(pronunciation: ) or "Payattu" is an Indian martial art from the southern state of ancient .[1] One of the oldest fighting systems in existence,[2] it is now practiced in Kerala and contiguous parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka[citation needed] as well as northeastern and among the community of Malaysia. It was originally practiced in northern and central parts of Kerala and the Tulunadu region of Karnataka.[3]

Kalaripayattu includes strikes, , grappling, preset forms, weaponry and healing methods.[3] Regional variants are classified according to geographical position in Kerala; these are the Northern style from Malabar region in north Kerala, the Central style from inner Kerala and the southern style from region of south Kerala. The southern Payattu system is now extinct and the Tamil style of "Adi Murai" is classified as the southern kalarippayattu by Kerala Kalarippayattu association.

The northern style was practiced primarily by the and the (Thiyya), the two communities primarily associated with the practice in Kerala.[4] [5] as well as some Mappilas and . The southern style, called Adi Murai, was practiced largely by theNadars and has features distinguishing it from its other regional counterparts.[6][7][8] Northern kalaripayattu is based on elegant and flexible movements, evasions, jumps and weapons training, while the southern "Adi Murai" style primarily follows the hard impact based techniques with priority in empty hand fighting and pressure point strikes. Both systems make use of internal and external concepts.

Some of the flexibility training methods in northern Kalaripayattu are applied in Kerala dance forms[3] and dancers who knew martial artswere believed to be markedly better than the other performers. Some traditional Indian dance schools still incorporate kalaripayattu as part of their exercise regimen.[9][page needed]



 1 History

o 1.1 Origins

o 1.2 Decline and revival

 2 Variations

o 2.1 Northern kalaripayattu

o 2.2 Southern kalaripayattu

o 2.3 Central kalaripayattu

o 2.4 Styles

 3 The

 4 Marmashastram and massage

 5 Weapons

 6 See also

 7 References  8 Further reading

 9 External links History[edit]


Oral folklore ascribes the creation of kalaripayattu to Hindu gods.[citation needed] It was first documented around the 11th or 12th century AD by the historianElamkulam Kunjan Pillai, who attributed its creation to an extended period of warfare that took place between the Chera and the Chola dynasties in the 11th century.[3]

The art was disseminated through schools known as kalari, which served as centres of learning before the modern educational system was introduced. Still in existence, served as meeting places for the acquisition of knowledge on various subjects ranging from mathematics, language, astronomy and various theatrical arts.[citation needed] More specifically, martial arts were taught in the payattu kalari, meaning fight school.[citation needed]

Kalaripayattu became more developed during the 9th century[clarification needed] and was practiced by warrior clans of Kerala to defend the state and the king. In the 11th and 12th century, Kerala was divided into small principalities that fought wars among themselves. As part of these there one-on- oneduels or ankam were fought by Chekavar on an ankathattu, a temporary platform, four to six feet high.[10][page needed] The traditional astrologer casteKaniyar were also involved in the training of Kalaripayatuu.[11] Hence they were known as Panickar and Asans.[citation needed]

The Mappila Muslims adopted and practiced Kalaripayattu as their own.[12] The ballads of North Kerala refer to Muslims trained in Kalaripayattu.[12] For instance, the hero of the northern ballads Thacholi Othenan bowed before Kunjali Marakkar, the Muslim commander of the Zamorin, and offered him presents before opening his kalari.[12] Some Mappilas were trained in Hindu institutions known as Chekor Kalaris.[12] The Paricha Kali is an adaptation of Kalaripayattu, and the Mappila tradition of this art is called Parichamuttu.[12] The participants typically wear white shirts, green skullcaps, and sing after praying to Allah, Prophet Muhammad and the pirs.[12]

The Saint Thomas Christians also practiced Kalaripayattu and most Christian settlements had a kalari, that was usually run by a Christian panikkar(officer).[13] In the Jornada, it is mentioned that some Christian panikkars had between 8,000 to 9,000 disciples, who were trained as fighting forces for the local rajahs.[13] One of the most prominent Christian panikkars was Vallikkada Panikkar, whose kalari was located at Peringuzha on the banks of the Muvattupuzha river.[13] He is an ancestor of Bishop Geevarghese Mar Ivanios, one of the founders of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.[13]

The writings of early colonial historians like Varthema, Logan and Whiteway shows that kalaripayattu was widely popular and well established with almost all people in Kerala transcending gender, caste and communal lines. It is said to have eventually become as prevalent as reading and writing. Among some noble families, young girls also received preliminary training up until the onset of menses.[3] It is also known from the vadakkan pattukal ballads that at least a few women of noted Chekavar continued to practise and achieved a high degree of expertise.[3] The most famous of them was Unniyarcha of Keralan folklore, a master with the or flexible .

The earliest western account of kalaripayattu is that of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa (c. 1518).[3]

The more part of these warriors when they are seven years of age are sent to schools where they are taught many tricks of nimbleness and dexterity; there they teach them to dance and turn about and to twist on the ground, to take royal leaps, and other leaps, and this they learn twice a day as long as they are children, and they become so loose-jointed and supple that they make them turn their bodies contrary to nature; and when they are fully accomplished in this, they teach them to play with the weapon to which they are most inclined, some with bows and arrows, some with poles to become spearmen, but most with and bucklers, which is most used among them, and in this fencing they are ever practising. The masters who teach them are called Panikars. Decline and revival[edit] Kalaripayattu underwent a period of decline when the warriors lost to the British after the introduction of firearms and especially after the full establishment of British colonial rule in the 19th century.[3] The British eventually banned kalaripayattu and the Nair custom of holding swords so as to prevent rebellion and anti-colonial sentiments. During this time, many had to be practiced in secret and were often confined to rural areas.[citation needed]

The resurgence of public interest in kalaripayattu began in the 1920s in Tellicherry as part of a wave of rediscovery of the traditional arts throughout south [3] and continued through the 1970s surge of general worldwide interest in martial arts.[14] In recent years, efforts have been made to further popularise the art, with it featuring in international and Indian films such as Ondanondu kaladalli (), Indian (1996), Asoka (2001), The Myth (2005), The Last Legion (2007), and also in the Japanese manga Kenichi: The Mightiest Disciple. Variations[edit]

Kalaripayattu has three regional variants that are distinguished by their attacking and defensive patterns. Northern kalaripayattu[edit] Main article: Northern kalaripayattu

Northern kalaripayattu (vadakkan kalari) is practiced mainly in .[3] It places more emphasis on weapons than on empty hands.[3] , sixth avatar of , is believed to be the style's founder according to both oral and written tradition.[3] Masters in this system are usually known as gurukkal or occasionally as asan, and were often given honorific titles, especiallyPanikkar.[3]. The Parashurama myth in Kerala is associated with the Brahmin migration and Aryanisation of Kerala. The northern Brahmin immigrants contributed their skills through the "Salai"s which were educational institutions imparting various branches of knowledge including military arts.

The northern style is distinguished by its meippayattu - physical training and use of full-body oil massage.[3] The system of treatment and massage, and the assumptions about practice are closely associated with .[3] The purpose of medicinal oil massage is to increase the practitioners' flexibility, to treat muscle injuries incurred during practice, or when a patient has problems related to the bone tissue, the muscles, or nerve system. The term for such massages is thirumal and the massage specifically for physical flexibility chavutti thirumal which literally means "stamping massage" or "foot massage". The masseuse may use their feet and body weight to massage the person.

There are several lineages/styles (sampradayam), of which 'thulunadan' is considered as the best. In olden times, students went to tulunadu kalari's to overcome their defects (kuttam theerkkal). There are schools which teach more than one of these traditions. Some traditional kalari around Kannur for example teach a blend of arappukai, pillatanni, and katadanath styles.[10] Southern kalaripayattu[edit] The original style of southern kalarippayattu was known as "Dronambilli" is now extinct. Masters are known as 'asaan.[3] It is practiced largely by the Nadars and has features distinguishing it from its other regional counterparts.[6][7][8] The stages of training are chuvatu (solo forms), jodi (partner training/sparring), kurunthadi (short stick), neduvadi (long stick), katthi (knife), (dagger),valum parichayum (sword and shield), chuttuval (flexible sword), double sword, kalari grappling and marma (pressure points).[10]

Zarrilli refers to southern kalaripayattu as varma ati (the law of hitting), marma ati (hitting the vital spots) or varma kalai (art of varma).[3] The preliminary empty handed techniques of varma ati are known as adithada (hit/defend).[3] Marma ati refers specifically to the application of these techniques to vital spots.[3] Weapons include bamboo staves, short sticks, and the double deer horns.[3]

Medical treatment in the southern styles is identified with siddha,[14] the traditional Dravidian system of medicine distinct from north Indian ayurveda. The Siddha medical system, otherwise known as siddha vaidyam, is also attributed to . Central kalaripayattu[edit] Main article: Central kalaripayattu

The Madhya Kalari (central style) of kalaripayat is practiced mainly in Northern parts of Kerala. Contrary to popular belief, it is not a composite of the northern and southern forms, but has its own distinctive techniques, which are performed within floor paths known as kalam.[1] The Madhya(central) Kalari has many different styles which place heavy emphasis on lower body strength and speed through thorough practice of various chuvadu, only after which participants advance into weaponry and advanced studies.[3] Styles[edit] Various kalari styles as specified in Vadakkan Pattukal,

Kadathanatan Kalari Karuvancheri Kalari Kodumala Kalari Kolastri Nadu Kalari Kurungot Kalari Mathilur Kalari Mayyazhi Kalari Melur Kalari Nadapuram Kalari Panoor Madham Kalari Payyampalli Kalari Ponniyam Kalari Puthusseri Kalari Puthuram Kalari Thacholi Kalari Thotuvor Kalari Tulunadan Kalari The kalari[edit]

Main article: Kalari

Gurukkal praying before puttara CVN Kalari, Ettumanoor

A kalari is the school or training hall where martial arts are taught. They were originally constructed according to vastu sastra with the entrance facing east and the main door situated on the centre-right. Sciences like saastra[citation needed], saastra[citation needed]and marma saastra are utilized to balance the space's energy level. The training area comprises a puttara (seven tiered platform) in the south- west corner. The guardian deity (usually an avatar of Bhagavathi, Kali or ) is located here, and is worshipped with flowers, incense and water before each training session which is preceded by a prayer. Northern styles are practiced in special roofed pits where the floor is 3.5 feet below the ground level and made of wet red clay meant to give a cushioning effect and prevent injury. The depth of the floor protects the practitioner from winds that could hamper body temperature. Southern styles are usually practiced in the open air or in an unroofed enclosure of palm branches.[3] Traditionally, when a kalari was closed down it would be made into a small shrine dedicated to the guardian deity.

Marmashastram and massage[edit]

Main article: Marmam

It is claimed that learned warriors can disable or kill their opponents by merely touching the correct marmam (vital point). This is taught only to the most promising and level- headed persons, to discourage misuse of the technique. Marmashastram stresses on the knowledge of marmam and is also used for marma treatment (marmachikitsa). This system of marma treatment comes under siddha vaidhyam, attributed to the sage Agastyaand his disciples. Critics of kalaripayattu have pointed out that the application of marmam techniques against neutral outsiders has not always produced verifiable results. The earliest mention of marmam is found in the Rig Veda where is said to have defeated by attacking his marman with a .[15] References to marman also found in the Atharva Veda.[16] With numerous other scattered references to vital points in Vedic and epic sources, it is certain that India's early martial artists knew about and practised attacking or defending vital points.[17] Sushruta (c. 6th century BC) identified and defined 107 vital points of the human body in his Sushruta Samhita.[18]Of these 107 points, 64 were classified as being lethal if properly struck with a fist or stick.[19] Sushruta's work formed the basis of the medical discipline ayurveda, which was taught alongside various Indian martial arts that had an emphasis on vital points, such as varma kalai and marma adi.[19]

As a result of learning about the human body, Indian martial artists became knowledgeable in the field of traditional medicine and massage. Kalaripayattu teachers often provide massages (uzhichil) with medicinal oils to their students in order to increase their physical flexibility or to treat muscle injuries encountered during practice. Such massages are generally termed thirumal and the unique massage given to increase flexibility is known as katcha thirumal. It is said to be as sophisticated as the uzhichil treatment of ayurveda. Kalaripayattu has borrowed extensively from ayurveda and equally lends to it.[citation needed] Weapons[edit]

Although no longer used in sparring sessions, weapons are an important part of kalaripayattu. This is especially true for the northern styles which are mostly weapon- based. Some of the weapons mentioned in medieval have fallen into disuse over time and are rarely taught in kalaripayattu today.

Weapons historically used in kalaripayat Venm Axe azhu Ambu & Villu (Amb Arrow & Bow um Villum ) Ponti Small Club Hook Thotti / Forward Curved Sword Kadut hala

Trisoo Trident l

Weapons currently used in kalaripayat

Val Sword Paricha Shield Kettukari/Ned uvadi/Shareer Staff avadi [Kuruvadi]]/Ku Short runthadi/Cher Stick uvadi/Muchan Chotta 1 span chan/Marma(V stick arma)Kol Thundu/Thuval Towel/Sa a/Thala sh/Long strip of cloth Kuntham Spear Vettukathi Machete Mace/Clu

Gada b Double edged short sword Churika

Deer-horn dagger


Fist Dagger

Kattari/Katara m/ Mara pidicha Kataram/Katar _(dagger)


Otta stick