a-Glucosidase, heavy metal toxicity test• , benthic animals, 101 ing, 129 Bioaccumulation, biological factors, 98 Abiotic transformation, pulp mill Bioaccumulation, contaminant lipophil- effluent, 24, 36 icity, 104 Acetones, degradation in soil, 46 Bioaccumulation, defined, 88 Acid volatile sulfide, heavy metal toxic• Bioaccumulation, factors affecting ity, 121 aquatic systems, 98 Activated sludge, wood pulp effluent, Bioaccumulation, ingestion of contami• 19 nated media, 94 Aerated lagoon, wood pulp effluent, 19 Bioaccumulation, mechanisms in Aeromonas spp., heavy metal toxicity aquatic systems, 87 ff. testing, 129 Bioaccumulation, organism behavior Algae, heavy metal toxicity testing, 128 effects, 100 Alkaline pulping, paper mills, 17 Bioaccumulation, organism feeding Alkylating qualities, methyl bromide, type, 100 79 Bioaccumulation, organism con• Allium spp., heavy metal toxicity test• tent, 98 ing, 125 Bioaccumulation, particle size distribu• ANITM Salmonella Test kit, 3 tion effects, 106 Aquatic systems, accumulation mecha• Bioaccumulation, physical factors, nisms,89 104 Aquatic systems, bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation, position in food mechanisms, 87 ff. chain, 103 Aquatic systems, contaminant sources, Bioaccumulation, sorbed hydrophobic 89,91 contaminants, 91 , bioassay, environmental Bioaccumulation, temperature effects, samples, 123 105 Assurance Salmonella Enzyme Immu• Bioaccumulation, time effects in noassayTM kit, 3 aquatic systems, 107 Bioassays, specific heavy metal toxicity, 133 ~-Galactosidase, heavy metal toxicity Bioassays, toxicity of to testing, 129, 134 eucaryotic organisms, 119 Bacteria, genetically engineered, metal Bioassays, toxicity of heavy metals to toxicity testing, 123, 132 /enzymes, 119 Bactigen®, Salmonella-Shigella test kit, 3 , defined, 87 BCF, bioconcentration factor, defined, Bioconcentration factor (BCF), 89 defined,89 BCF/log Kow relationships, log-linear, Bioconcentration, organic pollutants, 89 89 Bioaccumulation, assimilation effi• Biodegradation, pulp mill effluent, 23, ciency, 100 36

149 150 Index

BioEnzaBead™, enzyme immunoassay Chlorinated phenolics, sorption in soil, kit,3 33 Biological oxygen demand, pulp mill Chlorinated phenolics, spent pulp mill effluent, 26 liquors, 16 , heavy metals effects Chlorinated phenolics, toxicity to soil on marine bacteria, 127 bacteria, 29 Bioluminescence, inhibition, heavy Chlorinated phenols, pulp mill effluent, metal toxicity testing, 132 27 Biomagnification, defined, 88 Chlorine, pulp mill bleaching process, Biomagnification, , aquatic 18 systems, 95 Chlorine dioxide, wood pulp bleaching, Biomagnification, limitations, aquatic 19 systems, 97 Chlorobenzenes, degradation in soil, 44 Biomagnification, metals, aquatic Chlorobenzenes, pulp mill effluent, 43 systems, 96 Chlorobenzenes, sorption/mobility in Biomagnification, tissue residues, top soil,45 , 98 Chlorobenzenes, toxicity, 44 Biosensors, heavy metal toxicity, 130 Chlorolignins, degradation in soil, 42 Bisulfite pulping, paper mills, 17 Chlorolignins, molecular weight, 41 Bleaching chemicals, wood pulp, 17 Chlorolignins, toxicity to soil biota, 42 Bleaching, paper pulp process, 16 Chloroligno compounds, pulp mill effluent, 41 Chromium, bioassay, environmental Cadmium, bioassay, environmental samples, 123 samples, 123 Chronic , methyl bromide, 76 Carcinogenicity, methyl bromide, 73 Cobalt, bioassay, environmental sam• Cellulose, wood component, 15 ples, 130 Ceriodaphnia dubia, test organism for Commercial immunochemical detection heavy metal toxicity, 123 methods, 3 Chlorates, Kraft pulping by-product, 50 Contaminant flux dynamics, aquatic Chlorates, sorption/mobility in soil, 50 organisms (illus.), 90 Chlorinated acetic acids, degradation in Contaminant lipophilicity, bioaccumu• soil,46 lation, 104 Chlorinated acetic acids, toxicity, 46 Contaminant sources, aquatic systems, Chlorinated catechols, pulp mill 89,91 effluent, 27 Copper, bioassay, environmental Chlorinated guaiacols, pulp mill samples, 123 effluent, 27 Chlorinated lignin compounds, pulp mill effluent, 41 Daphnia magna, test organism for Chlorinated phenolics, degradation in heavy metal toxicity, 123 soil,30 DDE biomagnification, fish, 98 Chlorinated phenolics, methylation in DDT biomagnification, fish, 98 soil,32 Dehydrogenase activity, heavy metal Chlorinated phenolics, phytotoxicity, toxicity testing, 131 31 Delignification, defined, 16 Chlorinated phenolics, soil biodegrada• Desorption in soil, chlorinated tion, 30 organics, 23 Chlorinated phenolics, sorption/desorp• Dibenzo-dioxins, wood pulp, 17 tion in soil, 37 Dibenzofurans, pulp mill effluent, 17 Index 151

Dioxins, degradation in soil, 39 Fluorescein-labeled polyclonal antibody Dioxins, pulp mill effluent, 18,38 assay, 5 Dioxins, sorption/mobility in soil, 40 Fluorescent antibody, Salmonella detec• Dissolved organic carbon, hydrophobic tion method, 2 contaminants sorption, 93 Food chain biomagnification, aquatic Dissolved organic matter, affects systems, 95 TCDD soil mobility, 41 Food , immunochemical Dissolved organic matter, pulp mill detection methods, 1 ff. effluent,26 Fraser broth, Listeria spp. identifica- DNA damage, methyl bromide, 77 tion, 6 Fugacity, defined, 90 Furans, degradation in soil, 39 E. coli 0157 Latex Test™ kit, 4 Furans, in wood pulp, 17 ECsoS, heavy metals in fish, 124 Furans, pulp mill effluent, 38 ECsoS, heavy metals in invertebrates, 126 Furans, sorption/mobility in soil, 40 ECsoS, heavy metals in microorganisms, 131 ECsoS, heavy metals, Microtox™, 127 Galactosidase (B), heavy metal toxicity EDTA chelation, heavy metal toxicity testing, 129, 134 testing, 133 Genetic effects, methyl bromide, 76 Effluent sample, toxic characterization Genetically engineered bacteria, metal procedures diagram, 133 toxicity testing, 123 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent Glucosidase (a), heavy metal toxicity assay), E. coli, 5 testing, 129 ELISA, Listeria spp. detection, 7 Enrichment broths, Listeria monocyto• genes detection, 6 Halogenated alkanes, degradation in Enrichment cultures, rapid identifica• soil,36 tion, 3 Halogenated alkanes, pulp mill Environmental sample testing, heavy effluent, 35 metals, 119 ff. Halogenated a1kenes, pulp mill Enzyme biosynthesis, heavy metal toxic• effluent, 35 ity testing, 131 Heat shock, stress proteins, 132 Enzyme immunoassays, Salmonella Heavy metals, enzymes toxicity testing, spp., 3 134 Enzyme induction, plants, heavy metal Heavy metals, ionic forms most toxic, 120 toxicity, 125 Heavy metals, MetPAD™/ Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay MetPLATE™ toxicity testing, 134, (ELISA), E. coli, 5 135 Enzymes, heavy metal toxicity testing, Heavy metals, microbial assay toxicity 128 testing, 131 Escherichia coli 0157:H7, conventional Heavy metals, Microtox™ toxicity detection methods, 4 testing, 127 Escherichia coli 0157: H7, immuno• Heavy metals, solid phase assay, 136 chemical detection, 1 ff., 4 Heavy metals, toxicity to algae, 128 Heavy metals, toxicity bioassays, 119 Heavy metals, toxicity, enzymes, 128 Fish, heavy metal toxicity testing, 123 Heavy metals, toxicity to fish, 124 Fluorescein isothiocyanate, monoclonal Heavy metals, toxicity to invertebrates, antibody binding, 7 126 152 Index

Heavy metals, toxicity to plants, 125 Lithium chloride-phenylethanol• Heavy metals, toxicity testing, environ• moxalactam plating, 6 mental samples, 119 ff. Log KocS, chlorinated organics in soil, Hemicellulose, wood component, 15 21 Horseradish peroxidase monoclonal Log KowlBCF relationships, log-linear, antibody, E. coli detection, 4 89 Human exposure, methyl bromide, 66 Log Kow, octanol/water partition coeffi• Hydrogen sulfide, heavy metal cient, 89 toxicity, 121 Lux operon gene, response to heavy metals, 130, 132

ICsoS, heavy metal toxicity testing, 136 Immunoassays, enzyme, 3 Magnetic polystyrene beads, E. coli Immunochemical detection kits, com- detection, 5 mercial,3 Mechanism of action, methyl bromide, Immunochemical detection methods, I 78 ff. Mer-lux gene, response to heavy metals, Immunofluorescence identification, E. 130 coli,5 , bioassay, environmental sam• Immunofluorescent test, Listeria mono• ples, 123 cytogenes, 7 Metals, biomagnification in aquatic Immunomagnetic separation, E. coli de- systems, 96 tection,5 Methanol, methyl bromide metabolite, Inhalation toxicity, methyl bromide, 74 77 Interstitial water, defined, 92 Methyl bromide, 13-week studies, 72 Invertebrates, heavy metal toxicity Methyl bromide, 14-day studies, 71 testing, 125 Methyl bromide, 2-year studies, 72 Ionic forms, heavy metals most toxic, Methyl bromide, 6-week special target 120 organ studies, 72 Methyl bromide, alkylating ability, 79 Methyl bromide, annual use in U.S., 66 Kocs, chlorinated organics in soil, 21 Methyl bromide, carcinogenicity Kraft pulping process, paper making, studies, 73 16,17 Methyl bromide, chronic toxicology, 76 Methyl bromide, Dutch Government studies, 74 Lead, bioassay, environmental samples, Methyl bromide, gavage studies, 75 123 Methyl bromide, genetic effects, 76, 77 Lignin, aromatic polymer, 15 Methyl bromide, glutathione metabo- Lipophilicity, contaminant bioaccumu• lism, 79 lation, 104 Methyl bromide, human exposure, 66 Listeria monocytogenes, conventional Methyl bromide, inhalation LCsoS, 69 detection methods, 6 Methyl bromide, inhalation studies, 74 Listeria monocytogenes, immunochemi• Methyl bromide, mechanism of action, cal detection, 1 ff., 7 78 Listeria-Tek™, Listeria spp. rapid Methyl bromide, metabolism, 67 detection, 7 Methyl bromide, methanol metabolite, ListertestTM, Listeria spp. kit, 8 77 Listertest™ MAC, pathogenic Listeria Methyl bromide, National Toxicology detection, 8 Program Studies, 71 Index 153

Methyl bromide, neurobehavioral Onion bulbs, heavy metal toxicity changes, 73 testing, 125 Methyl bromide, pharmacokinetics, 67 Organic pollutants, bioconcentration, Methyl bromide, physical/chemical 89 properties, 66 Organic pollutants, passive partition• Methyl bromide, poisoning, histologic ing, 89 changes, 73 Organics, nonchlorinated, pulp mill Methyl bromide, poisoning symptoms, effluent, 48 67 Oxford agar, Listeria spp. identifica• Methyl bromide, structural analog tion, 6 effects, 78 Oxidation-reduction potential, heavy Methyl bromide, subchronic toxicology, metal toxicity, 121 68 Oxoid Salmonella Rapid Test® kit, 3 Methyl bromide, teratogenicity, 76 Methyl bromide, toxicology, 65 ff. Methylumbelliferyl B-D-glucuronide, PALCAMY agar, Listeria spp. identifi• E. Coli detection, 4 cation, 6 MetPAD™, test kit for heavy metal Particle size distribution, bioaccumula• toxicity, 134, 135 tion in aquatic animals, 106 MetPLA TE™, test kit for heavy metal Passive partitioning, organic pollutants, toxicity, 134, 135 89 Microbial assays, heavy metal toxicity PCBs, biomagnification in fish, 98 testing, 131 Petri film ™ E. coli screening method, 5 Microbial sensors, heavy metal toxicity pH, heavy metal toxicity, 120 testing, 130 Phaseolus vulgaris, heavy metal toxicity Microscreen, Salmonella Latex Slide testing, 125 Agglutination Test kit, 3 Physical/chemical properties, methyl Microtox™, heavy metals toxicity, 127 bromide, 66 Microtox™, solid-phase heavy metal Phytotoxicity, chlorinated phenolics, 31 toxicity testing, 136 Plants, enzyme induction, heavy metal Mineralization, pulp mill effluent, 23 toxicity, 125 Mode of action, methyl bromide, 78 Plants, heavy metal toxicity testing, 125 Monoclonal antibody, E. coli detection, Polyc\onal antibody, enzyme immuno• 4 assays, 3 Monoterpenes, spent pulp mill liquors, Polyc\onal antibody fluorescein-labeled 16 assay, 5 Motility/coordination, heavy metal Polyc\onal antisera, E. coli detection, 5 toxicity testing, 131 Polysaccharide branched, hemicellu• lose, 15 Polysaccharide linear, cellulose, 15 National Toxicology Program (NTP), 71 PolytoxTM, heavy metal toxicity Neurobehavioral changes, methyl bro• testing, 131 mide,73 Priority pollutants, USEPA list, 119 Nickel, bioassay, environmental sam• Pseudomonasjluorescens, heavy metal ples, 123 toxicity testing, 129 NTP, National Toxicology Program, 71 Pulp bleaching chemicals, 17 Pulp mill effluent, chemistry, 15 Pulp mill effluent, components toxicity, Octanol/water partition coefficient 28

(log Kow ), 89 Pulp mill effluent, degradation, 23 154 Index

Pulp mill effluent, effects on soil, 13 ff. Sorbed hydrophobic contaminants, Pulp mill effluent, organic compounds bioaccumulation,91 (table), 18 Sorbitol fermentation, E. coli detection, Pulp mill organics, degradation in soil, 4 48 Sorbitol fermentation, E. coli false posi• Pulp mill organics, sorption/mobility in tives, 5 soil,49 Sorbitol-MacConkey agar, E. coli iden• tification, 5 Sorption/desorption, chlorinated phe• Q_TroI™, Salmonella assay kit, 3 nolics in soil, 38 Spectate®, Salmonella Colored Latex Test kit, 3 Redox potential, heavy metal toxicity, Spirillum spp., heavy metal toxicity 120 testing, 129 Resin acids, spent pulp mill liquors, 16 Stress proteins, heavy metal toxicity Respiration inhibition, bacteria, heavy testing, 132 metal toxicity testing, 129 Subchronic toxicology, methyl bro• mide, 68

Salinity, heavy metal toxicity, 121 Salmonella 1-2 Test™ kit, 3 TCDD, dissolved organic matter soil Salmonella spp., conventional detection mobility, 41 methods, 2 TCDD, pulp mill effluent, 18 Salmonella spp., enzyme immunoassay TCDF, pulp mill effluent, 18 detection, 3 Tecra Listeria Visual Immunoassay kit, Salmonella spp., immunochemical 7 detection, 1 ff. TecraTM, enzyme immunoassay kit, 3 Salmonella typhi, fluorescent antibody Temperature effects, bioaccumulation, detection, 2 105 Salmonella-Tek™, enzyme immuno• Temperature effects, heavy metal toxic- assay kit, 3 ity, 120 Sediment, primary sink hydrophobic Teratogenicity, methyl bromide, 76 contaminants, 92 Terpenes, degradation in soil, 47 Selenastrum capricornutum, alga, Terpenes, sorption/mobility in soil, 47 heavy metal toxicity testing, 129 Tetrazolium salts, electron transport Serobact Salmonella®, test kit, 3 substrates, 129 Serologic agglutination, Salmonella Tetrazolium salts, heavy metal toxicity identification, 3 testing, 129 Silver, bioassay, environmental sam• Thallium, bioassay, environmental ples, 130 samples, 130 Soil macrofauna/flora, pulp mill efflu• Time effects, bioaccumulation in ent effects, 28 aquatic systems, 107 Soil properties, effects of pulp mill Toxi-Chromotest™ kit, heavy metal effluent, 25 toxicity testing, 136 Soil, pulp mill effluent effects, 13 ff. Toxic effluent sample, characterization Soil sorption, chlorinated organics, 21 procedures diagram, 133 Soil sorption, pulp mill effluent Toxicity bioassays, heavy metals, disposal, 20 eucaryotic organisms, 119 Solid phase assay, heavy metal toxicity, Toxicity bioassays, heavy metals, micro• 136, 137 organisms/enzymes, 119 Index 155

Toxicity, heavy metals to bacteria, 131 Volatilization, pulp mill effluent, 24 Toxicity, heavy metals, enzymes, 131 Toxicity, heavy metals to fish, 124 Toxicity, heavy metals to invertebrates, Water hardness, heavy metal toxicity, 126 120 Toxicity, heavy metals, Microtox™, Wood pulp bleaching chemicals, 17 127 Wood pulp mill effluent, chemistry, 15 Toxicity, pulp mill effluent compo• Wood pulp mill effluent, degradation, nents, 28 23 Toxicology, methyl bromide, 65 ff. Wood pulp mill effluent, soil effects, Trophic transfer, defined, 88 13 ff.

Urease, heavy metal toxicity testing, Zinc, bioassay, environmental samples, 134 123 INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Edited by George W. Ware

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