3rd Planetary Data Workshop 2017 (LPI Contrib. No. 1986) 7119.pdf

PLANETARY : AN OVERVIEW AND UPDATE. T. Gaither1, R. K. Hayward1, J. Blue1, L. Gaddis1, R. Schulz2, K. Aksnes3, G. Burba4, G. Consolmagno5, R. M. C. Lopes6, P. Masson7, W. Sheehan8, B.A. Smith9, G. Williams10, C. Wood11, 1USGS Astrogeology Science Center, Flagstaff, Ar- izona ([email protected]); 2ESA Scientific Support Office, Noordwijk, The Netherlands; 3Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Oslo, Norway; 4Vernadsky Institute, Moscow, Russia; 5Specola Vaticana, Vati- can City State; 6Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; 7Uni- versite de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France; 8Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona; 9Santa Fe, New Mexico; 10Minor Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts; 11Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

Introduction: The task of naming planetary surface features, rings, and natural satellites is 113 managed by the International Astronomical Un- Dactyl 2 ion’s (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Eros 41 Nomenclature (WGPSN). The members of the Gaspra 34 WGPSN and its task groups have worked since the Ida 25 early 1970s to provide a clear, unambiguous sys- Itokawa 17 tem of that represents cul- Lutetia 37 tures and countries from all regions of . Mathilde 23 WGPSN members include Rita Schulz (chair) and Steins 24 9 other members representing countries around the Vesta 106 globe (see author list). In 2013, Blue et al. [1] pre- sented an overview of planetary nomenclature, and 4 in 2016 Hayward et al. [2] provided an update to 1 this overview. Given the extensive planetary ex- 224 ploration and research that has taken place since 111 2013, it is time to update the community on the sta- 195 tus of planetary nomenclature, the purpose and 153 rules, the process for submitting name requests,

and the IAU approval process. Status: There are currently 15,313 surface fea- 2 ture names in use (not including names that have 4 been dropped but retained in the database for ref- 42 erence). Table 1 shows the breakdown of the num- 85 ber of adopted surface feature names for each 53 body. A table showing the named rings and ring 93 gaps can be accessed at the following URL: 143 http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Rings. 210 Planet and satellite names are listed here: 5 http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Planets. 70 25 Table 1. Named Surface Features System/Body Number of named surface 3 features currently in use 18 485 26 1,973 13 Earth 18 Moon 9,014 (1,955 proper names and 10 7,059 lettered craters) 1,827 1 2 61 20 / 0*/0* 3rd Planetary Data Workshop 2017 (LPI Contrib. No. 1986) 7119.pdf

* Official names are undergoing the approval process. Purpose and Rules: Planetary nomenclature Before submitting a name request, the online is a tool used to uniquely identify features on the database and maps showing named features surfaces of or satellites so they can be lo- (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Images) cated, described, and discussed in publications, in- should be consulted to confirm that the feature is cluding peer-review journals, maps and conference not already named. If a specific name is included presentations. Approved names are listed in the in the request, the database should also be checked Transactions of the IAU [3] and on the Gazetteer to ensure the name has not already been approved of Planetary Nomenclature web site [4]. Any for a different feature. names currently in use that are not listed in Refer- Name Approval Process: Name requests are ences 3 and 4 are not official. first reviewed by one of six task groups (Mercury, Planetary names must adhere to rules and con- Venus, Moon, Mars, Outer , and ventions established by the IAU WGPSN (see Small Bodies). After a task group has reviewed a http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Rules for proposal, it is submitted to the WGPSN. Allow the complete list): four to six weeks for the review and approval pro-  Planetary names should be simple, clear cess, but more time may be necessary if the pro- and unambiguous. posal is complicated or if questions are raised dur-  Features should be named only when they ing the review process. Name requests should be are scientifically significant and when the submitted well in advance of publication dead- naming is useful to the scientific and car- lines. Upon WGPSN approval, names are consid- tographic communities at large. ered formally approved and it is then appropriate  Name duplication on two or more bodies to use them in publications. Approved names are is discouraged, as is the use of the same immediately entered into the database and shown name for satellites and minor planets. on the web site.  Solar system nomenclature should be in- Summary: The IAU WGPSN supports ongo- ternational in its choice of names. ing planetary research, and the participation of  Names having political, military, or reli- knowledgeable scientists and experts in this pro- gious significance are not allowed. cess is vital to its success. Questions about the no-  Commemoration is not a goal in itself, but menclature database and the naming process can may be employed in special circumstances be sent to Rosalyn Hayward, USGS Astrogeology and is reserved for persons of high and en- Science Center, 2255 N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ during international standing. Persons be- 86001, or by email to [email protected]. ing so honored must have been deceased Acknowledgments: Funding for T. Gaither for at least three years. and R. Hayward has been provided by NASA- Submitting a Name Request: The gazetteer USGS PSDI IAA. includes an online Name Request Form References: [1] Blue, J. et al. (2013) LPSC (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/FeatureName XXXXV, Abstract #2178. [2] Hayward, R. K., et Request) that can be used by members of the pro- al. (2016) LPSC XXXXVII, Abstract #1141 [3] fessional science community. A specific name may “Publications.” International Astronomical Union. be suggested for a feature, but the name is subject December 17, 2015. http://www.iau.org/sci- to IAU review and there is no guarantee it will be ence/publications/iau/transactions_b/. [4] Working approved. A published reference is required for Group for Planetary System Nomenclature. Gazet- each name (reliable web sites and scanned online teer of Planetary Nomenclature. International As- books are permitted). Suggested names must also tronomical Union. Dec. 17, 2015. http://plane- fit the approved theme for each feature type on tarynames.wr.usgs.gov/. each body (see http://plane- tarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Categories). Re- quests to name a crater specifically to honor an in- dividual rather than for scientific needs are not ac- cepted.