Olericulture – Hort 320 Lesson 4, Classif, Growth & Development

Jeremy S. Cowan WSU Spokane County Extension 222 N. Havana St. Spokane, WA 99202 Phone: 509-477-2145 Fax: 509-477-2087 Email: [email protected]


Cavalier- Linnaeus Haeckel Chatton Copeland Whittaker Woese Smith 1735 1866 1925 1938 1969 1990 1998 3 2 4 5 3 6 2 kingdoms kingdoms empires kingdoms kingdoms domains kingdoms Bacteria Prokaryota Monera Monera Bacteria (not Archaea Protista treated) Protozoa Protoctista Protista Chromista Eukaryota Plantae Eucarya Plantae Vegetabilia Plantae Plantae Fungi Fungi Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Botanical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae

Sub-Kingdom: Land (Embryophyta)

Division: Plants (Magnoliophyta)

Class: Cone Bearing (Gymnospermae) Flowering (Angiospermae)

Subclass: () () Monocots

Corn - 1 seed

Monocot – a plant whose has one Dicots

Castor Bean 2 seed Dicots Monocots Dicots Monocots

Flower parts parts In 4’s or 5’s In 3’s Dicots Monocots

Tap Fibrous root Dicots Monocots Classification

Monocot : vegetables: , dasheen related: , jack-in-the-pulpit

Vegetable Classification

Monocot vegetables: family vegetables: yam related: wild yams Vegetable Classification

Monocot vegetables: Gramineae – grass family vegetable: related: grasses, sedges

Vegetable Classification

Monocot vegetables: Lilieaceae – lily family vegetables: , , , shallot, chive, related: lily, camas, solomon’s seal Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: family vegetables: rhubarb, sorrel related: knotweed, smart weed, dock

Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: Amaranthaceae (Chenopodiaceae) – goosefoot family vegetables: beet, swiss chard, spinach related: lambsquarter, pigweed Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: (Cruciferae) – mustard family vegetables: cabbage, rutabaga, , related: wild mustards

Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: Euphorbiaceae – spurge family vegetables: cassava related: poinsettia, castor bean, spurge Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: (Leguminosae) – pea family vegetables: pea, bean, cowpea, , , others related: alfalfa, acacia, lupine, clover

Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: Malvaceae – mallow family vegetables: related: hibiscus, hollyhock Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: Cucurbitaceae – gourd family vegetables: watermelon, cantaloupe, squash, pumpkin, cucumber, others related: luffa, wild cucumber

Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: (Umbelliferae) – family vegetables: , parsnip, parsley, , others related: hemlock, cow parsnip Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: Convolvulaceae – morning glory family vegetables: sweet related: flowering morning glory, bindweed, dodder

Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: – nightshade family vegetables: potato, , pepper, eggplant, others related: nightshade, jimson- weed, physalis Vegetable Classification

Dicot vegetables: Asteraceae (Compositae) – composite (aster) family vegetables: lettuce, , endive, salsify, artichoke, others related: dandelion, thistle, daisy, ragweed, sunflower Botanical Classification

Additional Taxonomy (most useful) - Family Genus

Botanical Classification

Family: An assemblage of genera that closely or uniformly resemble one another in general appearance and technical characters Botanical Classification

Genus: Identifies a more or less closely related and definable group of plants that may include one or more species.

The species within a genus are usually structurally or phylogenetically related. Botanical Classification

Species: A group of similar organisms capable of interbreeding and are distinctly different in morphological or other characteristics from other species in the same genus. Botanical Classification

Variety: A subdivision of a species consisting of a population with morphological characteristics distinct from other species forms.

(considered a naturally occurring taxonomic division) Botanical Classification

Cultivar (cultivated variety): Denotes certain cultivated plants that are alike in most important aspects of growth but are clearly distinguishable from others by one or more definite characteristics. Botanical Classification

Clone: Identifies material derived from a single individual and maintained by vegetative propagation. (genetically identical)

Line: A uniform sexually reproduced population, usually self- pollinated, that is seed propagated and maintained to the desired standard of uniformity by selection. (genetically similar) Botanical Classification

Strain: A term used to identify plants of a given cultivar that possess similar characteristics but differ in some minor feature or quality Botanical Classification

Additional Taxonomy - Family Genus Species Cultivar

Complete Latin Binomial includes the name of the individual who first described the species.

Botanical Classification

Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Genus: Brassica Species: oleracea Group/Variety: capitata Cultivar: ‘Golden Acre’ Strain: ‘Golden Acre YR’

Complete Latin Binomial - cabbage Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. cv. Golden Acre YR

Commercially: Brassica oleracea cv. Golden Acre YR

Botanical Classification

Growth and Development

Growth stages:

Germination Establishment Vegetative growth Reproductive growth Ripening and senescence Growth and Development

Growth stages:

Germination - the beginning or resumption of growth by a spore, seed, bud, or other structure

Growth Stages


Process: Water inbibition Seed coat softening Expansion of and root Emergence

Growth Stages


Characteristics: Critical for plant productivity Disease susceptibility Requires near-ideal conditions Growth Stages


Process: Early shoot growth Root elongation Growth Stages


Characteristics: Environmental sensitivity Determines future growth rate and potential Growth Stages

Vegetative Growth

Process: Increase root mass and rooting depth Rapid leaf area increase Increase in stem and leaf mass Large leaves and succulent growth produced Factors Affecting Growth

Energy Production and Storage

Photosynthesis – CO2 + H2O  light  (C6H12O6) ↓ Transport ↓ Respiration (energy use), structural and chemical synthesis

Net = photosynthesis - respiration xx x

x Growth Stages

Vegetative Growth

Characteristics: Period of rapid cell growth and expansion High rate of photosynthesis Determines reproductive potential Heavy use of water and nutrients Growth Stages

Reproductive Growth

The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is usually marked by flowering. Leaves receive environmental stimulus for the proper timing of flowering. Growth Stages

Reproductive Growth

Process: Organ differentiation Slowing or cessation of leaf expansion Flower production Fertilization and embryo growth growth Parallel growth in some species Growth Stages

Reproductive Growth

Characteristics: Period of heavy fiber production Sensitivity for yield and quality Can be influenced by many factors including temperature, daylength, etc Growth Stages


The latter part of which leads from maturity to the ultimate complete loss of organization and function. Growth Stages


Process: Cessation of new growth Loss of leaf area Increased susceptibility to opportunists Ripening of fruit and seed Plant death Growth Stages


Characteristics: Yield not influenced by external factors Usually not reversible Management inputs have little impact Critical period for fruit and seed quality Factors Affecting Growth

Light Factors

Intensity – most vegetable require full sun equivalent

Duration – requirements vary by species, fruiting vegetables need more

Wavelength – wavelengths 400-450, 650-700 best for photosynthesis Factors Affecting Growth


Optimum is the range for a that allows for maximum photosynthesis and normal respiration

Optimum differs by species

Optimum may change during growth period

Diurnal fluctuations as important as average Factors Affecting Growth


Temperatures above optimum slow growth and reduce quality (pungency, fibrousness) rapid respiration, stomate closure, reduced photosynthesis

Temperatures below optimum slow growth and affect quality by reducing production and storage reduce photosynthesis, transport, and respiration Factors Affecting Growth

Heat Units (Growing Degree Days, GDD)

Degree days above a crop baseline

Average of daily high and low - baseline ( 35, tomatoes 50, eggplants 60)

Used for determining suitable environments and predicting harvest dates

Doesn’t account for early soil temps, based on daily average not actual temps, doesn’t account for higher than optimum max temps Factors Affecting Growth

Water availability

Need constant water supply periodic stress reduces growth and quality stomate closure, reduction in cell division

Soil moisture principles Water holding capacity Field capacity Optimum minimal soil moisture Permanent wilting point

Factors Affecting Growth


Require nutrients at or near optimum sub or supra-optimum impacts yield and may severely impact quality

Seedlings need high levels of fertilizers

Seasonal applications beneficial to long-season

Can impact life expectancy, disease resistance, etc Factors Affecting Growth

Genetics and Physiology

Growth habit (determinate vs indeterminate)

Vernalization requirement (or problem)

Photoperiodism most crops are day neutral

Tolerance to environmental stresses

Factors Affecting Growth

Crop Management

Many growth factors can be managed Many stress and disease related problems can be ameliorated with proper management