ED 086 604 SO 006 822

AUTHOR Norris, Jack A., Jr. TITLE Introduction to . Social Studies--Language : 6414.16. INSTITUTION Dade County Public Schools, Miami, Fla. PUB DATE 72 NOTE 20p.; Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program

EDRS PRICE MF-$0.65 HC-$3.29 DESCRIPTORS Course Objectives; Curriculum Guides; Grade 10; Grade 11; Grade 12; *Language Arts; Learnin4 Activities; *; Non Western Civilization; *Philosophy; Resource Guides; Secondary Grades; *Social Studies; *Social Studies Units; Western Civilization IDENTIFIERS *Quinmester Program

ABSTRACT Western and non - western and their are introduced to 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies Quinmester course designed to be used as a preparation for in-depth study of the various schools of philosophical . By acquainting students with the questions and categories of philosophy, a point of departure for further study is developed. Through suggested activities the of philosopky is defined. The Socratic, deductive, inductive, intuitive and eclectic approaches to philosophical thought are examined, as are three general areas of philosophy, , ,and . is applied to major philosophical questions. This course is arranged, as are quinmester courses, with sections on broad goals, course content, activities, and materials. A related document is ED 071 937.(KSM) FILMED FROM BEST AVAILABLE COPY



Social Studies V) Language Arts CI Zos INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY CI 6414.16 C-5 6499.01 O 6448.23 6416.28 --4

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C-, O r-- cel DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION1971 ED O86604- LANGUAGESOCIAL STUDIES ARTS INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 641_4.166499:016448.23 6416.285115.1565114.1415116.159 Jack A. Norris, Jr. for the by Dade County PublicDivision of Instruction Miami, Florida 1972 Schools DADE COUNTY SCHOOL BOARD

Mr. William Lehman, Chairman Mr. G. Holmes Braddock, Vice-Chairman Mrs. Ethel Beckham Mrs. Crutcher Harrison Mrs. Anna Brenner Meyers Dr. Ben Sheppard Mr. William H. Turner

Dr. E. L. Whigham, Superintendent of Schools Dade County Public Schools Miami, Florida 33132

Published by the Dade County School Board

Copies of this publication may be obtained through

Textbook Services 2k10 S. W. Third Street Miami, Florida 33135 administrativeThis course of organizationstudy was written of schools. as part of a total effort to revise curriculum to fit the quinmester The materials and inINTRODUCTION this guide are meant to be neithergrams, all-inclusivetaking into account nor prescriptive; student needs but and rather, characteristics, an aide to teachersavailable as resources, they plan andinstructional other factors. pro- . ThemayteachingThe guidethen major accept isstrategies, intent divided the of modellframework into thisclass 1)publication activities,'a broad in goals istotal and to section, materialsprovideor draw 2)aideas allbroada content relatedfrom framework it outline, toto a incorporate ofdescribed gdals3) objectives and courseinto objectives, their andof study. learninglessons. content, activ- Teachers . illustrates,"indicatorsities, and 4) of inmaterials. success"general terms,iefers theto suggestedscope and prerequisitemajor subdivisions or corequisite of the course. . The first section provides descriptive and goal-oriented information for the teacher; .Tha objectives and learning The content outline infourobjectivesactivities addition categories: forsection,to thea aforementioned; hopefully,of given learning provides supplementary activities. a total pictureteacher ofresources; the and orsupplementary main and student specific resources. behavioral essential textual or other material; alternate classroom materials to use in place of or The materials section of the guide lists resources in The AnyoneSocialetc.appendix having Studies, may recommendations.relatinginclude Room 306other Lindsey material Hopkins. appropriate to this publication for a specific is urged course: to write them down and send to, e.g. pretests, readings, vocabulary, JamesSocial A. Fleming.Studies Consultant COURSE : INCLUDINGAN INTRODUCTION BOTH NON-WESTERN TO SELECTED AND GREAT WESTERN, PHILOSOPHERS AND THEIR IDEAS, INVOLVES EXTENSIVE READING CLUSTER: GENERAL SOCIAL STUDIES AND STUDY BY STUDENTS. GRADECOURSE LEVEL: STATUS: 10-12 ELECTIVE COURSEINDICATORS RATIONALE: OF SUCCESS: AnNONE outline for teachers to aide them in introducing students to categoriespreparationfuturesophicalthe area study thought.of offor philosophy.Philosophy, an indepth itstudy becomesa of the point various of departureschools of forphilo- By aquainting sutdents with the questions and This course is designed to be used as COURSE GOALS: THE1. STUDENT : DEFINE THE MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY. 3.2. EXAMINEDESCRIBE THE THE METHODS FUNCTION AND ANDTPURPOSE APPROACHES TO PHILOSOPHICAL OF PHILOSOPHY. THOUGHT. 5.4. APPLYDEFINE LOGICAL THE REASONINGTHREE MAJOR TO . MAJOR PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTIONS.

c) "CoMe my friends, tis not too late to seek a newer " PHILOSOPHY: AN INTRODUCTION :Alfred Tennyson I.COURSE CONTENT OUTLINE: What is Philosophy? IV. General Areas of Philosophy B.A. ClarificationDefinition B.A. EpistemologyMetaphysics II. Why Approach Philosophy? A. Function C. Axiology1. III.How to Approach Philosophy? B. Purpose 3.2. AesthicsPolitics A.-Methods and Approaches.(The tools for cirtical andSocratic reflective thought) V. Major Philosophical Questions 4. B.C. InductiveDeductive B.A. MetaphysicalEpistomological E.D. Intuitive.Eclectic C. Axiological GOAL I: THE STUDENT WILL DEFINE THE MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY FOCUS OBJECTIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? meaningfulAfterstudentsfinitions analyzing will of severalphilosophy,.decide -upon thea 1. Askdefineunderstanding students the wordto ofindividually in the their word own philosophy. write terms) down their own (have them attempt to Note to teacher: 2. Thesonfinitionsdefinitions teacher read it withmay toaloud choosethe orclassperson askto haveanonymously. allnext studentsseveral to them students toand exchange to haveread their thattheir per-de- and seminarThis course -type ofdiscuss study onis activities.'asically one of readings 3. a.Expose the class to the following :TheThewords origin literal - of meaningthemeaning word is "love"philosophy therefore and sophy comes"the meaninglovefrom ofthe "wisdom"wisdom." Greek b. The-an-a-pursuit dictionary searchanalysis ofthanfor wisdom of definition truthfactual the through according logical to reasoningWebster is: rather grounds of and expressing :A fundamentaldefinition ofbeliefs truth and wisdom is in order..: in accordance with the actual state of affairs; -the suggests body withwhatof itthe purports things,. of to events,a bething ,7,7 andthat facts. is exactly is in complete accord WISDOM: - : -judgment,-;L-elationshipsfic learning ability to discern innergood qualities /accumulated a andwise attitude philosophies or course or scienti- (1) of action. FOCUS OBJECTIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES c. an"Philosophy attempt at is a theuniversal search explanationfor a comprehensive of things. view of , It is both humanformsthe summarymind."a separate of thebranch among andthe(Weber, theirmanifestations A.,ner's)completion and Parry, of and the R.B. History of Philosophy. Scrib- d. andwhich"Philosophytaken requiring bind as atogether maywhole a certainbe or defineda organizedvariety as ofthe unity;of particular theorytheory containing ofand truthsa practice."- and facts, 4. Inliew of all the definitionse. themthe classbreak hasinto been groups exposed of eight to, haveand pursue"Itsinto concerna aworking comprehensive is definitionto unify and all meaningful the phases whole. of 5. Have the class discuss or writeofbethat departuresubject allan essaymembers to at changeeither this of the .atagreeing groupa later canor date dis-agree but on it and is accept.needed as a point It will Reading "All Nen By agreeingNature with theTo Know."following quotation: : Westphal,Russell,Randall, FredBertrand, John A. and TheBuehler, Problems Justus. of Philosophy 1- 10 The Activity of Philosophy pp. Philosophy:An Introduction pp. 1- 36 (2) Ryle, Gilbert, "Ordinary Language," LX11 (1953) pp. 24-40 khilosonhical Review, Vol. GOAL II: THE SUTDENTS WILL DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF PHILOSOPHY WHY PHILOSOPHY? FOCUS The students will evaluate OBJECTIVE Ask students to: a) CriticallyLEARNING ACTIVITIES examine (analyze each .) variousthe functionstatements of concerningphilosophy. d)c)b) ToSpeculateOrganize state personal factsor propose concerning experiences the meaning thelivesimplications. fromstatement. and/orthat their correspond and/or contradict "To be a philosopheringeven toto itsfound dictates,is .anot school merely a lifebut to soofhave tosimplicity, subtlelove wisdom , independence, as to norlive, accord-magna- the statements. "Philosophynimity, and trust."should be an attempt to understand and : Henry David Thoreau "Seek ye man'sfirst relationthe 'to things it." of the and the rest will : "Philosophicalwheneither itissues be comes supplied are to in resolving ora senseits loss them,great will nolevelers notone's be opinionbecausefelt." is worth morearguments," than the next unless it is backed up by good : Fred Westphal "Its functionpulseclarify (philosophy) but and guidance modify is notandthem todirection." to generate give not driving but to and im- John Randall and Justus Buehler FOCUS OBJECTIVE "The unexamined life is not worth living" LEARNING ACTIVITIES : "Entertain"Let us not our inlook awareness." back in with anger some nor measure forward of in ." fear but around : :BertiandJames Thurber Russell Randall,Reading ReferencesJohn and Buchler, Justus. Philosophy : An Introduction Durant,Davidson, Will; Robert The F.,Story Ed., of ThePhilosophy Search for Meaningpp. 25-36 In Life pp. xxv-xxix pg15-27 (4) GOAL III: THE STUDENTS WILL EXAMINE THE METHODS AND APPROACHES TO PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT. APPROACHES TO PHILOSOPHY: FOCUS The students will examine OBJECTIVE 1.) , named after the LEARNING ACTIVITIES SOCRATIC METHOD several methods of . thenquireofrefers asking consider men to toveryhis faceuniversally methodpenetrating important of inquiry. acceptable questionsand fundamentalGreek issues Itand is to basically Socrates the .which encourage or re- process AnFor Inquiry toa studentthe StudyApproach.Approach exercise of History" in this in either The or A New History of the United States, method, see "An Introduction Shapinc of Western. DEDUCTIVE METHOD 2.) Deductive method Rineharttoward theand specific.Winston and starts with a general statement and workse.g., Bo texts are published by Holt,are state adopted. Syllogistic reasoning: John is equal JohnAll ismen a areman equal To carry thismiseHave therefurther, tothe arrive studentsmust beat aacompose relationshipconcluding several . between of you may wish to examine: thethese, first keeping and second in mind pre- Logical : piP2 "This "If ankey iron is madething of is iron"; placed the examined. statement to be P3 already"Thisverified.is attracted"; verified. - a thisbar is a physical , - is a magnet"; statement near the magnet, it already (5) c. FOCUS OBJECTIVE P4: "The Key is placed near the bar"; LEARNING ACTIVITIES this is now P5:From "The these Key four will premises now be attractedwe can deduce by the the bar." directlyconclusion: verified by our observation. whichAskThe thetruestudents studentsmay first when enter topremiseone may thedetermine arrives also picture. may wish beatif true,thetothe try concludingfirst but their there premise hand orare fifth many premise.other variables J _-,:ample above) isveral of these. Note: INDUCTIVE METHOD 3.Inductive Method startsthe general. with a specific statement and works toward It is also referred to as the OBSERVATIONCLASSIFICATIONHYPOTHESIS EMPIRICAL DEDUCTIONTESTING DEMONSTRATIONORGANIZATIONSTATEMENT OF INTUITIVE METHOD 4.Intuitive method refersSeesophical activities to the immediate under by looking#1, apprehension The withinSocratic theof Method philo-self. MYSTICAL METHOD 5.Mystical method referse.g.truths to theby disciplinedprocedure of contemplation achieving philosophical of the infinite. --Buddhism- ELECTIC METHOD (6) 6.Electic method is theelementspast procedure to ofachieve philosophical which a newstudies synthesis thought. the philosophical through the selection of the better FOCUS OBJECTIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES or individually.education:Ask7. students to design their Ask the students what implications this quotation Share this with the class. own model either in small groups has for "My Object isto notteach to himfurnish the methodhis mind of withacquiring it when necessary." : Jean Jacques Rousseau. knowledge, but GOAL IV: THE STUDENTS WILL DEFINE THE THREE MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES FOCUS OBJECTIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT The students will define ' 1. Define for the students the word Metaphysics, Epistemology and METAPHYSICS Philosophy.the three major divisions of Axiology.A.(Write them on the black board and clarifyMetaphysics: their meaning) the study of the nature of ultimate . EPISTEMOLOGY C.B. Axiology:Epistemology:and the thestudyof knowledge.study of tof the origins, nature, criteria origin, nature, criteria and AXIOLOGY 2. Havethe themajor students divisions. deduce the central questionvalidity intrinsic of values. to AXIOLOGYEPISTEMOLOGYMETAPHYSICS WHATWHAT IS IS REAL?TRUE? OF ? AND WHAT IS,KNOWLEDGE? 3. ListEthics:logy. and define for the students the sub-categories the study of the conduct. of Axio- :Religion:Politics: thethe study of the unknownthe study and ofor idealinfinite . study of ideal social organization. . (8) FOCUS OBJECTIVE I 4. Haveining the students discuss the schools.of Philosophy after exam- the suggested readings listed below: LEARNING ACTIVITIES Wolff,Readinc,(METAPHYSICS) Robert, References Paul, Philosophy A Modern Encounter, pp. 77-128 Westphal,Randall,ibid.,pp. Fred,John; 180-200 A.and The Buchler, Activity Justus. pp.of Philosophy,156-179 pp. 117-160 Philosophy:. An Introduction Westphal,Randall,(EPISTEMOLOGY) Fred John; A. and Buchler, Justus, Philosophy: The Activity of Philosophy pp. 205-255 An Introduction Swartz,ibid., R.J.,pp. 133-142 ed., Perceiving,Sensing andpp. Knowing. 90-104 GOAL V : THE STUDENTS WILL APPLY LOGICAL REASONING TO MAJOR PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTIONS FOCUS OBJECTIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES tions.swerStudents major will philosophical attempt to ques-an- 2.1. Have A series each studentof class choose discussions one thoughtsophicalquestion dealing should questionsfrom with eachbe several conducted. fromof the basicthe three three philo- major areas of philosophical METAPHYSICAL QUESTIONS a.presentationareas listed andbelow discussion. to be researched in METAPHYSICALpreparation forQUESTIONS a class 3)2)1) What is thelife? mind?? EPISTEMOLOGICAL QUESTIONS b. EPISTEMOLOGICAL5)4) QUESTIONS IsWhat there is freedom?an ultimate being? 4) 3)2)1). WhatHow constitutesprejudicesaredoes the man limits gain ofproof the knowledge?of ormindmans ? obstructknowledge? learning? AXIOLOGICAL QUESTIONS c. AXIOLOGICAL2)1) QUESTIONS WhatHow ismuch ? freedom is good for man? 4)3)5) Whatconsidered isconditions alove? good moral? society? must be present for an act to be (10) e FOCUS OBJECTIVE 3. The class presentation might consist of the student doing LEARNING ACTIVITIES r b.a.the following: philosophersGivingDefine termsa summary .and schools.of several of well-known e.d.c. members.LogicallyBeinghisStating conclusion. prepared defending clearly to hisansweror explainingconclusions questions histo asked therationale questions.by class for MATERIALS: I. Randall,RECOMMENDED John-and BASIC Buehler,TEXTS Justus. Noble, Inc., 1969. Philosophy: An Introduction. New York: Barnes and Durant,Randall, 141.11. John, Buehler, Justus and Shirk, Evelyn, eds., Readings In Philosophy. Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1966. The Story of Philosophy. New York: Washington Square Press, 1970. New York: II. Westphal,ALTERNATE FredSTUDENT A. AND CLASS MATERIAL Inc., 1969.. The Activity of Philosophy, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice -Hall, Wolff,Davidson, Robert Robert Paul. F., ed., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962. Philosophy, A Modern Encounter. The Search For Meaning In Life, Readings In Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: New York: Prentice- Frankl,May, Rollo. Victor E. Hall, Inc., 1971 Man's Search for Himself. Man's Search for Meaning. New York: New York: The New American Library, Inc., 1967. Washington Square Press, Inc., 1968. Hospers, John, Human Conduct, An Introduction to the. Problems of Ethics. Brace and World, 1961. 1 New Yoilk: Harcourt, Flew,Hook, AntonySidney, and ed., Alasdair Maclntyre, and Freedom eds., Newin TheEssays Age inof PhilosophicalModern . . New York: Books,Macmillan 1961. and Co., 1955. New York: Collier Kaufmann, Walter,ed., from Dostoevski to Sartre. 1956. (12) New York:- Meridian Books, Ryle,Russell, Gilbert, Bertrand, "Ordinary The Problems Language," of V.C. Chappell, ed., Ordinary Philosophy.PhilosophicalLanguage. Review, Vol. Lxll (1953) EnglewoodNew York: Cliffs, N.J.: Oxford Press, 1959. Prentice-Hall, Reprinted in III. AUDIO-VISUALBentley, John E., Visual Outline Inc., 1964, pp.24-40. of Philosophy. Philadelphia: David McKay Co., 1939. ToFilms: examine individual Materials Catalog, Dade County philosophies, see the Profiles in Courage Series,page 84, Instructional Classical Greece: Aristotle'sPlato's Apology: Ethics: The Life and Teaching of SocratesThePublic #1-31195 Schools. of #1-31201 Filmstrips:Galileo:The Medieval Mind #1-31929 The Challenge of #1-13778 Concord:Do We Exist? Guidance Associates A Nation's , Guidance Associates TheTapes: OurPhilosophy Heritage of From Rugged Ancient Individualisrl Greece, #3-00109 it (13)