The flight directors and controllers in Mission Control have The flightdirectors andcontrollersinMissionControl have been thefocalpoint of America’s humanspaceflight programs. Johnson’s Christopher C. KraftJr. MissionControlCenter has flight skills. Ellington Field, astronautstrainin T-38 jetstomaintaintheir spacewalks intheworld’s largestindoorpool. At nearby Training Facility nearthecenter, astronautstrainfor Carter theSonny at In theNeutralBuoyancy Laboratory environment.microgravity Laboratory, whichimmersestheminacomputer-generated honetheirskillsinthe robotic armoperations habitable elements. preparingforspacewalksor high-fidelity, full-scalemockupsofthecomplex’s different using thespacestation learn skillsandprocedurestooperate astronauts, engineersandothermissionsupportprofessionals Johnson.has trainedat IntheSpace MockupFacility, onthespaceshuttle orflown SpaceStation of theInternational partnercountrieswhohascrossedthethreshold international oneoftheNASAastronautsandspaceexplorersfrom Every Leading HumanExploration innovation.the boundariesofexplorations andtalentedproblemsolverspush institution wherecreative 10,000-person workforcehelpsbolsterNASA’s standingasan America’s humanspaceflightprograms. Johnson’s nearly andOrion,Station theforefrontof thecenterhasbeenat andSpaceShuttleprogramstotheInternational native, Lyndon B. Johnson. From theMercury, Gemini, presidentand center wasrenamedin1973tohonorthelate HoustonastheMannedSpacecraftCenter,downtown the Established in1961onnearly1,700acressoutheastof tobenefitallofhumankind. scientific knowledge andenhancingtechnological in humanspaceexploration of futurespacedevelopments, thecenterplaysapivotalrole missionoperations, theOrioncrewandahost of thenation’s astronautcorpsandhometoInternational formorethanhalfacentury. As thenucleus NASA’s JohnsonSpaceCenterhasbeenaleaderinhuman Johnson SpaceCenter National andSpaceAdministration health andsafety. on thecrew’s activitiesandmonitorspacesystems, crew counterparts overseas, flightcontrollerskeepaconstantwatch days aweek, 24hoursaday, 365daysayear. Working with engineers, medicalofficersandtechniciansareonduty7 SpaceStation,International flightcontrolteamsofexperienced shuttle flights. Withapermanenthumanpresenceaboardthe tothemoonforfirsttimeandallof135space IV missionin1965, including the took missionsthat Apollo U.S.been vitaltoevery humanspaceflightsincetheGemini opportunities of discovery ontheorbitinglaboratory.opportunities ofdiscovery The provide expandedutility, additional researchtimeandbroader station. will toandfromthestation Commercialtransportation orbitandthespace crewstolow- ofcarrying capable ofspacecraftandlaunchsystems anewgeneration operate ascompaniesdevelopand American aerospaceindustry NASA’s CommercialCrewProgramisworkingwiththe Commercializing Space

NASAfacts Deputy Office at Johnson assists in the budgeting, Through national and international collaborations, HRP engages the best minds contracting, safety and technical areas. in the country to conduct research aboard the space station, at Johnson and other NASA centers, and in universities and institutions around the world to Developing Deep Space address challenges faced by humans in space. Inside the center’s facilities and elsewhere, engineers are building upon decades of research and knowledge to develop the advanced The Astromaterials Research and Exploration team curates NASA’s deep space crew vehicle ever conceived. collection of extraterrestrial samples, which includes materials from the , , , , , other stars and flown space hardware containing NASA’s program is managed at Johnson, where a team of engineers micrometeorite impacts. A suite of specialized laboratories is co-located with oversees the design, development and testing of the spacecraft, as well as these collections, making Johnson the international hub of planetary scientists spacecraft manufacturing taking place across the country and in . Orion who explore the system through sample analysis. This scientific cadre is NASA’s spacecraft that will send astronauts to deep space destinations, partners with and robotic exploration teams, providing planetary including on the to Mars. expertise in defining mission objectives, spacecraft requirements, suit needs, tool designs and operating protocols. This team also houses applied science Orion features advancements and innovations that have been disciplines who protect operating spacecraft through remote sensing, imagery incorporated into the spacecraft’s design. It includes crew and service science and analysis, orbital debris environment characterization, spacecraft modules, a spacecraft adapter and a revolutionary launch abort system that debris risk assessment and spacecraft shielding designs. will significantly increase crew safety. It will launch on the agency’s powerful System from NASA’s modernized in . Mission Support, Strategic Opportunities and Partnerships Many mission support organizations help NASA maintain its position as a The Exploration Integration and Science Directorate provides research, model agency, from human resources, information technology and external strategy, mission planning, systems development, integration and investment relations support, to procurement, finance and center operations. Through focus for the future of human space exploration. In addition to providing the center’s Strategic Opportunities and Partnership Development Office, enterprise-level integration across exploration systems, the directorate Johnson also leverages critical skills to evolve the agency’s mission, provides supplies architecture design and mission concept formulation bringing strategic planning for future business opportunities and partnerships, manages together all of the disparate elements required for planning and integrating partnerships with external entities and establishes new partnerships across complementary human and robotic exploration missions stepping out into industries and government. the . To support and enable exploration, the directorate provides strategies and priorities for partnership and investment focus of technology advanced system development to meet mission concept and architecture needs.

Advancing Scientific Knowledge Teams of scientists, physicians and other researchers are at work advancing into human adaptability to microgravity and developing countermeasures to mitigate the challenges to human health and performance associated with long stays in space.

The Human Research Program (HRP) is dedicated to discovering the best biomedical methods and technologies to ensure safe, productive human space travel. The program, managed at Johnson under the Human Exploration Mission Directorate, works to improve astronauts’ abilities to carry out their duties, solve problems, respond to emergencies, and remain healthy during and after long-duration space missions.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B. , Texas 77058