刀 by F ritz E Steininger, M . P A ubry, W A . B erggren, M . B iolzi, A . M . B orsetti, Julie E . C artlidge, E C ati, R. C orfi eld, R . G elati, S. 1accarino, C . N apoleone, E O tm er, F R6gl, R . R oetzel, S. Spezzqferri, F Tateo, G . Villa, D . Zevenboom The G lobal Stratotype Section and Point (G SSP) for the base of the N eogene

The P aleogene-N eogene P eriod-孙stem boundary, L ocal position: 35 rn from the top of the Lem m e- C af osio Section. w hich defines also the O ligocene-M iocene Ep och Sedim entological m arker: A n excellent lithological m arker for the G SSP is provided by a distinct boundary betw een lithologic U nit A - boundary is defi ned in the L em m e-C arrosio (the m ore m assive part of the section) and the overlying lithologic section in the village of C arrosio, south of the tow n of U nit B - I (the m ore stratified part of the section) A t the 50 im m ark, G avi and north of Voltaggio 沮lessandria P rovince), there is a horizon w ith yellow ish nodules. T he G SSP is exactly 15 m etres above this lithologic boundary. A layer w ith yellow ish nod- northern . ules lies in lithologic Subunit B 2, exactly one m etre below m etre 35 (Figure 3). A rtificial m arks: The top oft he section (0 m ) corresponds to the top H istorical background and concepts of the R igoroso Form ation. For practical reasons, a m etal stake w as not placed at level 0 but exactly 0.50 m below the top of the form a- T he historical background of the concepts of 'stratigraphic units' of tio n. A steel cable run s fro m th e 0 m m ark to th e b ase o f th e sectio n . L yell (1833) and of M . 1-16m es (1853) (the C hronostratigraphic E ach m etre of the section is m arked by a m etal tag (w ith the m etre U nits of m odem usage) have been based m ainly on tw o observa- num ber). These tags are fixed at the cable and additionally in the for- tions: (1) m ajor or m inor discontinuities (or facies changes) in rock sequences and (2) m ajor or m inor changes in the overall biotic con- I U G S !C S tent, or w ithin a specific taxonom ic group. M . M im es (1853) defined G S S P the N eogene using both characteristics. In his w ork published in P A L A E O G E N E 1853 (p. 806) H 6m es discussed his 'organic' (paleontologic) reasons N E O G E N E B O U N D A R Y for com bining Lyell's (1833) M iocene and into his N eo- A T M E T E R 3 5 gene by referring to the m ollusc : 'die Verschiedenheit der ('of 1 9 9 3 the m ollusc') Fauna der Eoedn- und M iocdn-Epoche' of L yell and m ation. In addition m etre 35 is m arked by a m etal plaque fixed in the in 1864 (p. 510) he pointed out the widespread discontinuities: section w ith the follow ing text. 'Unstreitig haben zw ischen der E ocen- und N eogenzeit gew altige The section has excellent e x p o sure, absence of m ajor structural Schichtstdrungen in Europa stattgefunden'. com plications and apparent absence of unconform ities w ithin the so called 'critical tim e span'. In addition, there is an adequate thickness C oncepts of th e W orking G roup of sedim ents, favorable facies, rather good potential for planktonic The base of the N eogene and the base of the M iocene Series m ust be situated betw een the C hattian and A quitam an Stages, so that the A quitanian is included in the N eogene System . T he Paleo- gene-N eogene System B oundary coincides w ith the O ligocene-M iocene Series B oundary. T he ideal G SSP candidate for the P aleogene-N eogene System boundary w ould be a tem porally r旧 n a continuous section representing the so called 'critical tim e span'. C. Campagnola This 'critical tim e span' w as determ ined to be represented by the 么 R ic o i biostratigraphic interval betw een planktonic foram iniferal Z ones P21 to M 2 of B erggren et al. (1995). In term s of calcareous nanno- 、, \\'I-. zonation it corresponds to the interval from Zone N P25 t t ,,‘,气 (Sp enolithus ciperoensis Zone) to Z one N N 2 (D iscoaster druggi C am poreg 0 鱿 、、、 Zone) as defined by M artini (197 1) and M artini and M oller (1986). 日erg am o ;(.}arezzanIi M ILA N O

N o v a ra 10 产一 M features of the proposed G SSP R oc ch e tta

乙anavila R iver N am e: B ase of the N eogene System (base of the M iocene Series, A lessandrra -N eogene System boundary and O ligocene- M iocene Series boundary). 口 袱 R ank of the boundary: System (beginning of the N eogene Period) 协 梦飞、 L ocality nam e of the G SSP : L em m e-C arrosio section, Italy 嘛 G eographic position : L ongitude 8'50'11" E ; Latitude: 44'39'32' G E N 半 N . Carta G eologica d'Italia: Foglio G EN OV A N o. 82 (1: 100 000); T av. V O LT A G G IO I N E (I:25 000) (Figure 1) F igure I G eograp hic location of t he L em m e-C arrosio section.

Episodes, Vol. 20, no.] 2 4

and benthic m icrofossil biostratig raphi e s, m agnetostratigraphy, sta- form ed by Perm idic and L igurian tectonic units. T he late E ocene to ble isotope stratigraphy and, eventually cyclostratigraphy. late M iocene succession form s a large hom ocline, gently dipping to T he section is easily accessible by public and priv at e trans- the northw est. T he basin form ed during the late E ocene--early portation and the present ow ner of the property M r. N ando T raverso O ligocene as an extensional basin behind the arc of the W estern has agreed to provide access to colleagues interested in visiting and A lps. It w as affected by the A pennine com pression from late sam pling the section and to conserve the section as an international O ligocene. E vidence ot post late M iocene extensional tectonics are geological point of prim e interest. clearly recorded (Falletti et aL 1994). The facies evolution of the Piedm ont T ertiary B asin is strongly controlled by synsedim entary G eology of the G SSP site tectonic activity and three large-scale facies belts can be recognized. From w est to east: the Langhe-, the V isone-L ernm e- and the Bor- T he are a of the L em m e-C a rro sio section is situ ated w ith in th e P ie d- b era- S taffo ra facie s be lts. T he G S SP sectio n is situated w ithin th e m ont T ertiary B asin, in southern Piedm ont, northw estern Italy (Fig- V isone-L em m e facies belt in the upper part ot the R igoroso Form a- ure 2). T he basin itself is bordered by the arc of the W estern A lps and tion w hich overlies the M olare Form ation (O ligocene fan delta con- by the northw estern end of the N orthern A pennines. Its basem ent is glom erates w ith sandy shallow m arine intercalations yielding m icro- 口 回 姗 皿 黝1 既 塑 黔吕 圈 寨 粼REA 勺 7 藕 厂 V E N E Z 干0 一 裹 MILGAENOVA 一” 一 1 P_' _ 一 却 V E R C E L L I o FIR EN ZE 多经. 一 1 ? 0}} __关产减沁火 尸 P A V IA O , 粉篆热 闷 飞 0 、、、 TO RIN O O C A S A LE 瘾童鳌肇缪麟 M O N F E R R A 蒸曰沼豁 1}1笋气CHIERI F,J0 .-4 ". '4%, - 1, -1 7}- 'I} V O G H ER A 0 1 41} 、、 、、 篡 A L ES SA N O AS0TI 群娜尧 巍琴寒橇粼 舜补盆蔑之阅 王口 0 PINERCLO丫 Y v 魏 勺‘ 、 T 类 % 荞

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嘿 匕 鞭 S v 0 C U N EO N 黝之 _0 GE N OVA

一 妇 杂

S A V O N A 0 5 10 k m 1 . I

F igure 2 The geologicf ram e of t he P iedm ont B asin. L 6 S Location of the Langluan type section. Upper to lower deposits: 9 Depo-center axis of the Plio-Q uaiernary b a sins . T Location of the type section a alluvial to coastal conglom erates, shallow- 10 B u rie d th ru st fro n t o f th e C o llin a d i T o rin o - I Location of the type section. w ater sandstones and hernipelagic m ud sto ne s; 2 Pliocene to R ecent deposits Basso M onferrato-NW A pennine w edge. 3 M essim an deposits, b slope and base-of-slope, resedim ented con ]I B uried, south vergent backthrust of the to Tortonian siliciclastics and car glom erates; B as so M o n fe rra to . a ctiv e fro m M es sim a n

4 bonates shelt and slope deposits. c m ainly turbidites. o n w a rd . Upper to Tortonian m ainly tur- 7 Late Eocene to Tortonian m ainly siliciclastic 12 B uried, pre-Burdigalian backthrust ofthe bidific succession (only Burdigalian in the deposits of the N W A pennines-B asso M en- w estern A lps (as inferred from Roure et a ] , Eastern sector ot this figure). ferrato-Collina di Torino wedge. 1990) 5 Upper O ligocene to B urdigalian turbidites 9 A lpine and A perm inic allochthonaus units 13 Tectonic lines: SV Sestri-Voltaggio, VV and herm pelagic m udstones. V illaive rn ia-V arz i.

M a rc h 1 9 9 7 乃

0 ^ 卜 明一 N 匕 的 蕊 比 O 工 山 仍 O Q- 叱 山 比 国 进一 V B IO STR ATI GR A P H IC M A R KE R S 戏 -J 几 比 Q 卜 、 / 减 2 让 田 5 0 叱 乏0 的 -J 一 N 卜 9 0 工 ^ 0 曰 ︸ 二 叱 LJ 比 uJ0 LU O LIJ J 叱 山 一 一 芝 N ﹂ 压 明 叹 卜 ^ 0 凌 卜匡一 叱 0 1 2 0- 1 们 LU 一 一 -se 习 · 囚 山 匕 叱 田 工 匡 C A LC . D IN O - ^山 0- 卜 乏 戏 山 N 丫 叱 匕 济 的0- 的 UJ 山 田 乏 PLANKTONIC} 口 芝 庄 峭 V -J 0 因 卜 0 N A N N O - FLA G EL LA TES 9 1一 0 0 -J N 匡 2 0 工 &BENTH四Ic} 0 口 哎 庄 叼一 匕 FOS SILS F O R A M IN IF E R A 田 曰 曰 2 CA ‘ 价 U U 氰 比 入 川 阳 J 匕 峨 N6 Sto}erocystct ︸ V 口 c o n e r a e o、 中 山 曰 . d 卜 过 ., 」 一 2 1 ,32 3 喊 - 口 心 勺 曰 寥 卜 L 2 J ﹂ 0 比 喊 哎 码 飞 t 立 山 g J 了 尸 U ‘ M em b raninarlocia (H }.'le' ) 切 p c e r}o 田 LIJ 当一 誊 21,768 ‘ N 丁 4 A , l . ‘ 一 21 .8 S 9 ﹂ J﹃ L ‘ 入 N -5 目 O 叮 咬 ︺ 戏 ︵ 叹 弓 昌 之 之 口 旧 戏 10 Pq r ku勺ter, 」一 2 <匕 c- 戏 0 们 D lastod - iU m 比 哎 r 曰旧 S a ff bele- 5 了 q J- 粉 a p p e n n in ic u rn 22.,12 541B 心 八 -T十 oGpseal t土l.t,-us 划 哎﹄ P7-44 13 」一 峨 馨 卜 g 杖 Lli LLJ u 一 2 2 ,4 5 9 - 巧 D efta nd rea ssp - 2 2 ,4 9 3 - J 喊 u- 佑 卜「 2 2 ,5 8 8 L u 17 ︺ 口 9 怕 鬃 乏 u ﹂一 u O O 功 口 L 田 怕 9 ︸ 9 ;1765004 9 目 u 曰 泊 之 八 田 曰 0 u 9 21 比 之 田 ﹄ . 工 山 种 Gq deh- ns 切 彝 2 3 ,0 6 9 月 ﹄ 0 --仁 BLOO M O F O 0 霎J 田 们 S neoobies 9 入 D eh or,drea ssp 曰 补 」 - 玉 肠 比 一下- + S c . ' .c }s 23,353 27 氰 田 幢 阳 U 的 23,535 入 C 犯 妇 刊-3 刃 ” 叠 蒸 划 2 3 ,6 7 7 艾 2 ! 芝 c 创 习 揣spg , cecU .at. 山 G S S P 长 曰 肚 -上一 巧 黔 G S S P 23,800 R -2 托 奚S 'Sa-p }V"elcTpoh7m }t}sPg r.k L,-gte r ChiropferiCliurn 叼 刃 s s p 睡 苦 J 9 . ﹄. 入 田 . . 阳 一土- 之 曰 . . V . . 口 0 9 . . . 的 Ectosphaeropsis 口 . 山 立 . ., 留 田 21 999 工 嚷 如 burdigaterists 曰 氛 N N 2 们 N 2 4.1 18 妮 田 曰 。) “ 目 田 朽 0 山} ﹂ 知场 曰 心 口 口 U 0 切 别 502}tp-h,. 均 黔 0 UJ 明 a}{ 引 V 叨 。{ 0 卜一 24,730 的 O I 孰 蓦 F igure 3 习 邹 Chronostratigraphy, ‘ ﹄ . . . . “ ︸ . -J ︸ 口 G eochronology, o‘ ‘ 的 减 . 仁 一「 d 1 卜 比 卜 曰 乙 .N -1 叻 M agnetostratigraphy, . . 2 . 5 c}pero号nsis . . 舅 O 0 .月 的 Q- I L ithostratigraphy and 立 es 的 H es 口 61 Biostratigraphy of t he 曰 L em m e-C a rrosio 的 Section.

and m acrofauna). T he M olare-Form ation lies unconform ably on a tinct fine bedded, clayey to fine sandy silts. Y ellow to orange m arks pre-C enozoic substratum (G naccolini, 1978a, b). The R igoroso For- and nodules m ay represent bioturbation structures. m ation itself is overlain by the upper low er M iocene C osta M ontada U nit B (from m etre 49.5 to m etre 4: total thickness 45.50 m etres). F orm atio n T his interval that is noticeably m ore fine-grained form s the m ain part of th e sectio n . It can b e su bd ivided in to three sub un its. L ithology Low er subu nit B I (from m etre 49.5 to m etre 37: 12.50 m etres): m assive to indistinctly bedded, blush-grey, clayey silts w ith In the Lem m e section (F igure 3), the R jaoroso Form ation is charac- few , thin lam inated, m ore clayey pelific layers. Y ellow to terized by or ly to very poorly sorted sedim ents w hich can be clas- sified as fine and m edium grained silts w ith fine silts dom inating. orange m arks and nodules as in U nit A The C aC 0 3 content show s a prom inent decrease at m etre 35.00. The M iddle subunit B 2 (from m etre 37 to m etre 24: 13 m etres). This m easured section can be divided into three lithologic units as fol- characteristic subunit consists of m assive, indistinctly bedded, lo w s . silty intervals alternating w ith thirily bedded, w avy lam inated, U nit A (from m etre 63 to m etre 49,5: 13.50 m etres exposed). The m ore-clayey pelitic layers. Y ellow ish to orange colored nodule s basal U nit A is characterized by bluish--rey, m assive, partly indis- occur in the m assive blueish-grey silts and form m arker hori-

Episodes, Vol. 20, no. I 2 6

z ons. This unit w hich is characterized by fin- ing upw ards cycles consists probably of tur- 4?0 C *J_ P O B LS)NErDFS. e o 0 */_ P D 13 bidites. The G SSP of the base of the N eogen e System w as defined 2 m etres, above the base

of Subunit B 2, just one m etre above a very 勺0 distinct layer w ith yellow ish to orange color e d n od ule s. 133

U pper subunit B 3 (from m etre 24 to m etre 4: 20 20 m etres): m assive, indistinctly bedded blush- grey silts w ith w avy lam inated m ore clayey pelitic intercalations and several m etres of 313 8 2 thin lam inated. m ostly clayey pelites; U nit C (from m etre 4 to m etre m inus 2: 6 m etres): — .,., in general m assive blush-grey silts w ith only a few 口 lam inated and m ore clayey pelitic intercalations. B I The silts change tow ards the top of U nit C into fine sandy silts. The C osta M ontada Form ation over- lies unconform ably U nit C . 50

A M ineralogy 60 T he dom inant m inerals are phyllosilicates and cal- m cite, w ith various am ounts of feldspar, quartz, -3 -25 -2 -L6 一 0 015 -3.2 一3 -2.8 ·场 .2A -2.2 一2 一访 一比 一“ 一LZ dolom ite, serpentine and pyrite. The m ain part of the clay-fraction consists of high charged sm ec- F igure 4 C arbon isotop e and oxygen isotope stratigrap hy of t h e Lem m e-Carrosio tite, w ith m inor am ounts of illite, kaolinite, chlo- Section. rite and even serpentine.

B iostratigraphy foram iniferal assem blage is of low diversity. From m etre 33.00 to m etre 23.00 a rem arkable change in diversity occurs w ith an acm e of T he G SSP is bracketed by a set of biostratigraphic events in plank- the genus G lobigerinoides com parable to the deep sea record outside tonic m icrofossil groups (calcareous nannofossils, planktonic the M editerranean (K eller, 1981} Spezzaferri, 199 1, 1994). From foram inifera and dinoflagellate cysts). T he preservation of calacare- m etre 2 1 to the top of the section the foram iniferal assem blages are ous m icro- and nannofossils is m oderate to poor, w hile the w ell diversified. In addition from m etre I I up to the top of the sec- preservation is good to excellent. T he planktonic m icrofossil groups tion, (w ell know n to occur in this stratigraphic position of exhibit m oderate diversity and the frequency of the index the M editerranean area) occur in great abundance (Sanfilippo et al.. varies w ith the quality of preservation (poor to m oderate to good to 1973). excellent). In the calcareous nannofossil assem blages, rew orking prevents use of highest occurrence datum s w hich elsew here have D epositional en vironm ent and paleoclim atological- proven to be useful, such as the H O of Zygrhablithus bijugatus and paleotem perature interpretations of Reticulofenstra bisecta. The abbreviations LO and H O indicate low est and highest occurrence levels for each species (Figure 3). The lithology and the benthic foram inifera assem blages indicate a m iddle bathyal environm ent (600 to 1000 rn w ater depth). The C alcareou s n ann ofossils planktonic foram iniferal assem blages suggests that w arm conditions LO of Spenolithus ciperoensis 21 m etres below m etre 35.00; L O of and strong upw elling prevailed during deposition of the low er part Sphenolithus delphix 12 m etres below m etre 35.00; LO and H O ofS p he- (up to m etre 40) oft he section. In general cooler conditions and pale- nolithus capricom utus w ithin one m etre above m etre 35.00 and H O of oclim atic instability w ith low m agnitude cool w ater fluctuations are Sphenolithus delphix, 4 m etres above m etre 35.00. registered in the interval betw een m etre 40 and m etre 10. T he upper- m ost part of the section yields evidence of deposition under w arm P lank ton ic foram in ifera w ater conditions. T his paleoclim atic trend is consistent w ith that observed in the open ocean. This paleochm atic instability m ay be LO of P aragloborotalia kugleri tw o m etres above m etre 35.00, H O responsible for the discrepancies in the stratigraphic ranges betw een of Paragloborotalia kugleri 25 m etres above m etre 35.00; LO of the Lem m e section and other sections. T he oceanic dinoflagellate G loboquadrina dehiscens 12 m etres above m etre 35.00, LO of G lo- species Im pagidinium div.sp. and N em atosp aerop sis div.sp. are used bigerinoides altiap erturus 22 m etres above m etre 35.00. to approxim ate the sea surface tem perature conditions. They indicate B enth ic foram inifera a cooling trend during deposition of the low er part of the section up to m etres 40-39; a 'sudden' w arm ing pulse up to m etre 36-35: a rel- The LO of U vigerina Spinicostata one m etre above m etre 35.00. ative cool pulse up to m etre 24-23; a w arm ing pulse up to m etre 15- 14 and a relative cool pulse upw ards, briefly interrupted at m etre D inoflagellate cysts 4- 3 to m etre 2- 1 of the sectio n. LO of E ctosphaerop sis burdigalensis at m etre 38.00; highest abunance of C hiropteridium spp. at m etre 39.00 and approxim ate M agnetostratigraphy H O of C hiropteridium spp. one m etre above m etre 35.00; bloom of B iostratigraphic correlations allow the interpretation oft he geom ag- D 叮andrea spp. about 10 m etres above m etre 35.00 and highest netic pattern of this section using the m agnetobiochronologic scale abundance D e.刀andrea at m etre 15.00; L O of D istatodinium apen- of B erggren et al. (1995) (Figure 3). A ssociation of the distinct ninicum at m etre 10; L O ofM em braninarlacia 加i cena at m etre 3.00 polarity reversals at m etre 35 w ith the biostratigraphic events cited and L O of Stoveracysta conerae at m etre 1.00. above perm it identification of the m agnetozones delineated betw een as C hron C 6C n.2r and C hron C 6C n.2n respectively. This unam bigu- From the base of the section to m etre 34.00 the planktonic ous reversal pattern and the associated excellent biostratigraphic

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m arkers have been am ong the m ain reasons for defining the base of Silicoflagellates w ithin the D istephanus speculum the N eogene at m etre 35 of the Lem m e-C arrosio section. M agne- haliom m a Subzone of the N aviculopsis tostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy have provided good biap iculata Zone. and interrially consistent results, w hich can be interpreted in a rela- D inoflagellate cysts base of Cordosphaeridium canthaerelum tively unequivocal m anner. Z one; D O -313 Subzone at the upperm ost part of D O -3 Z one; D ef Subzone Stable Isotope Stratigrapby w ithin low erm o st E b u Z o ne . Stable isotope studies w ere perform ed on w hole rock carbonates C ontinental biostratigraphic correlation (Figure 4). O xygen : The oxygen isotope record show s a system atic enrichm ent in 6"0 from the base of the section up to approxim ately E uropean M am m als M P 30 resp. near the base of M N I Z one m etre 15. T his m ay correlate in w hole or in part w ith the cooling (characteristic m am m alian taxa are trend identified by foram iniferal abundance analyses or m ay reflect of the fam ily Eom yidae: the ice-volum e grow th event labelled M i-I by M iller et al. (1991), R hodanom vs transiens); w ithin th e O slik et al. (1994) and van E ijden and G anssen (1995). C arbon: C ar- A genian m am m al faunal U nit, in th e bon isotope signals of 一1.5 '/m are recognized betw een 40 and 35 "unnam ed" continental Stage below t h e m etres. T hese signals can be com pared in position to the carbon sig- R am blian Stage of the European C onti- nals shown by M iller et al. ( 199 1 ). Oslik et al. ( 1994) and van Eij den nental Stage concept. and G anssen (1995). N orth A m erican M am m als betw een late early A rikareean and the base of late A rikareean P o llen E ast M editerran ean : ab ove K ale P o llen - and sea-level changes Z one. C entral : approxim ately Integrated m agnetostratigraphy and planktonic foram iniferal stratig- betw een Z on es N G I an d N G 11 raphy allow correlation w ith the eustatic sea-level chart of H aq et al. C harophytes base of Rantzieniella nitida Zone; (1988). A s indicated by the planktonic foram inifera (L O of P ara- respectively top ot Stephanochara globorotalia kugleri) the section appears to coincide w ith T B 1.4 be rdo ten sis Z o ne . (estim ated 24.8 M a) of H aq et al. (1988). The section w ould fall w ithin the Supercycle TB 1, the G SSP (m etre 35) w ithin the low er R egional chronostratigraphic equivalents part of the highstand of T B 1.4. A ccording to the distribution of the dinoflagellate cysts w hose abundance record sealevel fluctuations, it M editerranean at or just below the base of the stratotype is likely that the low er part of the section up to m etre 39-38 w as of the A quitam an Stage deposited during a sea level fall (upper part of D bi Z one resp. C hi- N orthern E urope probably w ithin the upperm ost part of the Subzone) =TB 1.3, changing to a sea-level rise up to m etre 10-9 (N eo-) C hattian Stage. (low er part of E bu Zone resp. entire D ef Subzone) =TB 1.4, fol- C entral Paratethys w ithin the upper E gerian Stage. low ed by a sea-level fall (upper part of E bu Z one, resp. entire D ap- E astern P aratethys w ithin the upper 'C aucasian' Stage Subzone)=T B 1.4 to T B 1.5. (i.e., near the boundary betw een the K alm ykian and the K aradzhalgian Stages (Popov et al., 1993). N orth A m erica E ast coast, G ulf coast upperm ost H ackberryian G lo b a l c o rrela tio n Stage; N A m erican W est coast upperm ost Zem orrian Stage. T he G SSP is potentially correlatable w orldw ide by m eans of m agne- N ew Z ealand upper D untroonian Stage tostratigraphy, m arine m icrofossil biostratigraphy, and/or stable iso- E ast Indian L etter Stages upperm ost e4-low erm ost e5-Letter top stratigraphy. In addition m agnetostratigraphy allow s recognition Stage. of this level in the continental stratigraphic record. M agnetostratig- raphy also provides the m eans for indirect correlation betw een m arine and m arine biostratig raphic zonations. R e fe re n ce s

A ndreoni, G , G albiati, B , M accabruni, A , and V ercesi, P L ., 198 1, P aleo- M arine B iostratigraphic correlation geografia dei depositi O ligocenici superiore 一M icicenici inferiore neil'estrem itA orientale del Bacino Ligure Piem ontese: R ivista Itahana C alcareous nannofossils approxim ately base of Zone NN I (Tri Paleontologia et Stratigraphia, v. 87, pp. 245 一282 quetrorhabdulus carinatus Zone); B er g g re n , W A . , K ent, D V , Sw isher,111 C, and A ubry, M P, 1995, A Revised approxim ately base of Subzone C N I A . C e no z o ic G eochronology and Chronostratigraphy, in: Berggren, W A ., P lan ktonic foram inifera base of P aragloborotaha (so called K ent: D V , Aubry, M P and H ardenbol, J (editors), G eochronology, Tim e G loborotalia) kugleri T R Z Zone equ i v - S c a le s a n d G lobal Stratigraphic Correlations: SEPM Special Vol. 54, pp. alent to the base M I Zone; base of M t I 1 3 0 - 2 1 2 and base of (Sub) A ntarctic Zone A N I B r in k h m s , H , p o w e ll , A J, and Zevenboom , D , 1992, H igh-resolution dinciflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the O ligocene-M iocene transition (B erggren and al., 1995). i n te r v al in n or t h-west and central Italy: in: Head, M J, and W renn, J R adiolaria base of Lychnocanom a elongato Z one; H ,(editors.), and clinciflagellate cysts and acritarchs: upperm ost part of Zone 14 (=D orca- A m e ri c an A s so c iation Stratigraphic Palynology Foundation, pp. 219-258 dospyris ateuchus Z one). B r o n n , H G , 18 3 8 , Lethea Geognostica, oder Abbildungen und Beschreibun- D iato m s gen der f(ir die Gebirgsform ationen bezeichnensten V erstem erungen, v. N orth Pacific: low erm ost portion of Thalassiosira spin- 2, pp. 545 一1356 o sa P R Z on e. v a n E i j d e n , A J M , a nd G anssen, G M , 1995, A n O ligocene m ulti-species Southern O cean-A ntarctic: upper part of the Rocella gelida Zone foram iniferal oxygene and carbon isotope record from OD P Hole 758A (Indian Ocean): paleoceanographic and paleo-ecologic im plications, Low latitudes: w ithin the Rocella gelida PR Zone M arine M icropaleontology, v. 25, pp. 47-65 The consensus for all three areas is that the G SSP for th e b ase Falletti, P, G elati, R, and R ogledi, S, 1994, O ligo-M iocene Evolution of of the N eogene falls w ithin the R ocella gelida PR Zone (obviously epism ural and perisutural basins at the A lps-A pennines boundary, near the top of the Z one). RCM N S-C olloquium R abat

Episodes, Vol. 20, no. I G albiati, B , 1976, La successione O ligo-M iocenica tra Rigoroso e C arrosio Spezzaferri, S, 1991, Evolution and taxonom y of the Paragloborotalia kugleri (Bacino Ligure-Piem ontese), A tti Istituto G eologia Universita Pavia, v. (Bolli) lineage, Journal Foram iniferal Research, v. 21, pp. 313-318 26, pp. 30 一40 Spezzaferri, S, 1994, Planktonic foram iniferal biostratigraphy and taxonom y G naccolini, M , 1978a, L'U nitA di S. R occo' nella Form azione di M olare tra of the O ligocene and low er M iocene in the oceanic record. A n overview , le valli del T. Stura e del T. Lem m e, R ivista Italiana Paleontologia Strati- Palaeontographica Italica, R accolta M onographia Paleontolo& , v. 81, graphia, v. 84, pp. 411一442 187 p G naccolini, M , 1978b, D epositi oligocenici di 'fan delta' nella regione com - Steininger, F F, B erm pr, R L, and Fahlbusch, V , 1989, European N eogene presa tra B osio e la Costa Cravara (Bacino Terziano Ligure-Piem on- m ariDe-continental chronologic correlations, in: Lindsay, E H , tese).- Rivista Italiana Palcontologia Stratigraphia, v. 84, pp. 673 一699 Fahlbusch, V . and M EIN , P, (editors), European Neogene m am m al H aq, B U , H ardenbol, J, and VA IL, P R ,1988, M esozoic and chronology, Proceedings N AT O A dvanced Research W orkshop, v. 180, chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea-level change, SEPM Special Publi- pp. 15-46, N ew Y ork, Plenum Press cation, no. 42, pp. 71一108 Steininger; F F, B erggren, W B , Kent, D V , Bernor; R L, Sen, S, and Agusti, H brnes, M , 1853, M ittheilung an Prof. B ronn gerichtet. W ien, 3. O kt., 1853, J, 1996, C ircum M editerranean Neogene (M iocene and Pliocene) M arine 一N eues Jahrbuch M ineralogie G eologic G eognosie und Petrefak- 一Continental Chronologic C orrelations of the European M am m al Units tenkunde,.pp. 806 一810 and Zones, in: Bem or, R L., Fahlbusch, V , and R ietschel, S, (editors), H 6m es, M , 1864, V . D ie fossilen M ollu sk en des T ertidrbecken s von W ien, Later N eogene European Biotic Evolution and Stratigraphic Correlation Jahrbuch G eologische Reichsanstalt, v. 14, pp. 509 一514 Vervloet, C C , 1966, Stratigraphical and m icropaleontological data on the Keller, G , 198 1, M iocene biochronology and paleoceanography oft he N orth- Tertiary of southern Piem ont, 88 pp., U trecht, Schotanus et Jens em Pacific, M arine M icropalentology, v. 6, pp. 535 一551 Lyell, Ch, 1833, Principles ofG eology, v. 3, 398 p., London, M urray M artini, E, 1971, Standard Tertiary and Q uaternary calcareous nannoplank- ton zonation, Proceedings 2nd Planktonic C onference, pp. 739 一785, 行-ofessor F ritz F . S teininger is now R om e, T ecnosci D irector of the Senckenberg M artini, E, and M Uller, C, 1986, Current Tertiary and Q uarternary calcareous R esearch Institution and N atural nannoplankton stratigraphy and correlations, N ew sletter Stratigraphy, v. 16, pp. 99-112 H istory M useum in FrankfurtlM ain, M iller, K G , Feigenson, M D , W right, J D , and C lem ent, B M , 199 1, M iocene G erm any. H e w as previously H ead isotope reference section, Deep Sea D rilling Project Site 608: an evalua- of the P aleontology D epartm ent at tion ofi sotope and biostratig raphic resolution, Paleoceanography v. 6, pp. the University of Vienna, A ustria 3 3 -5 2 w here he taught and N aum ann, C F, 1858, Lehrbuch der G eognosie, 2nd.edition, v. 3, pp. 1-576, Stratigrap hy. H is researches have Leipzig, Engelm ann concentrated on the Paleogene and O slik, J S, M iller, K G , Feigenson, M D , and W right, J D , 1994, O ligocene- the N eogene and he has been M iocene strontium isotopes: Stratigraphic revisions and correlations to an inferred glacioeustatic record.- Paleoceanography, v. 9, pp. 427 一443 involved in several IG CP Projects. A Popov, S V , A khm etfev, M A , Zaporozhets, N 1, Voronina, A A , and Stol- form er chairm an of t he ISC Subcom - yarov, A S, 1993, Evolution of Eastern Paratethys in the late Eocene- m ission on N eogene Stratigrap勺, Early M iocene.- Stratigraphy and Geological C orrelation, v. ](6), pp. 10 he is currently C hairm an of t he G er- 一3 9 m an Stratigrap hic com m ission. Sanfillipo, A ., and N egrim , C , (in press), Radiolarian Stratigraphy across the O ligocene一M iocene Transition.- M arine M icropaleontology


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