Post National Memorial

Edquist Davis Exhibits 2009–2018

Under contract with Harpers Ferry Center Interpretive Planning Long-Range Interpretive Plan Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

images in this report are the photography of

Edward E. Wood, Jr. Superintendent, National Memorial

2 Arkansas Post National Memorial Executive Summary

In 1686, Henri de Tonti established a trading post known as “Poste de Arkansea” at the Quapaw Indian village of Osotouy. It was the first semi-permanent French settlement in the lower River Valley. From its establishment through the Civil War, the Post has been strategically important for Quapaw Indians, as well as French, Spanish, American, and Confederate militaries. Located at the northern edge of t he Gulf coastal plain, Arkansas Post’s ecosystem ranges from prairie grasses and bottomland hardwood forests to wetland marshes near the bayous and river.

The Memorial Unit consists of 389 acres and includes the park’s visitor center and a 2.5-mile trail system. A paved trail leads visitors through the park’s natural and cultural resources: the historic townsite, the cistern, Post Bend, the Confederate trenches, the overlook, and around Park Lake. An unpaved nature trail leads visitors along the shoreline of Post Bayou and over Alligator Slough. The Osotouy Unit includes 360 acres about five miles by air and 30 miles by paved roads from the Memorial Unit. It protects the Menard Hodges Archeological Site, a Quapaw burial ground, where Quapaw remains were recently re-interred. It is located on the southeastern edge of an elevated prairie ecosystem. Currently, the Osotouy Unit is not developed for visitor use.

3 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Arkansas Post National Memorial is also a designated part of the Trail of Tears National Trail and the Mississippi River Trail, a certified National Park Service Centennial Project.

Challenges Arkansas Post faces many challenges to building a more robust interpretive operation and stronger visitation. It is a small remote park in an economically depressed area that has suffered the devastating affects of repeated tornados in recent years. Attracting destination visitors is a challenge, particularly during the current economic recession. The park staff is extremely small with only two FTE dedicated to interpretation and education, and a limited budget. Currently, the park enjoys a good relationship with its neighboring communities and partners. However, it is especially important for the park to engage ethnically and racially diverse community members, because they have traditionally not benefited from the park, and their stories are an important part of the history of the Arkansas Post region. In addition, there is little to no historic fabric left of any of the Arkansas Posts. Lack of tangible resources presents a serious challenge to interpreting the stories of Arkansas Post in meaningful and relevant ways. The park’s interpretive program, therefore, must be creative and innovative in finding tangible ways for people to connect to

4 Arkansas Post National Memorial Executive Summary

the park’s stories. Creative landscape design, interpretive media, and interactive programming are critically important. Also, in the next five to ten years, ARPO must develop the Osotouy Unit for visitors and create programs and media to interpret the site’s resources and meanings, while protecting and preserving the archeological and culturally sensitive resources of the Osotouy Tribe. The challenges of global climate change will also affect the park’s natural and cultural resources, and must be addressed in its interpretive and resource management approaches.

Long Range Interpretive Plan Taking these challenges into consideration, this Long- Range Interpretive Plan (the first for Arkansas Post National Memorial) describes a vision for the park’s interpretation and education program over the next ten years. It defines the foundational information that will guide the development of the future interpretation and education programs and media, and the actions needed to achieve it. Park staff developed the plan with the assistance of stakeholders and interpretive planning contractor, Edquist Davis Exhibits.

5 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Primary Interpretive Theme Supporting Interpretive Themes A Gathering Place 1 American Indian Heritage Located near the confluences Arkansas Post tells the story of the Quapaw Tribe of three rivers, Arkansas Post specifically, and American Indians generally, and their has served as a gathering place importance in the history of North America, including for many cultures throughout critical alliances with European colonists, followed human history—it represents by Indian removal as Arkansas became an American cultural cooperation, conflict, territory. synthesis, and diversity. 2 Colonial to Civil War History Human habitation and events at Arkansas Post played an important role in over 300 years of American History in the Lower Mississippi River Valley from the Colonial Period through the Revolutionary War, Louisiana Purchase, Indian Removal and Trail of Tears, Civil War and Reconstruction.

3 Humans and the Environment The landscapes preserved at the Memorial Unit and the Osotouy Unit represent the dynamic interaction between the natural environment and human cultures, still relevant today.

6 Arkansas Post National Memorial Executive Summary

4 Africa & African American Experience Africans and African played a significant role in the history and Post, and the survival and economics of communities there from the Colonial Period to present day.

5 Significance of the Three Rivers The Mississippi River and its tributaries provided a link for trade and transportation, and prompted the construction of Arkansas Post Road. These natural and human- made trade routes were critical to human survival and prosperity in the region.

6 Personal Connections Stories of the every day lives of women, children, and men inhabiting Arkansas Post-—through both hardship and prosperity—provide opportunities to make personal connections to our shared heritage.

7 Environmental Issues & Climate Change As environmental challenges continue to have a global impact, understanding and stewardship of the ecosystem at Arkansas Post National Memorial—its natural resources, wildlife populations, and migratory routes— are of the utmost importance.

7 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Ten-Year Goals for Interpretation and Education

By 2018 Arkansas Post National Memorial will:

1 Implement an evaluation program 3 Expand support for tourism and that accurately assesses visitation economic development in Arkansas statistics. and Desha Counties and the surrounding region. a. Increase real and virtual visitation. a. Conduct an economic b. Increase local community repeat impact study. visitation. b. Implement a system to measure c. Increase the number of park visitors baseline economic benefit and using interpretive services and increased benefit—money spent, programs with a significant increase jobs created, personal income in participation by ethnic and racial generated—of Arkansas Post in minority groups. the region. 2 Increase local and regional community engagement, stewardship, and education by:

a. Increasing and expanding the volunteer program.

b. Developing curriculum-based education programs and expanding school participation.

8 Arkansas Post National Memorial Executive Summary

Major Recommendations To accomplish the above goals and address the park’s immediate and near-term challenges, this long range interpretive plan recommends the following major changes:

• Renovate the Memorial Unit visitor center with an emphasis on celebrating the multicultural heritage of Arkansas Post, while serving as a hub for outdoor recreation and appreciation of the park’s natural beauty.

• Replace museum exhibits and expand museum store.

• Make the town site at the Memorial Unit more tangible for park visitors, create consistent sign and outdoor exhibit style.

• Provide visitor access to and from the river.

• Increase the number and diversity of community engagement events and programs offered annually.

• Develop a menu of on site, off site, and distance learning education programs based on National and Arkansas State standards of learning.

9 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

• Develop the Osotouy Unit for visitation, interpretation, and education with a visitor contact station and trails with waysides.

• Upgrade programs and media to meet universal accessibility standards.

• Expand website and include new technology in the menu of interpretive media offerings.

• Invest in education and volunteer coordination.

• Support the development of a Friends Group.

• Develop and implement a public relations and marketing plan.

Specific recommendations and an implementation plan are outlined in the Recommendations sections of this plan. With the Civil War Sesquicentennial and National Park Service Centennial fast approaching, the time is right to address these challenges and build a strong and vibrant interpretive operation at Arkansas Post National Memorial.

10 Arkansas Post National Memorial Table of Contents

Introduction 12

Foundation 15

Significant Issues and Influences: Interpretation and Education 22

Profile Summary of Park Visitation: Visitors, Neighbors, Underrepresented Population 25

Summary Assessment of Existing Conditions: Interpretive and Educational Programs and Media 27

Recommendations: Interpretive and Educational Programs, Media, and Facilities 2009-2018 30

Implementation Plans 50

Appendix I 52

Appendix II 54

11 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009 Introduction

Arkansas Post National Memorial would Arkansas Post became part of the United greatly changed by both natural forces and like to take this opportunity to thank all of States following the Louisiana Purchase of human intervention. Flooding, erosion, and the participants, who gave freely of their 1803. By 1819, the post was a thriving river a natural change in the river’s course have port and the largest city in the region and altered the site of the historic town and forts, time and expertise to develop the future selected as the first capital of the Arkansas as have attempts to improve navigation and vision for the park’s interpretation and Territory. control of the river with dams and levees. education program. The CIP will be a much more effective and inclusive document Steamboats sustained Arkansas Post after It remains a place of great beauty, with deer, due to their contributions. the Territorial Capital was moved to Little turkey, alligator, raccoon, and migratory and Rock. Throughout the 1830s, the post was resident birds, particularly bald eagles and a waystop for steamboats on the Arkansas waterfowl in the winter months. About Arkansas Post National River Route of the Trail of Tears. Choctaw, Memorial Creek and Cherokee peoples all had contact The Memorial Unit consists of 389 acres and with the Post during removal. Two thousand includes the park’s visitor center and a 3-mile In 1686, Henri de Tonti established a trading Choctaw endured a blizzard at the Post in trail system. Paved trails lead visitors through post known as “Poste de Arkansea” at 1832 while awaiting transport to take them the park’s natural and cultural resources: the the Quapaw village of Osotouy. It was the on to Little Rock. Arkansas Post National historic town site, the cistern, Post Bend, the first semi-permanent French settlement Memorial is a significant site on the Trail of Confederate trenches, the Arkansas River in the lower Mississippi River Valley. The Tears National Trail. overlook, and a nature trail around Park Lake. establishment of the Post was the first step The unpaved nature trail leads visitors along in a long struggle between France, Spain, During the Civil War, Confederate troops tried the shoreline of Post Bayou and over Alligator and England for dominance of the Mississippi to maintain tactical control of the Arkansas, Slough to the Rifle Pits. River Valley. White, and Mississippi Rivers. In 1862 they constructed a massive earthen fortification The Osotouy Unit includes 360 acres about Over the years, the Post relocated as known as Fort Hindman at the Post. In five miles by air and 30 miles by paved roads necessary due to flooding from the Arkansas January 1863 Union troops destroyed the from the Memorial Unit. It protects the River, but its position always held strategic fort, ensuring control of the Arkansas and Menard Hodges Archeological Site, a Quapaw importance for the French, Spanish, White Rivers. burial ground, where Quapaw remains American, and Confederate military. were recently re-interred. The unit may also Located at the northern edge of the Gulf preserve the remains of the first Quapaw Spanish soldiers and British partisans along coastal plain, Arkansas Post’s ecosystem Indian village and the original Arkansas Post, with their American Indian allies clashed ranges from prairie grasses and bottomland although this is unconfirmed. The Osotouy here in the 1783 Colbert Raid, the only hardwood forests, to wetland marshes near Unit is the largest known civic-ceremonial Revolutionary War action in Arkansas. the bayous and river. Over the three centuries site of the Mississippian culture along the of history at Arkansas Post, the area has been lower Arkansas river, and also contains a 12 Arkansas Post National Memorial

19th Century French vernacular house and evidence of 17th and 18th century European settlement. It is located on the southeastern edge of an elevated prairie ecosystem. Currently, the Osotouy Unit is not developed for visitor use.

Location of Arkansas Post in the region (above) and Park Map (right)

13 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

About the Long-Range its resources, primary interpretive themes informational services the park intends to Interpretive Plan (overarching stories), a description of those offer, as described in its future interpretation aspects of visitor experience affected by & education program. This Long-Range Interpretive Plan (LRIP) the program, an exploration of support for is the first component of the CIP. This the interpretation & education program Updating the LRIP component, along with the park’s other two provided by other park functions, stakeholder The CIP core team updates the LRIP CIP components (Annual Implementation Plan suggestions for improving the program, and component as changing conditions warrant. and Interpretive Database), constitute the more. Through the course of the process, If major modifications to the LRIP are park’s Comprehensive Interpretive Plan. all of these elements are discussed and determined to be necessary, thought should described, issues are raised, and solutions The LRIP describes the long-range vision be given to the cycle of the current CIP and at are voiced so that the development and for the park’s interpretation & education what time external stakeholder participation implementation of the future interpretation program. It defines the foundational should again be invited to fully review and & education program will be successful. information that will guide the development update the plan. Stakeholders play a vital role in shaping the of the future interpretation & education future program by collaboratively establishing Planning Workshops program (the long-range vision of the this foundation. program) and the actions needed to achieve Four interpretive planning workshops—in it. It was developed by park staff with the Recommendations for Future February and June of 2008—were conducted assistance of stakeholders, and is composed Interpretation & Education Program to gather consensus foundational information of several essential elements: on the significance of Arkansas Post National The major and specific recommendations Memorial’s heritage resources and build • Foundational information sections embody the long-range vision of the on that information to develop the park’s program. They describes the interpretive and • Future interpretation & education future interpretation & education program. informational services that most effectively program These were the key meetings that led to provide opportunities for visitors to explore development of the park’s CIP. The CIP • LRIP Implementation Plan the meanings of the place and explore core team developed this plan based on connections to park resources. the foundational work generated in the Foundational Information Implementation Plan workshops. Foundational information is used to guide

the development of the future interpretation The LRIP action list is a list of “to do” tasks & education program. It includes a wide that need to be accomplished to successfully range of subject matter: management implement the future interpretation goals for interpretation, a description of & education program. These actions the significance ascribed to the place and develop and support the interpretive and 14 Arkansas Post National Memorial Foundation

Park Mission Park Purpose

The Arkansas Post National Memorial The following statements describe the mission is to: primary reasons for which the park was Commemorate human settlement near created. They influence management the confluences of the Arkansas and priorities and are central to decisions White Rivers with the Mississippi River about how the park should be developed and the events associated with the and managed. first European settlement in the Lower Mississippi River Valley, by interpreting • Provide for the benefit and enjoyment and fostering an appreciation of the of the people of the United States and interaction of the cultural groups, historical use of the park while preserving their histories, and their significance and protecting the cultural and natural to the region; preserving the cultural resources in an unimpaired state. and natural resources; and promoting • Preserve the evidence of early contact resource stewardship through education. and continued interaction among the French, Spanish, and British and the American Indians and U.S. settlers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley for scientific study, public appreciation and benefit, and access by traditionally associated groups.

• Commemorate and interpret the peoples and cultures that inhabited the successive Arkansas Posts.

• Interpret and commemorate the American Indian communities and European and American interaction with American Indians at Arkansas Post.

15 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Park Significance • Geography and natural resources • The Osotouy Unit represents the combine with the forces of global spiritual center of the Quapaw tribal This LRIP section describes the significance economy, politics, and society at Arkansas homeland and the culture of these of places and things — as embedded in Post to create a rich heritage and lasting American Indians as it existed in the late their enduring tangible and intangible living legacy for the nation. 17th century. resource characteristics. Significance • Human habitation at the Memorial • The Osotouy Unit preserves an statements, taken together as a whole, Unit and the Osotouy Unit represents archeological area consisting of serve to describe the distinctiveness of the dynamic interaction of diverse cultures Woodland, Mississippian, Quapaw, and combined resources of the park, including with each other and the landscape European cultural resources that have natural, cultural, inspirational, scientific, over time. retained a high degree of integrity over a long period of time. As the first high historic, recreational, and other aspects. • Arkansas Post was the first permanent ground west of the Mississippi River They include tangible and intangible European settlement in the Lower and located between the White and characteristics and the context in which Mississippi River Valley, and represents in the Arkansas Rivers, the location was these characteristics are embedded. In a tangible way the struggle by European particularly favored as a habitation site. most organizations, the mission of the powers for dominance in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. • Arkansas Post National Memorial organization and the set of significance preserves an ecotone between prairie, statements combine to focus management • Arkansas Post reflects where the river, riparian, wetland, and forest actions and operations on the preservation United States gained control of the ecosystems, rich in plant and wildlife and enjoyment of those attributes that Arkansas River Basin by establishing Fort species diversity. Madison. most directly contribute to the importance of the place. • Arkansas Post served as a major temporary internment point along the water route of the Trail of Tears.

• The Civil War battle at Arkansas Post helped the United States to reestablish control of the Lower Arkansas, White and Mississippi River systems.

16 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Primary Interpretive Themes Primary Interpretive Theme Supporting Interpretive Themes and Associated Stories This LRIP section describes the set of A Gathering Place 1 American Indian Heritage overarching stories that organize the Located at the confluence of two rivers, Arkansas Post tells the story of the largest-scale ideas and meanings related Arkansas Post has served as a gathering Quapaw Tribe specifically, and American to the park’s resources. Story is the place for many cultures throughout Indians generally, and their importance communication tool most effective for human history—it represents cultural in the history of North America, including cooperation, conflict, synthesis, facilitating an exploration of resource critical alliances with European colonists, and diversity. meanings. Societies depend on the power followed by Indian removal as Arkansas of story to explore, clarify, and share became an American territory. ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that • The archeological resources in the collectively constitute culture. Story is at Arkansas Post area provide a tangible link the heart of human interaction and at the to wave after wave of cultures of past heart of heritage interpretation. These centuries. stories are called primary interpretive • European and African immigration themes. The set of themes is developed into the homeland of the Quapaw Indians to fully capture, and express in story served as a catalyst for a blending of format, the content of the park’s entire cultures and created dramatic changes for set of significance statements. The set is the Quapaw way of life. The colonists’ partnership with the Quapaw was critical complete when it provides opportunities to their survival at Arkansas Post. for people to explore and relate to all of • Osotouy preserves the tribal the significance statements. homeland for the Quapaw, protecting archeological artifacts and lands that are historically and spiritually important. • The struggle for survival and a sense of place is represented in the relocation of the Quapaw from their Tribal homeland, not once, but twice. • As a stop on the water route of the Trail of Tears, Arkansas Post was the

17 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

location of tremendous human suffering • The sequence of history at Arkansas conflicts between economic, recreational, and major change for American Indians Post represents, in a tangible way, the cultural, and spiritual values. relocated due to the United States clash of European powers to dominate • Humans continue to be dependant on westward expansion. the Lower Mississippi River Valley. the environment for survival, and human The intent of the U. S. to establish its 2 Colonial to Civil War History choices and behaviors within and outside authority over the is the park boundaries continue to impact Human habitation and events at Arkansas reflected in the designation of Arkansas the health and vitality of Arkansas Post Post played an important role in over 300 Post as the first territorial capital. National Memorial’s natural resources. years of American History in the Lower • For many different cultures, including Mississippi River Valley from the Colonial • The National Park Service stewards American Indians, Europeans, and U.S. Arkansas Post with the partnership of Period through the Revolutionary War, settlers, the Lower Mississippi River Valley Louisiana Purchase, Indian Removal citizens and local groups who care about, represented an opportunity to start a new and help care for the park. and Trail of Tears, Civil War and life. Reconstruction. 4 Africa & African American Experience 3 Humans and the Environment • The interaction among the American Africans and played a Indians, French, Spanish, British, and The landscapes preserved at the Memorial significant role in the history and culture Americans (of European and African Unit and the Osotouy Unit represent the of Arkansas Post, and the survival and decent) in the Lower Mississippi River dynamic interaction between the natural economics of communities there from the Valley has influenced the present culture environment and human cultures, still Colonial Period to present day. and economy of the Arkansas Post relevant today. • Both free and enslaved Africans region. • For centuries the abundance of inhabited Arkansas Post and contributed • Historical events at Arkansas Post natural resources at the confluence of the to the economic and social fabric of the National Memorial vividly illustrate Mississippi, Arkansas, and White Rivers community. the changing relationships among the has attracted a variety of cultures. • The institution of slavery and the American Indians, Europeans, Africans, • Humans have influenced natural implementation of emancipation have left U.S. settlers, and African Americans in the processes in the Arkansas Post region for indelible imprints on all aspects of life in Lower Mississippi River Valley. thousands of years, resulting in drastic the Arkansas Post area. • The Civil War battle at Arkansas ecological changes, including alterations • Enslaved African Americans from Post reflected the national government’s in species’ characteristics and numbers. local plantations built the Civil War fort determination to regain control of • Different perspectives of the at Arkansas Post. the Lower Mississippi Valley by using importance, purpose, and appropriate • The African American experience overwhelming force and the superior use of natural resources reflect inherent technology of its weapons. in the Arkansas Post region during 18 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Reconstruction, Jim Crow, and the communities in the Arkansas Post region 7 Environmental Issues is representative over thousands of years, and up to the & Climate Change of the struggle between and blending present day. As environmental challenges continue of cultures, racism, and our ever • The Arkansas Post Road was one of to have a global impact, understanding changing society. the first major transportation routes in the and stewardship of the ecosystem at 5 Significance of the Three Rivers region. It has evolved into modern roads Arkansas Post National Memorial—its and highways. The Mississippi River and its tributaries natural resources, wildlife populations, provided a link for trade and 6 Personal Connections and migratory routes—are of the utmost importance. transportation, and prompted the Stories of the every day lives of women, construction of Arkansas Post Road. children, and men inhabiting Arkansas • Arkansas Post boasts easy access to its These natural and human-made trade Post-—through both hardship and natural features, making it a special place routes were critical to human survival and prosperity—provide opportunities to where all people are welcome to recreate, prosperity in the region. make personal connections to our shared reflect, and connect with nature. • Arkansas Post was located heritage. • Arkansas Post lies on the Mississippi strategically on the first high ground • Women and children of many Flyway, enabling visitors to view a above the White River Cut-off connecting ethnicities lived and worked at Arkansas great variety of migratory waterfowl, the Arkansas and White Rivers just before Post and the Osotouy Unit, and made shorebirds, songbirds, and resident their confluences with the Mississippi significant contributions to the economic birds of prey. River. It was a major stop along trade and social fabric of the communities there • Because of the abundance of water routes leading to and from the Lower throughout history. in and around the park, a very large Mississippi Valley and the West. • Both enslaved peoples and indentured population of reptiles and amphibians • The rivers provided access to some of servants of various cultural backgrounds exists at Arkansas Post. the first and most important export goods lived and worked at Arkansas Post. • The interplay between global climate from the Colonies to Europe; similarly, it • The local culture—religion, music, art, change and farming, which provides provided access to supplies and European stories and legends—of Arkansas Post Arkansas’ largest economic base, may goods through the port at New Orleans. paints a vivid picture of the individuals have profound effects on the water • Flooding along the river enhanced that passed through and made their lives quality of the Arkansas River, its flow rate, the quality of soil for agriculture and also here over its long history. and its plant and wildlife populations. caused hardship, loss of life and goods. • Ever-changing river dynamics have

influenced human cultures, politics, and

19 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Management Goals: Interpretation and Education and will engage in park and community Interpretation and Education Program Outcomes preservation.

This LRIP section serves to establish Arkansas Post National Memorial’s (Note: See appendix for National Park Service Interpretation and Education Logic Model.) important guidelines and sideboards for interpretation and education program should accomplish the following outcomes: the future operation of the interpretation Specific Management Goals for & education program. • Audiences will make personal, intellectual and emotional connections to the meanings Interpretation and Education National Park Service Interpretation and inherent in the Memorial Unit and the Education Program Impact What does management expect Arkansas Osotouy Unit; Post National Memorial’s interpretation & The overall impact of the National Park • Audiences will have satisfying and education program to accomplish for the Servicewide interpretation and education memorable experiences at the park and on park? program is to help ensure that the public: the park’s website; • Establish a sense of ownership and • Finds personal meaning and shared • Audiences will learn new information stewardship for Arkansas Post National heritage in the National Park System; and concepts about Arkansas Post and the Memorial. • Understands and participates in civil National Park System; • Help park audiences relate Arkansas democratic society; • Audiences will learn civic engagement Post National Memorial to the National Park System as a whole, and other public lands. • Practices healthy lifestyles through skills and take action on behalf of the park, recreation; (e.g. volunteer, make a donation, comment, • Provide meaningful and memorable etc.); experiences for park audiences. • Demonstrates a long-term commitment to stewardship of national park resources; • Teachers will improve professional • Provide educational opportunities for and education practices related to history, social park audiences using the rich cultural and studies, and science; natural resources and stories associated with • Enjoys motivating, lifelong learning Arkansas Post National Memorial. opportunities. • Students will have enhanced learning and motivation for learning about history, social • Interpret multiple points of view about Ultimately, these things, along with studies, and science; the many stories and meanings associated the activities of other individuals and with Arkansas Post National Memorial in a organizations, will lead to a National • Park neighbors and community decision balanced and culturally competent manner, Park System that is preserved for future makers will understand the Memorial Unit fostering cross-cultural appreciation for generations. and the Osotouy Unit’s resources and issues, heritage. 20 Arkansas Post National Memorial

• Engage local community members of Visitor Experience Goals • Be involved in stewardship and all cultural and racial backgrounds to enjoy, preservation activities. benefit from, and care for park resources; and This LRIP section describes desired visitor • Relate Arkansas Post National Memorial insure that Arkansas Post National Memorial experiences that stakeholders think to the larger National Park System. is an active and engaged part of surrounding the managers of the program should local communities. pay special attention to as the park’s • Find out about other tourism • Place the history of the Memorial Unit interpretation & education program is opportunities with collaborating partners. and the Osotouy Unit in context, helping planned and implemented. • Understand the mission of the National audiences find relevant, contemporary Visitors to Arkansas Post National Memorial Park Service. meanings in park stories. should have opportunities to: • Enjoy their visit. • Relate present day park preservation • Feel welcome and receive orientation and concerns to broader issues such as climate • Have opportunities for personal information about the park’s significance and change, habitat fragmentation, invasive experiences of choice such as solace, solitude, the various ways to explore its resources. species, and other critical issues; and togetherness, and reflection. help audiences understand that resource • Learn about the history and dynamic • Find something new and different from preservation reaches beyond the park interaction of people and nature over time at their previous visit. boundaries. the Memorial Unit and the Osotouy Unit. • Experience a sense of authentic place. • Provide opportunities to reengage • Examine and/or purchase a wide range of children and youth in outdoor recreational interpretive materials. • Enjoy access to recreational opportunities experiences, encouraging physical activity, a such as fishing, picnicking, biking, paddling, sense of place and love of nature. • Experience an authentic and personally wildlife watching and hiking. relevant connection with the people, events, and landscape of the Memorial Unit and the • View wildlife and form personal Osotouy Unit. connections to nature.

• Participate in a wide variety of accessible and personally relevant interpretive and educational programs and media.

• Find out about future interpretive and educational programs and opportunities.

21 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Significant Issues and Influences: 1 NPS Interpretation and Education Interpretation and Education Renaissance

This LRIP section describes the forces The National Park Service National Education Council recently began a nationwide that have a bearing on the program. movement to enhance and equip its Since no program operates in a vacuum, interpretation and education programs to this information provides context meet the needs of 21st century audiences. for understanding, planning, and The Renaissance has five areas of focus, all of implementing the park’s interpretation & which are relevant to the Interpretation and education program. Issues often include education at Arkansas Post National Memorial topics such as long-range Servicewide (ARPO). The five areas of focus include: initiatives, critical resource issues, issues a. Establishment of National Standards for related to staffing and funding, employee Interpretation and Education. These are development, use of technologies, currently underdevelopment. When they dynamics of neighboring communities, are complete, it will be essential for ARPO to evaluate its program and adjust it to and concerns of stakeholders not voiced meet the national standards. previously. b. Engaging new and diverse audiences. The demographics of the American population are changing drastically. It is critically important that national park audiences reflect the face of a richly diverse nation. Everyone must feel welcome at national parks, and everyone must see their own heritage reflecting the stories and meanings interpreted at national parks. ARPO must work to engage traditionally underserved audiences such as African Americans, Hispanic Americans, , American Indians, new immigrants, and low-income urban and rural audiences.

22 Arkansas Post National Memorial

c. New Technology. Changing technology produced throughout the system and the from a war to restore the Union to a war is profoundly impacting the way people interpretive field in general. ARPO should that transformed a nation. communicate, learn, find community, consider the outcomes of their program b. Every visitor will have the opportunity express themselves, find and process and create a plan for collecting and using to perceive the relevance of the Memorial information. To fully embrace 21st evaluation information on a regular basis Unit and the Civil War at large to America Century audiences, national parks must for making decisions and for ongoing and Americans of today. use new media and current technologies program improvement. c. Every visitor will understand that the to interpret park resources, without Battle of Arkansas Post was historically abandoning traditional methods and 2 NPS Centennial perceived and valued differently by techniques. ARPO must insure that its In 2016, the NPS will celebrate its 100 different people—often depending on menu of interpretive media includes new anniversary. The administration under rank, race, gender, geographic origin, and currently used technologies. Director Mary Bomar established a age, or socioeconomic status. d. Embrace Partners. It is clear that Centennial Initiative focusing on stewardship, d. Each visitor will be given the with ever growing audiences, and ever environmental leadership, recreational opportunity to engage the Memorial dwindling budgets and personnel, the experience, education, and professional Unit’s story from multiple perspectives. only way to meet the demand and need excellence. The present plan must take for fully serving park audiences is to work these major themes into consideration e. Every visitor will engage the story of closely with partners. To meet the needs when making recommendations for future the Battle of Arkansas post dominantly of park audiences both on site and at a programs and media. by interaction with the Memorial Unit’s distance, ARPO must engage with and historic and natural resources—viewing facilitate interpretive and educational 3 Civil War Sesquicentennial larger thematic issues through the lens provided by the historic people, places, activity by and through partners. The 150th anniversary of the Civil War will and events that comprise the park. e. Evaluation. Traditionally in the NPS, the occur during the period of the present plan’s interpretation and education program has implementation. ARPO must consider the f. Each visitor shall encounter a resource not made decisions on what program to following NPS Civil War Sesquicentennial that is intact, well maintained, and offer, how to allocate funding, personnel goals when making recommendations for unencumbered by incompatible uses. and other critical resources based on solid future programs and media: g. Every visitor will have access to up- research and evaluative data. In this time to-date, accurate, effective interpretive of scarce resources, it is critical to make a. Every visitor to the Memorial Unit will media and high-quality personal services decisions based on what works, and what understand how Fort Hindman, the Battle that helps them understand the park’s audiences want. To accomplish this, parks of Arkansas Post, and the associated story and derive the significance of must start to conduct evaluations and prominent persons fit into and affected the place. learn from evaluative and research data the evolution of the Civil War—its change

23 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

4 Global Climate Change be of primary importance. There is a role for resources presents a serious challenge to public education in the overall strategy for interpreting the stories of Arkansas Post in Scientific evidence is clear that climate change archeological resource protection. The present meaningful and relevant ways. The park’s is a reality and has the potential to profoundly plan must address education-related solutions interpretive program, therefore, must be affect the Earth’s ecosystems in the next to protection of archeological resources at the creative and innovative in finding tangible 10 to 50 years. These changes will affect new site. ways for people to connect to the park’s the natural and cultural resources in the stories. Interpretive media and interactive Arkansas Post region. The NPS has recently 7 Engaging the Local Community and programming are critically important. The established a Global Climate Change Office Ethnically Diverse Community Members present plan must address this issue. in the Division of Natural Resources and Science. Soon the NPS will develop a Global ARPO currently enjoys a good relationship 9 Staff/Funding Shortage Climate Change Plan which will likely include with its neighboring communities and a significant public education component. partners. The present plan must capitalize on All NPS parks have experienced severe budget ARPO’s future interpretation and education these relationships and continue to enhance cuts over the past ten years. Currently the program should address Global Climate them becoming an even more integrated interpretive staff at ARPO is extremely limited Change as it relates to local and national part of the local community. It is especially with two permanent full-time positions. environmental resource protection. important for the park to engage ethnically Creative use of volunteers, seasonal staff, and racially diverse community members, interns, and partners must be considered in 5 Development of the Osotouy Unit because they have traditionally not been fulfilling the goals and objectives of this plan. reached by the Park’s interpretive programs, In the next five to ten years, ARPO must and their stories are an important part of 10 Remote/Rural Location develop the Osotouy Unit for visitors and the history of the Arkansas Post region. create facilities, programs and media to ARPO is a remote park in an economically Relationships with gateway communities depressed area that has suffered the interpret the site’s resources and meanings. to national parks are critical to park The present plan must consider incorporating devastating affects of repeated tornados in preservation, tourism, and enhanced visitor recent years. Attracting destination visitors interpretation of this site into the overall experiences. National parks should be a ARPO interpretive program. is a challenge. The present plan must source of local pride for everyone, and park consider tourism initiatives and partnerships 6 Protection of Archeological Sites neighbors should want to help steward park with heritage areas, state and local parks, and Artifacts resources. These issues must be addressed in and other groups to market the site and the present plan. encourage visitation. The plan should also With the opening of the Osotouy Unit, 8 Lack of Tangible Historical Resources consider opportunities for virtual visits to the public will have access to significant the park and the use of distance learning archeological resources. Protection of these There is little to no historic fabric left of technology to reach audiences that may never resources from looters and vandalism will any of the Arkansas Posts. Lack of tangible visit the park or the region.

24 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Profile Summary of Park Visitation: Visitation Trends hiking, exercising, nature viewing, and attending family reunions. Visitors, Neighbors, Since 1996, park visitation has remained Underrepresented Populations relatively stable, averaging about 47,500 (This section was drawn from the park’s 2002 visitors annually. Visitation remains rather General Management Plan) This LRIP section describes the set consistent throughout the year with greatest of audiences that must be defined visitation in the spring. and so that the park’s interpretive and Desha Counties informational services can most effectively • Fifty-five percent of park visitors are from the surrounding local communities, with Arkansas Post National Memorial is located in enhance the experiences of visitors. 25% from the region (Arkansas, Louisiana, southeast Arkansas near the town of Gillett When comprehensively planning an Mississippi, and ). Only 19% of park in Arkansas County, and 20 miles north of interpretation & education program, the visitors are from other parts of the US, and Dumas, Arkansas in Desha County. basis for categorizing audiences (for the only 1% are international. Arkansas County interpretation & education program) lies • Sixty-five percent of park visitors are in whether or not a particular audience According to the 2006 Census, Arkansas adults between the ages of 18 and 61. requires communication in a way distinct County has a population of 19,884. The Children represent 20%, and seniors 15% of median household income in 2004 was from that of the general park audience. park visitation. Visitors primarily come to the $33,764 with, 16.8% of the population living A subjective balance must be struck park in groups with 30% families, 25% peer below the poverty level. Children under five between communicating effectively with groups, and 10% organized groups. years constitute 6.6% of the population, with a greater number of specific audiences, • While the local population is about 24% 24.2% between the ages of 5 and 18, and and the limited resources available to the African American in Arkansas County and 15.9% over the age of 65 years. Seventy- park’s program. 46% in Desha County, the percentage of three percent (73%) of the population is African Americans visiting Arkansas Post is white, with 24.6% African American, 0.2% significantly lower. American Indian, 0.4% Asian, and 1.2% Hispanic. • Fifty percent of park visitors use information/ orientation, and/or non- Desha County personal service interpretation only, with According to the 2006 Census, Desha County 10% participating in tours and programs, has a population of 14,181. The median and 40% using no park programs or services, household income in 2004 was $25,470 this reflects the frequent use of the park with, 23% of the population living below for recreation—fishing, picnicking, walking, the poverty level. Children under five years

25 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

constitute 7.6% of the population, with Delta Heritage Trail, and Mississippi River Trail. Scouts, church youth) 26% between the ages of 5 and 18, and Specific Audience Segments for • Other groups (church, home school, 14% over the age of 65 years. Fifty-one teachers, etc.) point five percent (51.5%) of the population Special Attention • Recreationists (dog walkers, hikers, is white, with 46.8% African American, Stakeholders at the planning workshops anglers) 0.4% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, and 4% identified the following audience segments • Descendent organizations Hispanic. for special attention at Arkansas Post National Memorial • International visitors as tourists or Local Economy students and researchers Farming is the largest source of employment • School groups • Researchers in the area with Arkansas County being the • Individual students at home on the • Genealogists/Family History state’s top producer of rice, soybeans, and internet • Artists/Photographers wheat. However, the percentage of people • Heritage tourists, history buffs living below the poverty level is significantly • Other land management agencies • Fishermen, neighboring hunters, higher than the national average of 12.7 %. (Army Corps of Engineers, Fish and sportsmen The park is an important source of jobs, and Wildlife, State Parks) expenditures for goods and services, drawing • African-Americans in the community • Re-enactors, living historians, black heritage tourists to the area. According to and nationally powder enthusiasts the Preservation Alliance of , historic • Native Americans in the community preservation (“heritage”) tourists stay longer, and nationally such as the Quapaw Based on staff interaction with visitors, the visit twice as many places, and spend an and Choctaw. top reasons that first-time visitors specifically average of over 2.5 times more money • Other American Indians who were targeted Arkansas Post as a destination are: in an area than other tourists. With the part of Trail of Tears. development of the Osotouy Unit, and further • Local family groups, picnickers 1 Civil War Enthusiast development and marketing of the Memorial Unit’s programs and resources, Arkansas Post • Latinos in the community and 2 Want to see an Alligator has the potential of helping to significantly nationally 3 National Park Passport Stamp Collector boost the local economy. • Civic organizations • Birders/wildlife watchers 4 Educator or student looking for Arkansas This potential will be magnified if the history material or research (as an development and marketing of Arkansas • Senior Citizens/retirees individual and not part of an organized Post is connected with other heritage tourism • Visitors passing through region. group) development in the region—duck lodges, • Youth Groups (e.g., Boy and Girl birding services, state parks—particularly 26 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Summary Assessment of Existing to better meet the needs of newer audiences, Conditions: Interpretive and and take into consideration challenges and Educational Programs and Media opportunities listed above. Film It is useful to obtain a snapshot of the park’s current interpretive operation, The park’s orientation film is only four years programs and media to gain a sense of old. It tells the park’s stories from multiple what might be improved to make the points of view and incorporates American Indian and African American stories, yet interpretation & education program more does not mention of the Trail of Tears (ARPO efficient and effective over the next five is part of the Trail of Tears National Trail). to ten years. There is also no mention of the Underground Memorial Unit Railroad, though a history of the Arkansas Visitor Center and Bookstore Underground Railroad commissioned by NPS indicates Arkansas Post was involved through The visitor center at the Memorial Unit is a river route and steamboats. Very little spacious and in good condition. Its location content is dedicated to the lives of women is appropriate and convenient for visitors of any ethnicity at Arkansas Post. While the to the site. It contains an exhibit space film has won several awards, it is a little too and a 50 seat theater. However, there is long for a basic orientation film, and depicts little delineation between the visitor area a child on a boat without a life jacket and a and staff offices. The staff does not have a family camping at the site—both prohibited space for meetings, or a workshop area for activities. Overall, the film is acceptable and preparing interpretive program materials will serve the park well for the next five years. and props. There is no space for break out sessions for teacher workshops or to use as Exhibits secondary program areas for large school Visitor center exhibits are approximately groups. In addition, storage is limited. The 25 years old. Some exhibit rooms are in bookstore is appropriate and the scope of partial development. Exhibit rooms have sales contains a good mix for books, objects, some redundancy (two models of the fort Exterior of main visitor center (above, top) and an and educational souvenirs designed to extend in different rooms), and portions of exhibits exhibit inside the center (above) learning opportunities beyond a visit to the clearly have not been professionally made. site. The scope of sales could be expanded Exhibits are marginally interactive and not

27 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

designed to tell diverse stories, engage Trails and Recreational Resources Website children or be accessible to people with visual or hearing impairments. The site needs new The Memorial Unit has an excellent set of ARPO’s expanded website is comprehensive, exhibits in its visitor center to interpret park accessible trails, and a picnic areas. but could use expansion to better meet the needs of specific audiences such as children, themes and address modern concerns and Print Materials challenges in a highly accessible manner. teachers and students, ethnically and racially The park folder is well done and current. It diverse audiences, and technologically savvy interprets the main stories of the site well and audiences especially youth. provides basic orientation materials. It will Interpretive Technology have to be modified when the Osotouy Unit is opened to visitors. The document serving as The park has no pod casts, audio tours, cell the park handbook however, is out dated and phone tours, hand-held technology, or other contains cultural and gender biases. state of the art interpretive media.

Curriculum-based Education Programs Public Events

ARPO needs comprehensive curriculum-based The Memorial Unit hosts several popular programs designed in collaboration with events, such as “Ghosts of the Past,” a living Arkansas Department of Education and based history evening walk through the park. There on National and State History and Social is great potential to expand these and other Study Standards. Curriculum-based programs events—but it is important to consider similar Wayside Exhibits should be designed for local and distant offerings by the State Park and the capacity The Memorial Unit has a variety of waysides audiences, using a wide menu of methods of the local market. from different time periods, and many are and techniques such as traveling trunks, on Manipulatives, Props, and over 25 years old. An integrated wayside site interactive programs, distance learning Demonstrations exhibit plan is needed to interpret current and web-based programs and activities. park themes, and address the concern of Junior Ranger Program The Memorial Unit has very few props, lack of historic fabric for interpretation. An manipulative materials, and demonstrations emphasis needs to be made on interpreting ARPO’s junior ranger booklet is current and that could enhance opportunities for visitors the historic landscape, instead of interpreting very nicely done, but requires professional to connect with park meanings. These are historic structures. printing and will need to be updated when essential given the fact that they have very exhibits and film are replaced. No Web little tangible historic fabric left. Ranger Program currently exists at ARPO.

28 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Volunteer Program

Arkansas Post National Memorial has a small volunteer program consisting of 71 volunteers generating 635 hours of volunteer service annually. (Taken from the FY 2007 Annual VIP Program Activity and Expense Report.)


The park engages in very little marketing, but does promote programs and events in local newspapers and maintains a park mailing list. School programs are marketed directly to teachers and school principals, as well as through educational workshops, list serves and conferences.

Osotouy Unit

Currently, there are no facilities for visitors at the Osotouy Unit.

29 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009 Recommendations: Future Interpretive and Educational Programs, Media, and Facilities 2009-2018

By 2018 Arkansas Post National Memorial will:

1 Implement an evaluation program The following goals and recommendations that accurately assesses visitation are based on the foundational statistics. information detailed in this document, a. Increase real and virtual visitation and the ideas generated at the second stakeholder workshop. Together, they b. Increase local community repeat visitation. outline a vision for Arkansas Post National Memorial’s future Interpretation and c. Increase number of park visitors using interpretive services and programs with a Education Program, and the steps significant increase in visitation by ethnic necessary to achieve that vision. and racial minority groups.

Ten-Year Goals 2 Increase local and regional community engagement, stewardship, and education by: The following are goals for the park’s a. Increasing and expanding the interpretation and education program. With volunteer program. the development of the Osotouy Unit, the upcoming Civil War Sesquicentennial, and b. Developing curriculum-based education the National Park Service Centennial on the programs and expanding school near horizon, the time is right to improve participation. and expand the park’s interpretive operation. 3 Expand support for tourism and A relatively small investment in the parks economic development in Arkansas and interpretive and educational programs and Desha Counties and surrounding region. services could greatly enhance the quality of life in the region and, at the same time, a. Conduct an economic impact study. develop a more engaged constituency b. Implement a system to measure that cares about park resources, historic baseline economic benefit and increased preservation, and shared heritage. benefit—money spent, jobs created, personal income generated—of Arkansas Post in the region.

30 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Major Recommendations and distance learning. This might be • Make the town site at the Memorial to Accomplish Goals accomplished by adding a second floor to Unit more tangible for park visitors, the visitor center, as was anticipated in the create consistent sign and outdoor • Renovate visitor center with an building’s original design. exhibit style. emphasis on celebrating the multicultural heritage of Arkansas Post and as a hub • Replace museum exhibits and expand The lack of tangible historic resources in the for outdoor recreation and enjoying the museum store. town site is a challenge for park interpretive park’s natural beauty. staff. There are a variety of landscape and The museum exhibit space should be interpretive media and technology treatments Due to its remote location and low visitation renovated, reflecting the role of the center that will help to make the site more accessible outside the region, the Memorial Unit needs a as a gathering place/heritage museum to visitors. This should be done very carefully visitor center with more than static exhibits. It that supports the site’s interpretive and in order to not disturb the natural beauty of also needs a gathering place that will attract educational themes and programming; the site or to limit interpretation of the site to ethnically, racially, and culturally diverse local some exhibit areas should be designed to just one time period. and regional visitors that come to the park be flexible allowing for temporary or easily because of its naturally beautiful setting. changed exhibits to encourage repeat • Provide visitor access to the river. Engaging programs and events should draw visitation. Photography and art exhibits based The rivers are the reason Arkansas Post has in these visitors and interpret the dynamic on the site would be one means of creating been a gathering place of many cultures and diverse heritage of the Post. As a changing exhibits that engage the public in throughout the human history of North gathering place for many cultures throughout their creation. The museum bookstore scope America. To provide a more complete human history, the Post represents cultural of sales should be expanded to include more interpretive and recreation experience for cooperation, conflict, synthesis, diversity and books for all ages, history, science, and social park visitors, the park should build a dock the interaction of cultures with the natural studies teaching resources, and educational and allow water access for boating, as well environment. games, as well as regional and Indian-made art, crafts, jewelry, gift items, and historic as offer a variety of water-based interpretive The Memorial Unit center should be object replicas of good quality and varied programs such as canoe tours. This will renovated to include more office space, prices that relate to the park’s primary increase visitation, invite river recreationists to a multi-purpose meeting room, a media themes. stop at the Post, allow fishing recreationists workshop area for creating and storing to go out on the water, and help interpret the interpretive and educational props and history and natural resources of the Memorial materials as well as developing and updating Unit from the perspective of the river. interpretive media and technology, and a classroom/workshop space dedicated to curriculum-based educational programming

31 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

• Increase the number and diversity education programs will make the site more field trips to the park. Twenty-first Century of community engagement events and accessible to rural Arkansas schools, as well audiences are also expecting an expanded programs offered annually. as schools across the country. menu of interpretive media to include new technologies of interest to them such as cell The Post includes many • Develop the Osotouy Unit for phone tours, PDA tours, podcasts, online cultures stories and experiences. The park visitation, interpretation, and education. games and activities, and multi-media should capitalize on this diverse cultural The Osotouy Unit needs staff, a visitor contact exhibits. The park must consider adding a history to provide theme-related cultural limited menu of these items to enhance the events, music, museum theater, and mission- and comfort station, trails, a sign plan, exhibits, and interpretive programming. The current array of media available to visitors. related activities celebrating the cultural Also, new GPS technology is available that diversity of the site’s heritage. These events park should not develop the site until they obtain funding for staff to insure protection can help visitors visualize historic landscapes, should be developed in collaboration with structures, and events. This technology civic and cultural groups, and marketed of the archeological resources on the property. could augment the visitor experiences at the widely throughout the region. Arkansas Memorial site and the Osotouy site, making Post should become recognized as a place • Upgrade programs and media to meet them more tangible for park visitors. welcoming and celebrating the many cultures universal accessibility standards. that make up the region’s heritage. • Invest in education and volunteer It is critical that programs and media are coordination. • Develop a menu of on site, off adapted to meet universal accessibility site, and distance learning education standards, not only to comply with federal The simple act of increasing the full time programs based on National and regulations, but to make the park easier to permanent interpretive staff by one FTE Arkansas State standards of learning. access and the interpretive operation more dedicated to coordination of educational programming and volunteer management will One of the most effective ways to engage accessible to all audiences, particularly visitors with physical or learning disabilities. reap huge benefits for the park and region. the local community is through organized Dedicating time and energy to volunteer programs for school groups. Supporting • Expand website and include new recruitment, training, and supervision will Arkansas’s school systems through effective technology in menu of interpretive media allow the park to benefit from significantly history, science, and social studies programs offerings. increased labor in all areas of park operations. will benefit the educational and economic Similarly, dedicating more staff time to the The park’s website must be enhanced to development of the area and promote education program will allow it to grow attract and engage virtual visitors to Arkansas stewardship for cultural and natural significantly, serving Arkansas school systems, Post National Memorial. In addition, due to resources. Further, partnering with Phillips as well as schools across the country through its remote location, the park should invest in Community College’s distance learning distance learning technology. Investing in distance learning technology so that students technology studio to develop and broadcast two education seasonals or college interns all over the country can benefit from virtual 32 Arkansas Post National Memorial

during the school months will allow a Specific Recommendations for Creating Tangible Structures significant increase in school programming Exterior Interpretive Areas and outreach. This will increase visitation, Just outside the visitor center door, an artist’s awareness, and understanding of park Summary of Goals: visualization of the site be the centerpiece resources, not just at Arkansas Post but at of a series of graphic panels. These could be • Detect archaeologically-sensitive public lands and protected areas across the multi-sided panels that tumble so that visitors areas of the Memorial Unit and the country. can see the site in from 1779 to 1862 in a Osotouy Unit. series of images. This emphasis on telling • Establish and support the multiple stories reinforces the concept of a • Give visitors to the Memorial Unit development of a Friends Group. gathering place with layers of time, histories access to the water that is mission- and cultures. There is sufficient interest from local and related, interpretive, and fun regional residents, archeologists, and One of the largest challenges at Arkansas • Develop areas that can be used for historians to establish a friends organization Post is its lack of historic structures. personal interpretive programs to assist the park and promote stewardship. Re-creating these structures is not possible— The park should not expect a friends group to • Create a landscape scheme which no accurate information is available raise major funding due to the local economy helps visitors to visualize historic uses and lack of corporate park neighbors, but regarding the original buildings on the site. they could help immensely with volunteerism, • Link trails and pathways visually and Arkansas Post should work with a landscape community engagement, and marketing. conceptually to the exhibits at the center, architect to create a landscaping scheme and to the theme of “A Gathering Place” that approximates the eras of the post, with • Develop and implement a public a theme of “A Gathering Place.” It should relations and marketing plan. Laying the Groundwork include the Old Townsite in the area closest to the visitor center. This scheme would Arkansas Post should review existing Arkansas Post should develop a public be achieved using low-maintenance native archeological data about the site. Numerous relations and marketing plan in collaboration plantings and prairie grasses, topography, archeological studies in and around the with local chambers of commerce, brickwork, paths and surface treatments visitor center have already been completed. surrounding state and county parks, combined with modern technology that The park should determine if an additional museums, and other land management might digitally represent the buildings of the remote-sensing survey is necessary before any agencies to cross promote their facilities and Post from different eras. programs, stimulate heritage tourism, and re- additional landscape treatments are added brand the visitor center as a heritage center to the site. In any case, hardscape materials The treatments on the following page are and museum primarily serving local and should be installed above current grade in not solutions, but general suggestions for regional areas. order to lessen the impact on archeological appropriate techniques to be used in this resources. exterior area.

33 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Suggested Treatments for Exterior Interpretive Areas

Primary techniques—use to define spaces and create textural landscape

• topography, brickwork, paths

• Low-maintenance native plantings and prairie grasses

• Demonstration gardens to show what crops would have been grown at the town

• Modern technology that simulates structures, people, troops or forts digitally.

Other techniques—use only sparingly to emphasize events, places, or define space—while preserving the feel of a natural landscape

• vertical structures suggestive of buildings or town features

• Sculptural figures

• Raised planters and seating

34 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Considerations for the Exterior Scheme be used to aid the visitor’s imagination audiences and also be the most effective but not to memorialize events. means of interpreting to the shotgun When planning and designing the exterior visitation pattern the park experiences. treatment, landscape designers and ARPO Bringing the Site to Life (Most park visitors do not come in should not overlook several practical Tangible treatments and structures provide organized groups with reservations, considerations that will affect the choice of but as individuals or small groups with techniques used in the area. These include: visual cues and pique interest, but it will be a combination of interpretive techniques that no set schedule. They tend to have a • Increased responsibilities for the bring the Memorial Unit to life for visitors. limited time or be en route to another maintenance crew. Recommended strategies: destination.)

Since staff at the Memorial Unit is limited, • Audiovisual Techniques Manipulatives, props and demonstrations the impact of a possible increase in are also fast and relatively inexpensive to maintenance duties should be a primary A handheld GPS audiovisual program implement. They can serve a vital role in concern when developing the outdoor should feature voices, images and improving interpretation and education scheme. music. These units could be rented at programming during the time required the visitor center, and they would lead for new exhibit planning, design and • Maintenance of an appealing natural visitors on an interpretive walk to learn construction. They work as well for landscape and wildlife sanctuary. about the people of the Post and the interpretive stations at school day events uses of the buildings on the town site. and large special events as they do for The site’s natural beauty is one of its This technology would provide a rich readily available short programs for the leading attractions for repeat visitors, and variety of interpretive content—inspired random visitor. the setting should be designed so as not by the theme of the exterior scheme, “A appear too cluttered. Gathering Place,” featuring voices and • A Civil War Trail • Historical accuracy and inclusion stories by an enslaved African, Quapaw, Civil War history is popular and there is an women, a European settler, or even a bird opportunity to interpret it here. One GPS Archaeological studies should be used on the Mississippi Flyway. tour would focus on anecdotal stories to accurately place the locations of of the soldiers, generals, and African former structures. The Post had multiple • Interpretive Programs & Demonstrations Americans who built the fort, as well as a settlements over a long time span, so Park staff could also lead interpretive description of the fort structure and the interpretation should not emphasize one programs and do roving interpretation battles that took place at Arkansas Post. era. Additionally, cast statues can be seen with pocket programs combined with Keeping the trenches clear of leaf litter by some groups as monuments, and can table top/program box demonstrations on would allow visitors to get a better sense lead to demands for others—resulting in a variety of themes. These efforts would of their use. a forest of visual clutter. Statuary should maximize the potential to reach diverse 35 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

A Natural History Trail Key to the Interpretive Themes used in The existing small waysides that feature Matrix of Recommendations information about natural history and human history around the park trails should be 1 American Indian Heritage 2 Colonial-Civil War History replaced with a style consistent throughout 3 Human & Environment Interaction the park, and more panels added to increase 4 Africa & African American Experience the interpretive experience. The small size 5 Significance of the Three Rivers of the current waysides allows them to be 6 Personal Connections unobtrusive while adding an interpretive 7 Environmental Issues & Climate Change element to the nature walks available in the park. This benefit should be considered when designing new panels. Panels may be added that feature touchable or interactive elements (that are also weather-resistant) and images showing historical views of the landscape. Topics covered might touch on the uses of plants and animals by former inhabitants of the area as well as species introduced in modern eras. As with the exterior treatments nearer to the visitor center, care should be taken not to clutter the trail with too many interpretive elements.

36 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Matrix of Recommendations for Exterior Areas and Grounds

Activity Technique Theme Supported Determine areas of archaeological significance Remote-Sensing Survey 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Create “A Gathering Place” Landscape Sculptural Elements, Topography/Brickwork, applies to all themes Native Plantings, Demonstration Gardens, Structures or Architectural Elements Hold Interpretive Programs in exterior areas. “Pocket” programs (using a Pocket Program 1,2,4,6 vest) and mobile interpretive carts with props and artifacts. Create Graphic Panel interpreting the Town Site Illustration of the town site 1,2,4,5,6 Create themed landscape tour scripts of both Handheld GPS, Guidebooks, and scheduled 1,2,4,6 the Memorial and Osotouy Units that contribute guided tours to the overall park theme of “A Gathering Place” and empower visitors to customize their visit. Create Civil War trail or modify trails to Install landscaping and/or sculptural elements, 2 coordinate with themed tours interpretive panels, and signage to complement themed tours Provide Audio/Video tours themed to Handheld GPS applies to all themes different Eras Refurbish and add to existing small waysides Increase the number of panels and add panels applies to all themes with 3-D elements, images, etc. that relate to the style currently used. Incorporate historical information with the natural history topics.

37 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Specific Recommendations for A Flexible Space Inside the Visitor Center Arkansas Post has historically been a Summary of Goals: gathering place, so the current center should continue to serve this role, inviting visitors to • Create a flexible interpretive space sit down and stay for more than just a few for groups minutes. Comfortable and moveable seating, maps and reading material about the park, • Interpret the historical significance of children’s activities relating to the interpretive the site themes, and even coffee for sale in the • Educate about the Osotouy Unit bookstore are suggested to encourage this type of use. • Create some permanent components with changeable content The large open space in the heart of the building—currently filled with large static • Provide exhibits that encompass the exhibits—would be a natural hub in which seven interpretive themes to create this flexible seating area that could also be cleared out for receptions or events. The primary focus of the main building at The visitor contact desk should be moved Arkansas Post National Memorial should be to a location against one of the walls—still to serve repeat visitors from the local area, prominent to visitors entering the center—yet and secondarily to serve one-time visitors away from an area where large crowds might coming from a distance. To support this be gathered. Both new and repeat visitors intent, Arkansas Post National Memorial would be welcomed to sit down in the should consider a combination of uses for central area. the public areas of the building—a flexible gathering space, interactive interpretive exhibit space with changeable content, and a dedicated classroom/workshop space—in addition to the existing retail bookstore and small theater. The building’s office space should be expanded, and meeting and work/ store rooms should be added as well.

38 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Plaza Exhibits Offices Vending Sales Exhibits Entrance Entrance

Visitor Contact Desk Restrooms Theater Gathering Space

Mech. scale: 1.5” = 1’-0”

North Flexible Space

Bubble Diagram of the Visitor Exhibit Space Center with proposed use zones highlighted.

39 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Making History Tangible Place,” they would provide visitors with short, first person accounts of life at Arkansas Post In static interpretive exhibits inside the center, through its many incarnations up until 1863. the story of Arkansas Post should be told in a way that encompasses the breadth of its Existing three-dimensional elements such long history. Because Arkansas Post National as a model of the fort and models of Memorial has few historic structures, the different river vessels should be retained and experience should be highly visual, tactile, repurposed for these new exhibits. and even experiential. The theme of “A Gathering Place” will begin outside, but At the modern end of the visual timeline, the should be carried through the interpretive Example of Trompe l’oil mural style visitor is asked to contribute to the story of exhibits inside the center. Arkansas Post, as someone who has been These murals might have niches that hold part of this contemporary gathering place. A Attractive introductory exhibits, visible from touchable artifact reproductions and doors series of specific prompts, such as “Tell your the gathering space, will welcome visitors that open to reveal objects inside. The rooms story of Arkansas Post,” “Ask a question to the interpretive area. The three distinct would also contain immersive elements such about Arkansas Post,” or “What is your rooms at the back of the visitor center will be as a period table that a visitor could sit at favorite thing about Arkansas Post?” would thematically linked by a single chronological and play simple card games, a reconstructed encourage visitors to write a response on a exhibit that takes the visitor from prehistory trading post with touchable items, a river colorful index card and drop it into a box. to the present day, providing a snapshot of touch table, or a printing press that can Park staff would select responses and post the uses of the area through time. be cranked. The use of technology, such them in a display case (inaccessible to the as computer stations or videos, should be general public). In this way, the open-ended A recommended technique for this “visual used where feasible using components with timeline would be constantly changing, timeline” is to create a wall mural in each high reliability factors. It is important that reflecting the diversity of visitors to the center room in a trompe l’oil style depicting repeat visitors do not come away with the over time. Arkansas Post at several significant points in impression that exhibits are broken or non- its history. functioning. Finally, the Osotouy Unit should be interpreted in an interactive exhibit that Interpretive text, arranged chronologically by focuses on archaeology and how information date or era would accompany the interactive is gathered. As the Osotouy Unit is developed murals. These short texts & images would further, more updated information can be supplement the GPS tour experience available added. This exhibit should also talk about outside and, like the GPS tour, focus on other ongoing research and conservation, anecdotal stories instead of general events. including that related to Climate Change for Building on the theme of “A Gathering example. 40 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Matrix of Recommendations for Interior Areas

Activity Technique Themes Supported Create gathering space in center of building Reposition visitor contact desk, add informal All themes seating and light interpretive content Offer non-perishable healthy snacks and Stock non-perishable goods, make coffee, 6, 7 refreshments for sale in the retail area provide hot water for tea, etc. Create a changeable exhibit space Curate local exhibits, install panels and cases 1-7 (depending on that can be used for these displays. Create a content) format for labels that can easily be re-created for each exhibit. Develop Permanent exhibit space components Introductory panels, trompe l’oil murals with 1,2,4,6 interactive components and visual timeline Develop three immersive vignettes Period tables, printing press, archaeology, etc. 1,2,4,6 that provide highly interactive settings Repurpose existing models Models of battlefield and types of river travel 2,3,5 should be re-used in new exhibits. Create an opportunity for visitors to react and Question prompts, area for display of responses 6 tell their own story Interpret the Menard Osotouy Unit Include exhibits that deal with American Indian 1 archaeology generally and the Quapaw site specifically.

Key to the Interpretive Themes used in Matrix of Recommendations

1 American Indian Heritage 2 Colonial-Civil War History 3 Human & Environment Interaction 4 Africa & African American Experience 5 Significance of the Three Rivers 6 Personal Connections 7 Environmental Issues & Climate Change

41 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

• Expand programs to all educational • Invest in distance learning technology/ Specific Recommendations for levels (elementary, middle, high school, teleconferencing equipment similar to Print Media and college) equipment used at Homestead National Monument of America. Visitors looking to take home literature about a. College/University course developed for the park should be able to find something training social studies and history teachers • Partner with area community colleges to fit their needs. In addition, print materials to use “Parks as Classrooms” that have distance learning technology/ can supplement accessibility to existing b. Professional development for teleconferencing equipment available for interpretation by offering a large-print or teachers—related to existing park use. Braille version. Finally, as the visitor center transforms into a gathering place for local programs, educational uses of park • Expand website resources for teachers visitors—the Heritage Center—updated c. Credit for teachers (continuing and students. education)—summer teacher institute reading material encourages visitors to sit down and enjoy the space. d. Continued updates of existing Specific Recommendations for educational materials and new ones Wayside Exhibits • Revise and reprint park map and developed guide to incorporate Osotouy Unit, when e. University history and education Wayside exhibits are covered in the Specific it is staffed. department partners Recommendations: Exterior section, here is a summary of the recommended actions: • Publish new, updated park handbook f. Add Teaching with Historic Places lesson plans • Develop a sign/wayside plans for • Develop self-guided nature/history both the Memorial and Osotouy units walk brochure that links river, natural features and topography with the human Specific Recommendations for for consistency in type and style. Retain history of the Post Distance Learning existing waysides if appropriate. • Develop site bulletins on a variety Beyond the reaches of the local community, • Design, fabricate, and install new attractive and durable waysides that do of stories related to the park’s primary the remote location of Arkansas Post makes interpretive themes it a good candidate for developing or not clutter the natural landscape. contributing to existing distance learning • Develop bird and plant lists programs. Recommendations for the distance learning program: • Create large print and Braille version of park interpretive brochures, site • Develop a traveling trunk or Pocket- bulletins, and wayside exhibits for visually Vest Interpretation program. impaired visitors

42 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Specific Recommendations • Expand volunteer program • Expand the Teacher to Ranger to Teacher Program for Personal Services Dedicating staff time and funding to Staffing increase the volunteer program will result The Teacher to Ranger to Teacher program in significant return on investment through originated in the Intermountain Region and • Increase interpretation and contributions of labor to the park. In is now spreading throughout the National education staff addition, volunteering is a primary means Park System. School teachers spend their through which people develop a deep summer vacation as uniformed park rangers The operation of the Osotouy Unit will connection to the meanings and significance supplementing the park’s interpretive require additional staff to operate effectively, of park resources and engage in stewardship operation, developing education programs, at a minimum, two GS05 subject-to-furlough behaviors that benefit the park and carry and learning about park resources. During interpretive guides should be added to over into their communities. In addition, the school year, they bring their students staff the new visitor contact station. In volunteers are more likely than average to the park for educational programs. In addition, one full time GS09 park ranger visitors or community members to join the addition, during National Park Week, they (Protection) should be added to the staff to park’s friends group and make financial wear their uniforms to school and provide augment educational program, community contributions to help preserve the park. programs and lessons about the park for engagement, and volunteer coordination. The Expanding the volunteer program will allow students. In this way, teachers enhance their addition of an Education Specialist (subject to the park to expand all the other interpretive content knowledge in history, social studies, furlough) during the school months will also and education programs and services offered, or science and learn how to use parks as greatly increase the number of students and accommodating increased visitation and classrooms. At the same time, parks gain teachers the park can serve. This investment community engagement activities. valuable ambassadors in their communities, will result in an expanded and more lucrative and get education projects accomplished by volunteer program for the park as will • Develop an internship program professional educators. as significant increases in visitation and community engagement due to educational In collaboration with regional universities outreach and increased events. All vacancies and community colleges, the park should occurring on the interpretive staff should be establish an internship program for college filled in a timely manner with no positions and graduate students in history, education, lapsed. The staff is so small that a lapse museum studies, and other related fields. in even one position will impact the ability This program could provide valuable of the team to serve the public. If possible, experience for students and economically recruit bilingual (Spanish/English) interpreters feasible project work for the park. A to fill new positions. partner organization such as the Student Conservation Association could assist with recruiting and logistics. 43 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Programming • History Programs Specific Recommendations for • Ensure programmatic accessibility for Focus on universal concepts—family, war, Curriculum-based Education personal services bravery, loss Program Increase living history and costumed The Curriculum-based Education Program is The Park should adopt accessibility standards interpretation programs and events from an excellent way to engage many members for personal services interpretation and key periods in the site’s history invest in assistive equipment. Up-to-date TTY of the community from students of all ages to equipment, hearing assist devices, lavaliere • Nature Programs their parents and guardians, to schoolteachers and administration. To achieve a successful microphones, written scripts or summaries Offer canoe or kayak tours— A voyager- program with local support and sustainability, of interpretive talks, hands-on props and style canoe might be utilized to take out an Education Steering Committee should opportunities for tactile experiences, wheel larger groups—historic accounts indicate be created. Specific recommendations for chairs, electric wheelchair/cart, and other that explorers and natives both utilized Curriculum-Based Education Programs: assistive devices should be available. canoes capable of carrying several people. • Enhance and expand programs Offer fishing clinics and events Coordination/On-going Evaluation Provide nature walks and tours With increased interpretive staff, volunteers, • Establish an Education Steering and interns, as well as help from the friends • Archaeology Programs Committee of school administrators, teachers, university professors, and group, Arkansas Post National Memorial Begin providing special scheduled students to guide the development of can expand its menu of personal services programs/tours at the Osotouy Unit even the new dedicated education space and programs and events. A wider menu of before the site is officially developed for new/revised educational curriculum-based programs and ever-changing events will visitors appeal to local community members, programs and materials. Develop hands-on or simulated encouraging a higher level of repeat Programming visitation, as well as serving the needs of archeology programs first time visitors. These can be gradually • Programs should reflect national and • Programs for the Arts introduced and increased as staff, volunteers, state standards for curriculum, requiring and visitation increases. Stakeholders Provide monthly evening programs continual updates. generated a partial list of program ideas including guest lecturers, museum- including the following: theater, period music, etc. • Invest in a deep partnership with Arkansas and Desha County Schools, Offer visual arts/ cultural arts programs offering programs at every grade level Start an Artist/Writer in Residence for all county students. program

44 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Specific Recommendations for • Utilize new technology to enhance Specific Recommendations for Audio-visual/Multi-media interpretive experiences Website and Internet Technology

Arkansas Post can embrace several new Develop cell phone tours for Memorial The park’s website is often the first place technologies and media to help visitors and Osotouy units. visitors “stop” on a tour of the park. Whether visualize the uses and structures that once searching for a calendar of events, directions, Add a download station in the visitor defined this place. In addition to PDA and hours of operation, or researching a term center so that visitors can download cell phone tours, film and video would also paper, the internet is the most widely- content directly to their mobile device help to bring engaging, emotional storytelling accessibly venue through which Arkansas to the park. The park’s remote location Develop a PDA tour Post can reach the public. The park should also provides an opportunity for it to fill a New technology is available using GPS improve its own site, but also look beyond, niche as a place for cultural, educational and hand-held computers that allow a perhaps partnering and linking to a site entertainment on evenings and weekends. person to stand in front of a location sponsored by the new Friends Group. A site Finally, film is an excellent way to bring such as a foundation at the town site such as this could have features not available visitors closer to the Osotouy Unit, an area and receive audio-visual interactive through NPS. Recommendations for the that currently has limited accessibility for the data on a hand-held computer. This website: public. Recommended actions: technology allows visitors to see an artist’s • Develop expanded website, either • Increase the use of the theater for a representation of what a landscape through the park or through a link to the variety of films that attract a wide range or structure looked like at a particular new friends group. The website should of visitors point in time, see a video clip, or listen include the following: to sounds, first person interpretation, Hold a theme and culture-related film or narration. This technology will help a. Extensive-user tested trip planning, festival annually make the Post’s historic landscape and way-finding, and orientation services its stories more tangible. PDA’s could b. Links to Google Maps and Arkansas Have screenings of mission-related films be available at the Heritage Center and on loan from other institutions as well as and Desha County Chambers of Visitor Contact Station for rent. (see also Commerce the orientation film Specific Recommendations: Exterior Areas c. Online Junior Web Ranger activities Develop short film on Osotouy Unit and for discussion of proposed PDA tour) d. Downloadable maps show it daily in the theater e. Catalog of articles/online publications f. Links to other historic sites g. Links to other tourist attractions in the area 45 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

h. Materials for teachers Specific Recommendations for Establish stronger partnerships with local i. Materials for students Community Engagement historical societies

j. Link to the Library of Congress and Community engagement is vital to gain the In the changeable exhibit space, curate support a park needs to become a dynamic, exhibits that feature local artists or hold k. Online collections, archives, maps, positive presence in its local area. The an art contest and display entries exhibits, tours more the park staff is able to get out into • Promote the park as a gathering place the community, the more the community l. Podcasts on various subjects (these can for local community groups and clubs be created by students at the high school, members will be encouraged to come to the Encourage community to walk for health community college, or university level) park. Venues through which the park can expand its community engagement: by establish a walking club that includes m. Translations of the park map and an interpretive element guide, site bulletins, and other print • Support establishment and growth resources into other languages for down- of Friends of Arkansas Post National Establish a bicycling club to promote loading Memorial and invest in a strong working health and Mississippi River Trail, and n. Genealogical information and links relationship with them develop a route and regular monthly rides from Memorial Unit to Osotouy Unit o. Interactive timeline • Engage the community through p. Reservation system for school programs and events Promote use of the park to local civic and programs, facility rentals, etc. Provide theme-related cultural events, religious organizations music, museum theater, film festivals, and q. Link to a blog by park interpretive staff related activities celebrating the cultural Specific Recommendations for diversity of the area Engaging Ethnically and Racially Add additional living history events to Diverse Audiences the park calendar Arkansas Post, like most National Parks, Provide programs for nursing homes, struggles to reach out to ethnic minority assisted living, senior centers groups who are currently underrepresented as participants in interpretive and educational • Leverage partnerships with local events, and park interpretation as a whole. cultural, educational, and historical The park must do the hard work to find groups and individuals information about the historical presence of Establish a strong partnership with these groups at Arkansas Post. Their stories Dumas, DeWitt and Gillett Public Libraries must be told at the park, presenting a more

46 Arkansas Post National Memorial

inclusive history—the “whole story”. A key Ensure that development of the new Specific Recommendations for strategy will be to make efforts to reach Friends group is inclusive of ethnic Marketing and Tourism out to these people in their communities. minorities Other recommendations for engaging these The park currently engages in very little audiences are: • Reach out to ethnic groups in their marketing. The park could be seen as the communities primary cultural and heritage center in the • Create other language translations Go to meetings of church groups, region, as well as a place of natural beauty. of key media. specifically black churches The following recommendations are potential Website translations into French, Spanish. opportunities to place the park top-of-mind Cross promote diversity with other for local community members searching for Translate other interpretive media in heritage sites including National Historic the kinds of recreational or cultural activities multiple languages. Landmarks and National Register that the park offers. Recommended actions: properties in Eastern Arkansas. • Increase the visibility of ethnic • Enhance relationships and affiliations minorities, as well as the stories relating Welcome groups for family reunions with Arkansas Media to diversity at the park. Identify and work with historians within Obtain spots on public radio, local Hire staff that are part of ethnic groups. ethnic communities who are passionate newspapers, and TV stations (All four about telling their history Ensure that many ethnic groups are Little Rock TV stations have community represented in the visitor center media • Embrace the internet as a way to bulletin boards for special events.) and stories. reach a more diverse audience. Subscribe to a press clipping service

Stock the bookstore with books, media, Post You Tube videos and use other • Increase E-Marketing and other items that emphasize the popular web technologies Establish opt-in virtual mailing list for diversity of heritage in the area. Add web links on the ARPO site to other e-blasts and a quarterly newsletter that Hold special events that highlight tourism areas in the state/area that includes a calendar of events diversity, such as events for African emphasize diverse heritage Create a live camera feed online of the American history month. Create an opt-in electronic newsletter and alligator or simply a weather feed Emphasize the park’s inclusion in the include a section focusing on diversity Create a blog that can be accessed Trail of Tears National Historic Trail and through the NPS site (but not on the NPS Mississippi River Trail site, as it is not permitted) Update park bulletin boards with material that highlights diversity 47 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

• Increase distribution of map and magazines, travel magazines, etc.) • Accessibility park guide Invite National Center for Accessibility • Increase promotion by staffing booths Place map and guide in local hotels to assess programmatic accessibility at at a variety of events. and restaurants: Airport Gallery Space, Arkansas and make recommendations for Exhibits/Informational Booths at Days Inn Partner with other Arkansas National new programs, media, facilities, exhibits, Parks, staff booths at regional fairs and adaptations of existing programs and Use a less expensive rack card to place in facilities. area businesses Set up booths at conferences • Evaluation Place a kiosk at the state park Set up booths at all local fairs in Little Rock and surrounding area Include formative evaluation and user • Increase promotion through both PR testing in planning and development of and static public bulletin boards Specific Recommendations for new exhibits/media Send press releases to AARP local Evaluation and Research Needs Develop an Education Steering newsletter Committee for ongoing evaluation of Evaluation and tracking of visitor use and educational programs Cross promote site with other agencies visitor services are the cornerstones of the Provide a box for visitor comment cards at such as US Fish and Wildlife Service, and 10-Year Goals for this interpretive plan. heritage center and visitor contact station state and county parks and museum In order to mark positive changes at the park, a system must be in place to evaluate Incorporate opportunities throughout Send press releases to topical the effectiveness of services offered. new exhibits that allow visitors to share organizations, e.g. Recommendations for this are as follows. their own thoughts and interpretation of Society the meanings of park resources • Social Science Research Better/Updated bulletin boards onsite Institute a strong audit/coaching program Conduct visitor study and conduct for interpretive staff, volunteers, and Highway signs need to be increased economic benefits study every five years interns (farther away) • Historical Research Contact Rural Arkansas magazine for a Graduate student thesis/dissertations/ Specific Recommendations for story and get events on their calendar internships—partner with universities Professional Development Needs

Capitalize on historical connection to the Very large parks do not rely heavily on face- modern Gazette newspaper to-face personal contact between staff and visitors. But in a park of this size, the staff Seek publication recognition (national is at the heart of all visitor services. Staff 48 Arkansas Post National Memorial

should be given as many opportunities as Specific Recommendations for • feasible to improve their interpretive skills, Partnerships Related to • , Little Rock stay abreast of the latest trends in the field, Interpretation, Education, • Phillips Community College and interact with interpreters and educators Information, and Orientation • Dumas Public Library from other similar parks and organizations. Recommended activities are: Partnerships will be essential in accomplishing • Arkansas and Desha County Public the ambitious goals and recommendations School Systems • Encourage interpretive staff, outlined in this plan. The park has a variety • Private Schools volunteers, and interns to participate of existing partnerships which should be in the NPS Interpretive Development • Home School Association strengthened, and new partners should be Program working toward completion of • SEAT—South East Arkansas sought to reach key audiences over the next all 10 modules for certification Interpretive Team ten years. The park’s partnerships include, but • Send staff to National Center are not limited to the following: • Delta Byways for Accessibility courses on program • Delta Cultural Center accessibility and universal design • Quapaw Tribe and Arkansas American Indian Center • Rural Heritage Group • Join the National Association for • Local religious and civic organizations Interpretation as a basic institutional • Arkansas Historical Preservation member and encourage staff to attend Program • Local media outlets regional NAI workshops • Arkansas Historical Society • Arkansas State University Heritage • Send volunteer coordinator to NPS • Grand Prairie Historical Society Sites (, Southern Tenant Farmers Museum) volunteer training and participate in • Arkansas Archeological Survey statewide association of volunteer • Arkansas Archeological Society coordinators • Arkansas Trail of Tears Association • Provide staff with training opportunities in website design, podcast • Little Rock Central High School development, and other interpretive National Historic Site technology • Arkansas Post Museum State Park • Arkansas Early Re-enactors Association • Arkansas Living History Association • White River National Wildlife Refuge

49 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009 Implementation Plan 2009-2012

Note—Staff should review the LIRP annually. In addition to following the implementation plan below, staff should consider the personal services programming and event ideas listed in the body of the LIRP during their annual interpretive planning process.

Action Lead Staff Estimated Cost Potential partners Add GS09 Park Ranger FTE to staff (education/ Superintendent $75,000 annually Midwest Regional Office volunteer coordinator)

Area universities Develop college internship program Supervisory Interpreter $10,000 annually Student Conservation Association

Midwest Regional Office Initiate Teacher to Ranger to Teacher Program Education Coordinator $6000 annually County School Systems

Washington Office Volunteer Expand Volunteer In Parks Program Volunteer Coordinator $3000 annually Coordinator

Increase staff training and participation in Mather Training Center Supervisory Interpreter $5,000 annually Interpretive Competency Development Midwest Regional Office Arkansas and Desha County Establish Education Steering Committee Education Coordinator $3,000 annually Schools Area universities Education Steering Committee/ Establish curriculum based programs meeting Education Coordinator $5,000 annually Teachers colleges at regional state and national standards universities Education Steering Committee/ Establish teacher training workshops to meet Education Coordinator $5,000 annually Teachers colleges at regional Professional Development Criteria universities

Revise and expand bookstore scope of sales Supervisory Interpreter N/A Eastern National

Work with community leaders to start Friends Superintendent N/A Community Groups of Arkansas Post Obtain donation of canoes, kayaks, and Friends of Arkansas Post National Supervisory Interpreter N/A related equipment for water tours Memorial, Sporting Goods Stores

50 Arkansas Post National Memorial

Action Lead Staff Estimated Cost Potential partners

Complete Remote Sensing Archeological Chief of Resources $20,000 Arkansas Archeological Survey Survey of Arkansas Post Site Management

Purchase/ upgrade accessibility equipment and Supervisory National Center for Accessibility devices/ lavaliere microphones/ TTY/ wheel $10,000 Harpers Ferry Center chairs/ etc. Interpreter Midwest Regional Office Develop, print written scripts and summaries of interpretive talks for hearing impaired Supervisory Interpreter $12,000 National Center on Accessibility visitors Develop in-house large print version of map and guide, site bulletins, etc. for visually Supervisory Interpreter $12,000 National Center on Accessibility impaired visitors National Center on Accessibility Develop and implement use of new Harpers Ferry Center Supervisory Interpreter and technologies: Podcast/cell phone tours, $50,000 Midwest Regional Office Education Coordinator internet media, long-distance learning, etc. Phillips Community College Arkansas Universities Midwest Regional Office / Conduct an Economic Impact Study Superintendent $20,000 Contractor

*Build an accessible dock and allow river Chief of Maintenance $50,000 National Center for Accessibility access for boating

*Complete new landscape design for town Superintendent/ Harpers Ferry Center $30,000 site, including interpretive signs and elements Supervisory Interpreter Denver Service Center

*Complete planning and construction Superintendent $100,000 Denver Service Center drawings visitor center renovation

51 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Action Lead Staff Estimated Cost Potential partners

Harpers Ferry Center Complete exhibit plans for visitor center Supervisory Interpreter $30,000

*Plan roads, trails, comfort station, and visitor Superintendent $300000 Denver Service Center contact station Osotouy Unit

Plan exhibits for Osotouy Unit Visitor Contact Supervisory/Master $15,000 Harpers Ferry Center Station Interpreter

Develop signs, and wayside exhibit plan for Supervisory/Master $10,000 Harpers Ferry Center Osotouy Unit Interpreter

Plan and implement CW150/Sesquicentennial Superintendent Undetermined Various Partners Action Plan

Plan and implement NPS Centennial Initiative Superintendent Undetermined Various Partners projects and celebration

Develop and implement a public relations and Supervisory Interpreter N/A Local Universities marketing plan

*Complete required NEPA/Section106 Compliance

52 Arkansas Post National Memorial Implementation Plan 2013-2015

Action Lead Estimated cost Potential partners

Renovate visitor center, install new landscape Denver Service Center Chief of Maintenance $3,000,000 design, install new indoor and outdoor exhibits Harpers Ferry Center Revise scope of sales for new expanded Supervisory Interpreter N/A Eastern National bookstore Provide Audio Described Tour of Visitor Center Supervisory Interpreter $15,000 National Center on Accessibility Memorial Unit Grounds Develop and provide distance learning education programs in collaboration with local Education Coordinator $10,000 Phillips Community College universities

Begin development of Osotouy Unit Superintendent undetermined

Plan and implement NPS Centennial Initiative Supervisory Interpreter Undetermined Various Partners projects and celebration

*Complete required NEPA/Section106 Compliance

53 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009 Implementation Plan 2016-2018

Action Lead Estimated cost Potential partners

Develop new Long Range Interpretive Plan Supervisory Interpreter $40,000 Harpers Ferry Center

Conduct Visitor Study Supervisory $15,000 Visitor Services Project

Staff Osotouy Unit Superintendent undetermined

Fabricate and install indoor and outdoor Supervisory Interpreter $100,000 exhibits at Osotouy Unit

*Complete required NEPA/Section106 Compliance

54 Arkansas Post National Memorial Appendix I Workshop Participants

Participant Title Organization Leo Acosta Resources Manager Arkansas Post National Memorial Katherine AufderHeide Staff Congressman Marion Berry Dyan Bohnert Volunteer Dumas, AR Mark Christ Community Outreach Director AR Historical Preservation Program John W. Cover President Grand Prairie Historical Society Linda Cover Member Grand Prairie Historical Society Ann M. Early State Archeologist Arkansas Archeological Survey David N. Evans Facilities Manager Arkansas Post National Memorial Raymond Frazier Community Affairs Specialist US Senator Blanche Lincoln John House Station Archeologist Arkansas Archaeological Survey Heather Huyck Assistant Professor College of William and Mary Della Jamison Maintenance Employee Arkansas Post National Memorial Carolyn Kent Officer Arkansas Trail of Tears Laura Miller Chief of Interpretation Little Rock Central High School NHS Christy Murphy Superintendent Arkansas Post Museum Steve Reagan Manager White River NWR Kenneth Robertson Fire Chief Watson, Arkansas C.F. Scott Editor DeWitt Era-Enterprise Karla Sigala Park Ranger Arkansas Post National Memorial Ed Williams Volunteer Arkansaw Early Reenactors Association Edward E. Wood, Jr. Superintendent Arkansas Post National Memorial Gregg Cook Exhibits Curator Delta Cultural Center Donald C. Hubsch Volunteer Gillett, Arkansas Johanna Miller Lewis Professor UALR, Department of History Kathy Radomski Director of Business & Training Phillips Community College Shaunn Kidd Stakeholder Gillett, Arkansas Tracey Finch Educator Dumas High School

55 Long-Range Interpretive Plan Feb 2009

Participant Title Organization Steve Smith Stakeholder Dumas, Arkansas Jodi Morris Education Coordinator Arkansas Post National Memorial Gay Morris Park Visitor Jonesboro, Arkansas Sam Vaughn Harpers Ferry Center National Park Service Julie Nathon Exhibit Designer Edquist Davis Exhibits Julia Washburn Principal Trillium Resources Group

56 Arkansas Post National Memorial Appendix 2 NPS Logic Model

�������� ���� ������� �������� � ������� �� ���������� ���� ���������� �� ��� ��������