Nutrients: (N), (S), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K)

Essential for all , their availability (or lack thereof) controls the distribution of flora and fauna

Look into their:

Sources Pools (sinks) Fluxes

uptake + microbial uptake leaching solution

Nutrients must be in a specific form – specie - for use by organisms Cycling: N, S, P, K Organic Matter (CHONPS) Primary Productivity (P, S, K)

O Leaves &


Decomposition Heterotrophic respiration B Gas loss

SOM/Minerals Microbes leaching of nutrients nutrient uptake Nutrients: natural & anthropogenic sources (IN) and outputs (OUT)

N2 (chemical, manure, sludge) gases and particulates to atmosphere (fossil fuel combustion (/oil); cycles; ) wet and dry deposition ( rain, aerosols) harvesting plant tissue/residues root uptake IN OUT

SOIL Pools (sinks) (SOM/clays/) Fluxes (transformations) OUT IN

and molecules in solution (leaching) roots (exudates, biomass) colloidal transport bedrock (1ry/2ry minerals in parent material) erosion runoff The Nitrogen Cycle

+ The Nitrogen Cycle Denitrification: - - NO3 is the most stable N2 (g) is prevalent in reduction of NO3 chemical form of N in the air of soil pores to reduced forms aerated soil solutions of N (N2) (energy- consuming) Atmospheric N deposition Nitrogen evolution (gases) additions

700 (+5) +5 Oxic - denitrification NO3 (+3) zone - NO2 (+2)

(mV) NO (+1) h

E N2O Suboxic (0) nitrification N state oxidation N2

236 zone immobilization N-mineralization N-fixation -3 NH3 Organic-N (-3) (-3) immobilization + NH4 sorption (~90% of soil N)

N-fixation: enzyme- Nitrification: NH to oxidized Oxidation of N2 does not 3 catalyzed reaction (occurs forms of N (NO -, NO -) occur except in a few 2 3 only in living organisms) (energy-releasing) organisms (N-N triple bond) The Sulfur Cycle The Sulfur Cycle Sulfur undergoes dramatic changes in cycling Oxidation states range from +6 to -2


sorption Sulfate found in 2- Oxic SO4 oxidized zone environments

Suboxic degradation of zone A large variety of organic materials organic forms of S (plant/animal)

oxidation/reduction reduced organic S Anoxic 2- (thiol) zone S H2S M2+ + S2- = MS (pptation of sulfides)

metal sulfides tend to be “insoluble” (Hg, Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe(II)) 2- In soil, SO4 originates from

• Organic matter mineralization • Weathering of soil minerals • Sulfur inputs from atmosphere The 3- P primarily as (PO4 ), with an of 5+ Mostly in organic P and inorganic P forms

3- PO4 is strongly retained by but can be transported in colloidal forms 3- PO4 sorption onto Al and Fe oxides is strong

Phosphate minerals (low solubility): Al and Fe (acid soils) Ca phosphates (non acid soils)

(, AlPO4.2H2O ) (, Ca5(PO4)3OH )

(strengite, FePO4.2H2O ) The Potassium Cycle Potassium as K+ with no changes in oxidation state K+ controlled by CEC & chemical weathering ~ no organisms Sources: Primary and Secondary Minerals