme is considered one of the fundamental components of fiction. Theme must be related to other elements in a novel to build a good story, because from theme story is developed. Elements in a novel is based on theme so it should be solid each other.

Frederick R. Karl (1967:323) says, “Theme is a kind of composite statement which requires our comprehension of numerous other elements. The theme cannot be anything you choose to make it. Every interpretation must be consistent with what the author has provided. If you defend a particular meaning that you feel deeply about, remember that it must coincide with every element of the story.” The theme gives the story focus, unity, impact and a ‘point’. The theme becomes clear by looking at what happens to the major characters. If the main character survives while others do not, it shows that the author is rewarding his / her behavior Theme is also a general basic idea that supports a literature, and it implies in the text as semantic structure and connects with the similarities and differences. Themes become basic development of the whole story, so it must represent the whole part of novel.



Main theme (the theme of major) The meaning of the basic story idea into a public drama literary works are not only found in certain parts of the course. It could be said there is in the whole section. The major theme of a book is the storyline of the book. The plot, the and the supporting characters all together comprise the major theme of any book. Additional theme (the theme of minor) an additional theme that is only found on certain sections. Unlike the major themes that can cover the whole story. Indeed, there is a whole range of themes, but in practice very difficult to present a work that contains only one theme only. For example, the theme of the Godhead. In it certainly contained another theme, because usually the process, have multiple themes. The pluralities of themes are usually specified by separating it into basic and additional theme. Key themes being the overall idea in the story and using additional themes in order to slip the small ideas, another is also considered beneficial to the reader.



The functions of a theme is to give input for other structural elements, such as

plot, character, and setting; the most important functionality in prose that is

terminating the last element to be the whole story. This means that authors create

and shape the plot, bringing the characters to life, whether consciously or not,

express or implied, is essentially a behavior that is guided by the chosen theme

and has been directing it. In addition, the theme also serves the vision. What is

meant here is the vision of the total response of the author of the life experience

and linked with the visible. On the other hand readers get the chance to see the

life experiences of others through thought provoking author of in other words,

the author creates a fictional world that leads us to our own culture is

experiencing the event. All of this can be obtained through the theme, as long as

we can unite the whole element of prose into a unified whole



One of the fiction prose is novel. The word comes from the Italian, Novella, which means the new staff that small. The novel developed in England and

American. The novel was originally developed in the region from other forms of narrative nonfiction, such as letters, biographies, and history. But with a shift in society and development time, the novel is not only based on data nonfiction, author of novel can change according to the desired imagination.

Foster (1979) says, “A novel is away learning about how things were or are cognitive instrument, and those whose destructed storied as evidence should consider how often in conversation we use them to make points or answer question.

It means that we can learn about how things were or are cognitive instrument from a novel”.

Novels have young people; most of them are the young people who feel them to be most at odd with conventional standard. You will have made considerable progress in understanding the particular novel you are reading. Novel has more of humanity. By reading a novel, we are made acquainted with the motivations, imbibes our notion of virtue and vice from practical examples knowledge of the world. The novelist makes an imitation of life that represents human being, makes certain conclusions about it which are expressed that novelist creates and the situations which are placed.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Novel is fiction prose usually written in the narrative form of the story. The writer of novel called novelist. The word “novel” comes from Italian novella which means “a story or piece of news. Some novels have moral lesson as the message of the novels that tell about the update reality in our society. Nowadays, novel do not only tell about the youth relationship but also the moral crisis, education, religion, and other social life. Simply saying that novel is also an instrument how to teach morality to its readers. It is also that has a main form of prose, with a length of more or less able to fill out one or two small volumes, which depict real life in a fairly complex. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novel.

Yonathan Culler (1977:59) says,” theme is something which becomes the authors thought. It explains about view of life or the author’s image, and how they consider the case.” Theme should be universal; it means that the readers understand well. The relation of the story is obviously in message and theme.

Hartoko and Rahmanto (1984:149) say that theme is a general basic idea the supports a literature, and it’s implied in the text as a semantic structure and connects with similarities and differences. According the statement above that theme becomes a basic development of the whole story. Therefore, the reader should conclude the whole story to find out a literary work.

In other words, theme is the main idea or the main point in a story. A theme must represent the whole part of the story, because theme is a basic development of a


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA whole story. Actually it is not easy to find out the theme in a novel. The reader has to read the novel and understand what the story tells about.

Way (2003) says that word or sentence contains idea. As what is stated in the following: “ Although” a single word may name an idea, it does not operate as an idea until it is put into a sentence or assertion. In other words, theme is main idea or the main point in astory, because needs a subject object and predicate before we can use it as a basis of understanding. It is important to recognize than an assertion of an idea is not the same as an ordinary sentence.

Stanton (2007:7) says that theme gives a strong explained about the unity of what is happening in the story, and tell about the story of life in a common context.

The purpose of theme is to give a shape and effect in our mind, so make the story easy to remember. A good theme has to represent the entire story in the novel.

Sometimes the theme shapes in to the fact that comes from the human experience.It is explored by the story and then gives impression for each of event in life,

Stanton (1965:21) says that a theme is meaning of a story, but it is sometimes

"hidden" and not early illustrated. We can mean the necessary implications of the whole story, not just a part of the story

Kenney (1966:89) says that a theme is idea, an author's view of life which is the background of the literary work. A theme filtered from motives that are in the works in question that determines the presence of the events, conflicts, and situations

Thematic an analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes within data. This method emphasizes organization and rich description of


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA the data set. Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text and moves on to identifying implicit and explicit ideas within the data. Coding is the primary process for developing themes within the raw data by recognizing important moments in the data and encoding it prior to interpretation.

The interpretation of these codes can include comparing theme frequencies, identifying theme co-occurrence, and graphically displaying relationships between different themes. Most researchers consider thematic analysis to be a very useful method in capturing the intricacies of meaning within a data set.

There is a wide range as to what a "data set" entails (see qualitative data). Texts can range from a single-word response to an open-ended question or as complex as a body of thousands of pages.] As a consequence, data analysis strategies will likely very according to size. Most qualitative researchers analyze transcribed in-depth interviews that can be 2-hours in length, resulting in nearly 40 pages of transcribed data per respondent. Also, it should be taken into consideration that complexity in a study can vary according to different data types.

Thematic analysis takes the concept of supporting assertions with data from grounded theory. This work is designed to construct theories that are grounded in the data themselves. This is reflective in thematic analysis because the process consists of reading transcripts, identifying possible themes, comparing and contrasting themes, and building theoretical models.

Thematic analysis is also related to phenomenology in that it focuses on the human experience subjectively. This approach emphasizes the participants'


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA perceptions, feelings and experiences as the paramount object of study. Rooted in humanistic psychology, phenomenology notes giving voice to the "other" as a key component in qualitative research in general. This allows the respondents to discuss the topic in their own words, free of constraints from fixed-response questions found in quantitative studies.

Like most research methods, this process of data analysis can occur in two primary ways inductively or deductively. In an inductive approach, the themes identified are strongly linked to the data because assumptions are data-driven. This means that the process of coding occurs without trying to fit the data into a pre- existing model or frame. It is important to note that throughout this inductive process, it is not possible for the researchers to free themselves from their theoretical epistemological responsibilities. Deductive approaches, on the other hand, are theory-driven .This form of analysis tends to be less descriptive overall because analysis is limited to the preconceived frames. The result tends to focus on one or two specific aspects of the data that were determined prior to data analysis.

The choice between these two approaches generally depends on the researchers' epistemologies (see epistemology).

A theme represents a level of patterned response or meaning from the data that is related to the research questions at hand. Determining what can be considered a theme can be used with deciding prevalence. This does not necessarily mean the frequency at which a theme occurs, but in terms of space within each data item and across the data set. It is ideal that the theme will occur numerous times across the


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA data set, but a higher frequency does not necessarily mean that the theme is more important to understanding the data. A researcher's judgments is the key tool in determining which themes are more crucial. A potential data analysis pitfall occurs when researchers use the research question to code instead of creating codes and fail to provide adequate examples from the data. Eventually, themes need to provide an accurate understanding of the "big picture".

There are also different levels at which themes can be identified—semantic and latent. A thematic analysis generally focuses wholly or mostly on one level.

Semantic themes attempt to identify the explicit and surface meanings of the data.

The researcher does not look beyond what the participant said or wrote. In this instance, the researcher wishes to give the reader a sense of the important themes.

Thus, some depth and complexity is lost. However, a rich description of the entire data set is represented. Conversely, latent themes identify underlying ideas, patterns, and assumptions. This requires much interpretation of the data, so researchers might focus on one specific question or area of interest across the majority of the data set.

A theme is different from a code. Several texts recommend that researchers

"code for themes" This can be misleading because the theme is considered the outcome or result of coding, not that which is coded. The code is the label that is given to particular pieces of the data that contribute to a theme. For example,

"SECURITY can be a code, but A FALSE SENSE OF SECURITY can be a theme


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Way (2003) says that word or sentence contains idea. As what is stated on the following: Although a single word may name an idea, it does not operate as an idea untill it is put into a sentence or assertion. In other worsds, an idea needs a subject and predicate before we can use it as basis of understanding. it is important to recognize that an assertion of an idea is not the same as an ordinary sentence."

Stanford (2003) says that emphasized the all stories should have theme as he said : "All stories have a theme a purpose, no matter how deviously the authors stated their purpose, but such a procedure has become old-fashioned, no self- respecting writer at present will do more than imply this theme. He suggests it through theme is kind of composite statement which requires our comprehensive of numerous other elements." To show the theme, the writer may tell by the other elements parts of the novel. it could be more interesting to concluding theme if we recognize it. The theme of the novel is more than its subject matter, because a writer's technique can play as strong a rule in developing a theme as the action. Sometimes because of the length of novels and various scenes,found within them, reader can look at diffrent aspects of the work to uncover diffrent interpretation the meaning of the tale.



Traditional theme is intended as a theme that points to the only theme that’s it in the sense that he has long been used and can be found in a variety of stories,

Including the story longer: Theme statements that can be viewed as the traditional nature for example

1) Truth and justice defeating evil

2) Although crime is covered up will be uncovered as well

3) Acts of righteousness or wickedness of each will reap the results

4) True love requires sacrifice

5) True friend is a friend in times of grief

6) After suffering, the god afterthought

7) The proverbial rhyme-raft upriver rafting, swimming, to shore. Although

many variations of theme traditional said always had something to do with

issues of truth and evil


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA 3.2) Non Traditional theme

Nontraditional theme is such a theme it might not be in accordance with the expectations of the reader is against the current, shocking, perhaps even frustrating, disappointing, or a variety of other affective reactions. Dealing with fiction in general, people expect a good, honest, all the characters are having sex or are classified as an , although at first experienced the glory, finally defeated or obtain “rewarded” accordingly. If the opposite happens both defeated, the reader may be if only affection. In fact, reality is likely to happen and it seems quite a lot, such as big time corruptors but survived, abuse of power to oppress the little people, the small displacement is as good as the people themselves. Perpetrators or instigators of the arbitrariness are still rich, while ordinary people are also still a group who defeated.

And there is rarely a hero or situation that helps “victory”. Entertaining works of fiction it does seem to want to serve as an escape for a moment to forget the bitterness of life experienced or to imagine the achievement of something desired that never achieved in real life.



Theme physical level is theme of man as a psychiatric molecule level, man as molecule. Literary theme at this level suggest more indicated by the number of physical activity rather than mental. He emphasizes physical mobility rather than psychological conflict of the characters in question. Background elements in that novel by highlighting the theme of this level emphasized.

Within this theme suggest more actors or indicated by the amount of physical activity rather than mental. He emphasizes physical mobility rather than psychological conflict of the characters in question. Background elements in this novel is in France in Cannes film festival.

3.4) Theme Organic level

Theme Organic level is a theme that concerns or discuss issues that activity can only be made by living things are deviant as a fraud and spousal betrayal or other scandals. It is just that in this novel there are several stories about the main character, who believes that he can kill if he has a good reason for it such as avoiding human suffering, or bringing back the attention of the woman he loves.



Theme social level is about people who are full of dreams and who are going

it in an entirely wrong way. However materialistic their goals may seem, they

are motivated by something that transcend the material world. I want the

readers to know that the people they imagine to be all powerful superstars are,

in fact more cogs in a machine manipulated by the few.

This theme of man individual which is means man as individualism. Besides,

as social beings humans as well as individual creatures borne in “demanding”

recognition of the right of individuality. In his capacity as individual beings,

humans also have a lot of problems and conflicts, for example in the form of

human reaction to social problems that it faces. Human as social beings is

socials man. Social life, which is where the action-environment interactions

with the fellow human nature, it contains a lot of problems, conflicts that

became the object of the search topic. The social problems which include

economic issues,politics,education,culture,struggle, love,propaganda, and the

superior subordinate relationship problems and other social relationship that

usually appears in the works contain social criticism.



This novel themed selfish because its tells egoist problem,dignity

selfsteem, or nature and paticular attitude in solving problems life wisely.This

theme of the man as creature of high level, which is not necesssarily for

human experience or archieve. Individuality among other issues from to

egoist's problems dignity selfsteem or certain other human nature, which is

more generally perceived by inner concerned. Individuality usually indicates a

problem of identity, self image or figure of a person's personality.

Finally it must be stressed that in a work of fiction may be found in more than

one theme of the fifth level of theme.In fact, it's rare to find a novel that

specifically contains only one level of particular theme, without offending the

other tiers theme. However, to determine which are the most dominant theme

required interpretation and further research




4.1. Conclusion

Having analyzed the themeof the novel The Mark of Athena can be concude that to understand of the principal theme is the mind, the basic idea or meaning of the story is contained implicity in a work of fiction or novel that has relationship with elements of the stories. The theme can be classified into three perspectives, namely dichotomous classification level of experience shipley soul are Theme

Physical Level, Theme Organic Level,Theme Social Level, Theme Egoic Level, and

Theme Divine Level.

1) Traditional theme is a theme that favored those with social status whatever,

wherever, and whenever. The traditional theme of the story is he realize that he

didn’t lose anything. He thought that life sometimes separates people so that they

can realize how much they mean to each other.

2) Non traditional theme is such theme it might not be in accordance with the

expectations of the reader is against the current, shocking, perhaps even

frustrating, disappointing or a variety of other affective reactions. The non

traditional theme of the story is what these woman want is fame, glory, and

glamour, to be the envy of the other people who live in their town.

3) Theme Physical Level is theme of a man as a psychiatric molecule level, man

as molecule. Theme physical level of the story is percy Jackson has walked past


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA the scene of the crime several times now. At one point, he realized that this

comings and goings might arouse suspicion.

4) Theme Organic Level is a theme that concerns or discuss issues that activity

can only be made by living things are deviant as a fraud and spousal betrayal or

other scandals. Theme organic level of the story is Annabeth said that she left

memory about Percy Jackson all behind and she doesn’t regret it one bit because

she needs to live without fear.

5) Theme Social Level is about the people who are full of dreams and who are

going it in an entirely wrong way .Theme social level of the story is the super

class think they’re so important, so usually aware, because they’re willing to pay

a fortune for some useless item at a charity auction or to attend a supper organized

to raise funds to help the homeless in Rwanda or to save the people in Greece.

6) Theme Egoist Level is tells about egoist problem, dignity, self-esteem, or the nature and particular attitude in solving problems life wisely. Theme egoist level of the story is the super class tries to promote its values. Ordinary people complain of divine injustice, they envy power, and it pains them to see others having fun.



After completing this paper there are something would like to suggest. First the author would like to recommend the readers to understand what is the literature and a description of the parts of the intrinsic and extrinsic elements of a good novel with a particularly type of theme. The reader should know the theme of discussion according to the type and meaning. Second, the authors would like to advise for all those who are interested in reading and writing, especially the readers, writers, and students to learn about other aspects of literature not just a theme, such as character, plot, and others. It is recommended for students to describe other aspects of the novel.

This paper is far from being perfect, so the writer needs constructive suggestions from readers in order to make this paper perfect. The writer also asks the readers to forgive if there are any mistakes in this paper.



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Richard Russell Riordan Jr. better known as Rick Riordan is The New York

Times bestselling American author of the Percy Jackson and Olympians series. Born on June 5, 1964, Rick Riordan grew up in Texas. He attended the Alamo Heights

High School, graduating in 1982. For higher education Rick enrolled at the

University of Texas in Austin double majoring in English and history. After graduation from the university in 1986, Rick Riordan chose teaching for a career. For

15 years Rick taught English, history and Greek mythology at various middle schools in the San Francisco Bay Area and in San Antonio. In 2002, he was presented the St.

Mary’s Hall’s first Master Teacher Award for his exceptional teaching services.

Rick began to enjoy writing from an early age. He made many unsuccessful attempts of publishing his short stories in teenage years. At school, Rick was appointed the editor of the high school newspaper. It was not until graduation from college and teaching in San Francisco that Riordan took writing seriously.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Riordan’s son, Haley who was diagnosed with ADHD and dyslexia held a keen interest in a subject his father taught, Greek mythology. Then in the second grade, Haley would often request upon Rick to tell him stories inspired by Greek mythologies. In order to fulfill his son’s request, Riordan quickly invented the character of Percy Jackson, a twelve year boy who suddenly discovers he is the son of a Greek God. Riordan began a creatively crafted imaginative tale of Percy’s expedition to bring back Zeus’s lightning bolt in present day America. After Rick finished telling the story in three nights, Haley requested him to write down the story as a book. Not wanting to disappoint his son, Riordan took out time to write down the story. To show his respect and care for dyslexic children, Riordan attributed some characteristics of this disease to Percy. Thus, Riordan’s world famous Percy Jackson series came into being.

While living in California was enjoyable and comfortable for his wife and kids, Riordan yearned for Texas. His nostalgic feelings for Texas led him to write a mystery novel set in San Antonio, his hometown. The novel entitled Big Red Tequila featured the central character of Tres Nvarre, a private eye Ph.D in English. The novel received enthusiastic reviews and won Riordan the three most prestigious awards in the mystery genre. Riordan was presented the Edgar, Anthony and Shamus awards for Big Red Tequila. Riordan has to his credit a number of other awards as well. Some of these include Mark Twain Award for The Lightning Thief (2008),

Mark Twain Award for The Sea of Monsters (2009), Rebecca Caudill Award for The

Lightning Thief (2009), School Library Journal’s Best Book for The Red Pyramid


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA (2010), Children’s Choice Book Awards: Author of the Year (2011) and the

Children’s Choice Book Awards: Fifth Grade to Sixth Grade Book of the Year for

The Red Pyramid (2011).

Riordan is author to five series which include Percy Jackson and the

Olympians, The Heroes of Olympus, The 39 Clues Series, Tres Navarre Series and

The Kane Chronicles. He is also written a standalone novel entitled Cold Springs which was published in 2004. Rick Riordan currently resides in San Antonio with his wife and their two sons.



Mark of Athena opens with Annabeth travelling to Camp Jupiter. Camp

Jupiter is similar to Camp Half-Blood except the residents are descendants of Roman gods and not Greek ones. Annabeth is travelling with several other campers, including Leo Valdez, Gleeson Hedge, Jason Grace, and Piper Mclean. She’s on guard around Jason because she doesn’t trust him, finding him to be too perfect. The group arrives at the camp, seeing that it had recently been attacked. Before their ship can land the Roman god of boundaries, Terminus, arrives on the ship and insists that they all disarm before being allowed to enter the camp. An agreement is finally reached and Annabeth is finally allowed in.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Annabeth runs into Percy and Reyna. She instantly embraces Percy before they are all dragged off to a feast. At the feast, both camps discuss the Prophecy of

Seven, with Annabeth trying to convince Camp Jupiter that it means both Greeks and

Romans need to work together in order to close the Doors of Death. Unfortunately for them, the Augur of Camp Jupiter, Octavian, doesn’t trust them. Leo takes Octavian aboard their ship, the Argo II, in an attempt to get him to start trusting the Greeks. At the same time, Reyna privately talks with Annabeth, telling her that she believes the

Romans and Greeks should work together. During their conversation, the Argo II suddenly opens fire on the city. A mob starts to form, rioting against the Greeks, but

Percy is able to hold them at bay. Octavian returns from the ship, claiming that Leo is the one who initiated the attack. The group manages to flee onto the ship before it is brought down, with Annabeth taking Percy, Hazel, and Frank with them as well.

Once they escape, they question why Leo attacked. Leo claims he has no idea why he did it, and doesn’t actually have any memories of the attack itself.

Piper takes care of Jason, who was injured during the escape. While tending to him, she has a vision and sees a number of unsettling images, including a man in purple next to a Topeka road sign. The group decides to travel to Topeka to speak with Bacchus. Bacchus is none too pleased to see them, but Piper tells him about her vision. This calms him down somewhat, but he tells them he doesn’t want to be part of their quest, as he no longer considers himself a demigod. He does give them information, telling them to seek out Phorcys for information on Gaea.


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Bacchus leaves and Gaea attacks the group, using two Eidolons to get control of Jason and Percy. She tells Piper that she only needs a boy and a girl demigod, forcing Piper to choose whether Jason or Percy should live. Piper can’t decide, so

Percy and Jason are forced to fight. Piper manages to interfere before they can kill each other and manages to knock both of them unconscious. The group retreats on the

Argo II where Percy and Jason awaken without any signs of possession.

The group comes to the conclusion that Gaea must have used the same control on Leo to get him to attack Camp Jupiter, but they have no evidence to show to

Octavian and the other Romans. Instead, they decide to follow Bacchus’s advice and search for Phorycs. Piper realizes the Eidolons are still on the ship, but she manages to outsmart them and get them to swear never to possess a member of the Argo II again.

That night, Percy has a dream that Otis and Ephialtes are preparing to destroy

Rome at the start of July. In his dream he also sees Nico di Angelo trapped in a jar.

Percy tries to reach out to him, but Nico is in a meditative trance and doesn’t hear him. Percy vows that he will save Nico before being woken by Annabeth.

Afterwards, the group arrives in Atlanta to begin their search for Phorcys. With the help of Keto, the mother of sea monsters, the group is able to find Phorcys in an aquarium.

Percy gets Phorcys to talk about Ephialtes and Otis and also gets him to talk about a prisoner, Nico, which they were using as bait for the group. Phorcys tries to trap the group in the aquarium, but they manage to escape. Percy informs everyone


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA that they need to find a map that leads to the Athena Parthenos in Rome. Annabeth reveals that she saw Athena several months ago looking at a map. When she tried to talk with her, all she said was she had to follow the mark of Athena. She then gave her a silver coin and warned her that if she worked with the Romans she would be no child of hers.

With the aid of Aphrodite, the group is able to find out that the map is hidden away at Fort Sumter. On their way to the fort, they are attacked by Octavian who still believes them to be responsible for the attack on Camp Jupiter. They manage to slow the Romans down and split up to find the map. Annabeth has to overcome her fear of spiders, but manages to get the map. Reyna confronts Annabeth before she can get away with the map, saying that she has to come back to Camp Jupiter to stand trial.

Annabeth convinces Reyna to let her go so she can repair things between the Camps.

Reyna reluctantly agrees, warning Annabeth if she doesn’t they will next meet as enemies. She leaves and rejoins the others, sailing out to the Mediterranean Sea to save Nico and find Athena Parthenos.

The group finally gets to Rome where Percy has a vision about Gaea destroying Camp Half-Blood. She offers to spare the Camp if Percy surrenders himself and Annabeth. He refuses and wakes up. Annabeth uses her map which leads her on a series of trials she has to overcome. The rest of the group splits up with the intent to rescue Nico. The group eventually manages to find and rescue Nico, but

Annabeth isn’t so lucky in her own trials, ultimately being captured by the spider creature, Arachne. Percy and the others arrive to save Annabeth, but she and Percy


UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA end up falling into Tartarus together. The book ends with the rest of the group setting sail for Greece so they can break into Tartarus and rescue Percy and Annabeth.