Marine – the study of aquatic and algae that live in seawater have as their primary photosynthetic pigment of the open and the littoral zone and in brackish and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive waters of estuaries cells

Macroalgae -study of algae - Rhodophyta, ,

Microalgae () alga (singular) : “I study , the intertidal alga” - Dinophyta , Haptophyta, Ochrophyta algae (plural): “Algae rock my world” Angiosperms algal (adj.): Algal lunch, algal skirt, algal growth rate -Mangroves, Marsh Plants, ” (wrong!) 21 22

What are algae? What are algae?

• Polyphyletic group = different ancestors, different evolutionary histories


monophyletic polyphyletic paraphyletic or Algae encompassing various distinctly related groups of aquatic photosynthetic & . 23 24

1 Eukaryota Groups Groups () 1.Bacteria- cyanobacteria 2.Archae - 3.Eukaryota 1. Alveolates- unicellular,plasma membrane supported by - , ochrophyta flattened vesicles 2. Stramenopiles- two unequal flagella, 4 Excavates membranes 3. Rhizaria- unicellular amoeboids Plantae- rhodophyta, chlorophyta, seagrasses Amoebozoans 4. Excavat es- unilllicellular fllltflagellates Fungi 5. Plantae- most broadly defined group 6. Amoebozoans- pseudopods for movement & eating

7. Fungi- with extracellular digestion

8. Choanoflagellates- unicellular withsingle flagella

25 26 9. Animals- multicellular heterotrophs

DOMAIN Groups (Kingdom) 1.Bacteria- cyanobacteria (blue ) Defining characteristics of Algae: 2.Archae “Algae” (photoautotrophic, usually), using Chl a as 3.Eukaryotes 1. Alveolates- dinoflagellates primary pigment

2. Stramenopiles- diatoms, ochrophyta BUT: Limited cellular differentiation compared to 3. Rhizaria- unicellular amoeboids terrestrial plants 4. Excavates- unicellular  No “real” vascul ar system 5. Plantae- rhodophyta, chlorophyta, seagrasses  organs unicellular, or all cells capable of (no sterile layer of cells 6. Amoebozoans- slimemolds surrounding sex organs aka NO ) 7. Fungi- heterotrophs with extracellular digestion  Much greater diversity of photosynthetic pigments 8. Choanoflagellates- unicellular and histories

9. Animals- multicellular heterotrophs 27 28

2 Algae show tremendous diversity of A An Alga , habitat, and lifestyle


blade stem photo Pete Dal Ferro

stipe holdfast roots - plants that lack

roots, stems & leaves29 30

Free-living and unattached

Gymnodinium – planktonic dinoflagellates

Rhodoliths - benthic macroalgae

photo: Morgan Bond Found in all bodies of water (freshwater, marine intertidal and subtidal) as well as terrestrial systems with enough moisture31 32

3 Free-living and attached to the substrate Epiphytic Parasitic

Postelsia palmaeformis “saxicolous”, or “saxiphytic”

Caulerpa taxifolia “psammophtyic”

Smithora naiadum on on 33 Phyllospadix torreyi Monterey Cypress 34

Symbiotic and Endoymbiotic Ecological importance of algae = close association of an alga and a - ; role in interactions

- engineers: e.g. forests, beds, Marine: Zooxanthellae in , anemonies, reefs = Create structure that defines the habitat type nudibranchs,

Radiolarians, Foramaniferans = ameoba + alga

fH2O too!: Zoochlorellae in hydras, , etc.35 36

4 Allochthonous input – external source, not from the same ecosystem input into terrestrial systems & deep Direct importance of algae to beings

Origin’s of the world’s oil supplies (dinoflagellates,,diatoms)

Used in biological and medical research (e.g. Cyanobacteria, ; fucoids);

One product of (e.g. , Gigartina) = ; produces gel at low temperatures, used in gel electrophoresis. (HUGE in )

Eaten “as itself” (e.g. , Spirulina)

Products of algae are everywhere: (from red algae) and alginates (from , e.g. , ) from in walls, act as thickening agents

Ice cream, mayonnaise, chocolate milk, soy milk, toothpaste, salad dressings, 37 shaving cream, fertilizers, rubber, paint, hair products 38

Algal Algal Taxonomy

Hierarchical system of classification: Hierarchical system of classification:

Level: suffix: Level: suffix: example: Domain/Empire Domain Kingdom/Group Kingdom/Group Plantae / -phyta Phylum/Division -phyta Chlorophyta -ppyhyceae Class -ppyhyceae Ulvoppyhyceae -ales Order -ales -aceae Family -aceae Genus Ulva species species fenestrata

• King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti

• Keep Dishes Clean Or Family Gets Sick 39 40

5 DOMAIN Groups (Kingdom) Algal Taxonomy 1.Bacteria- cyanobacteria (blue green algae) Hierarchical system of classification: 2.Archae 3.Eukaryotes 1. Alveolates- dinoflagellates,

Level: suffix: example: 2. Stramenopiles- diatoms, ochrophyta Domain Eukaryote Kingdom/Group Chromista 3. Rhizaria- unicellular amoeboids Phylum/Division -phyta Ochrophyta Class -ppyhyceae Phaeoppyhyceae 4. Excavates- unicellular flagellates Order -ales Laminariales 5. Plantae- rhodophyta, chlorophyta, seagrasses Family -aceae Genus 6. Amoebozoans- slimemolds species menziesii 7. Fungi- heterotrophs with extracellular digestion

8. Choanoflagellates- unicellular

41 9. Animals- multicellular heterotrophs 42

Algal Nomenclature- acknowledges the first and last person to describe the species 1753, Linneaus divided all life into two Phyla = Plants and Animals for example: Linnaeus called this pyriferus; later Within the plants, he recognized renamed by Carl Adardh, so: • – hidden …land plants • Thallogams – unspecialized gametes … the algae

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) Adardh Only three genera originally recognized : Fucus-fleshy Ulva- membranous Conferva- filamentous

43 44

6 -Taxonomy/ constantly under revision Division % marine ~# species Cyanophyta (blue-green algae) 8 4,500 - Depending on who you ask, between 50,000 and Rhodophyta (red algae) 98 7,000 Chlorophyta (green algae) 13 6,000 10 million different algal spp! Ochrophyta 16,758 Phaeophyceae (brown algae) 99 2,000 Bacillario/(diatoms) 50 12,000 Dinoph yt a (di nofl agell at es) 90 3,000 - Biological species concept?

Bryophyta , liverworts 0 25,000 -Morphology?

Vascular plants , horsetail, club 0.1 13,018 - Genetics? 0 722 Angiosperms 0.09 285,000 45 46


Petrocelis papillatus + 2N 2N ‘Petrocelis’ crust ()


47 1N fronds 48 ()

7 Algal : Endosymbiotic theory of acquisition: 3.9 bya = Cyanobacteria appear and introduce photosynthesis (L. Margolis)

2.5 bya = Eukaryotes appeared ( and ER thought to come from of plasma membrane) - Heterotrophic eukaryote eats heterotrophic bacteria 1.6 bya = Multicellular algae -Rhodophyta (Red algae) &Chlorophyta () lead to the (Green algae) formation of mitochondria

900 mya= Dinoflagellates & appear -Heterotroppyhic eukaryote eats a photosynthetic bacteria 490 mya = Phaeophyceae (Brown algae) & land plants & & (cyanobacteria) lead to the formation crustaceans & mulluscs of a

408mya= & Fish -Bacteria not digested but becomes an organelle 362 mya = Coccolithophores & Amphibians & Reptiles

290mya- Gymnosperms Support of Endosymbiotic Theory 49 -Genetic material of the 2 membranes that surround the50 145 mya = Diatoms & Angiosperms organelle

Primary Endosymbiosis: Secondary endosymbiotic events

1. Heterotrophic eukaryote eats photosynthetic bacteria 1. Heterotrophic eukaryote eats (cyanobacterium). photosynthetic eukaryote

2. Results in photosynthetic eukaryote. 2. Nucleus from photosynthetic Chloroplast has 2 membranes eukaryote is lost

3. Chloroplast ends up with 4 mmbmembranes

51 52

8 Secondary endosymbiotic events Secondary Endosymbiosis:

1. Heterotrophic eukaryote eats 1. Heterotrophic eukaryote eats photosynthetic eukaryote photosynthetic eukaryote

2. Nucleus from photosynthetic 2. Nucleus from photosynthetic eukaryote is lost eukaryote is lost

3. Chloroplast ends up with 4 3. Results in photosynthetic eukaryote. mmbmembranes Chloropl ast has 4 membranes.

Tertiary endosymbiotic events occur in dinoflagellates

53 54

Details of Endosymbiotic origins - Loss of What is agreed upon: e.g. Parasitic algae on : no pigments, all white ? • Each algal division is a Plocamiocolax = Parasite on Rhodophyte alga monophyletic group • Reds and Greens – 1 event-2 membranes • Browns – 2 events- 4 membranes

Plocamiocolax on Plocamium Plocamium Adapted From Palmer 2003 55 56

9 Three main divisions (phyla) of seaweeds: - Loss of plastids e.g. Heterotrophic algae Chlorophyta: green algae = parasite in mammal muscular tissues 1 endosymbiotic event = 2 membranes - Apicomplexan, closely related to dinoflagellates ~1.6bya ~6,000 species, 13% marine

Ochrophyta: brown algae & diatoms 2 endosymbiotic events = 4 plastid membranes ~490 mya ~2,000, 99% marine & 12,000, 50%

Rhodophyta: red algae 1 endosymbiotic event = 2 plastid membranes ~0.9 bya ~60% of domestic cats are infected; ~7,000, 98% marine toxoplasmosis in pregnant women… caused by an alga! 57 58

Paper Discussion on thursday:

Lubchenco and Cubit. 1980. Heteromorphic life histories of certain marine algae as to variations in herbivory. 61(3): 676-687

Abstract Introduction Graphs & Figures Methods Results Discussion

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