InformatioAnb outu .s. ForeignP olicyo n

During the eighteenthc entury, the United Statesb ecamei nterestedi n the Hawaiian Islandsa s a way station and provisioning point for shippers,s ailors, and whalers trading withAsian nations. New missionariesp reaching Protestant also settled in the in 1,820.M any of the descendantso f these missionariesb ecamep rosperouss ugar growors who dominated the econorny and governmento f Hawaii. TheseA mericans, as well as those on the , This picture shows Queen Liliuokalani,t he last monarch of Hawaii (center), seated with Sanford B. Dole (eft), the first of the gradually came to regard the Hawaiian provisional after Hawaii became a U.S. . Islands as an extensiono f the and sought to gain more direct influence over the islands.D uring the 1-840sth e United States warned other powers to stay out of Hawaii. In the late 1800st he United Statesm ade a commercial agreementw ith the Hawaiian govemment,f ollowed by a treaty guaranteeingt he United Statesa naval base at .

In 189L Queen Liliuokalani came to power. She insistedt hat control Hawaii. She attemptedt tag">o restore the power of the Hawaiian monarchy and reduce the power of foreign merchants.T his alarmed the white planters,w ho were mostly . Although were a minority, they organizeda successfulr evolt in 1893. The openly assistedb y U.S. troops, who landed under the unauthorwedo. rders of the expansionist U.S. to Hawaii, John L. Stevens.T he whites seizedp ower and set up a .

Following the revolt, the whites applied to the U.S. Congressf or U.S. of Hawaii. However, before the Senatec ould on the annexationt reaty, President Grover withdrew it from consideration. The presidentb elieved that the United Statesw as guihy of improper actions in Hawaii. He an investigation into the overthrow, during which he discovered that the majorify of native Hawaiians did not favor annexationt o the United States.P resident Cleveland made a formal apology to eueen Liliuokalani and soughtr unsuccessfully to have her restored to power. However, Cleveland's actions only slowed the imperialists and white revolutionaries who held economicc ontrol in Hawaii. Five larer, following the Spanish-, manyAmericans recognizedt he strategic and commslgial of Hawaii. In 1898 the islands were annexeda nd officially becamea possessiono f the United States.U .S. intervention resultedi n long-lasting resentmenta rnong many native Hawaiians.

@ ' Curriqrlum Institute USH-12-1A, ctivity 3.3, Page1 6 The Hawaiian pear is fully ripe and this is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it. -John L. Stevens,U .S..ministert o Hawaii

[The U.S. Sovernmentm ustJc hannel the energieso f Americans toward the expansion of trade abroad. Increasedforetgn trade will iobs that might give ambitiius people the sameo pportunity thef rontier had oncep rovided. -Frederick JacksonT urner, of professor of

Apowerfut is essentialt o prottect trade routes.... Hawaii would.b e an important naval base in the -AdmiralAlfred T. Mahan, U.S. Navy

was necessary [It to confiscate all andJ drive foreigners from the .s. -Queen Liliuokalani

@ Teachers'Curriculun Institute USH-12-1A, ctiyity 3.3,P age7 7